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The New Era


The New Era Chapter 24 I. The New Economy Economic Growth Huge economic boom in early 1920s output up 60% per capita income up a third Causes debilitation of European ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Era

The New Era
  • Chapter 24

I. The New Economy
  • Economic Growth
  • Huge economic boom in early 1920s
  • output up 60
  • per capita income up a third
  • Causes
  • debilitation of European industry
  • technology
  • automobiles connected to everything else
  • radio
  • cheap and readily available energy
  • STUFF (home appliances, plastics, synthetic
    fibers, aluminum, aviation, electronics)

Economic Organization
  • Consolidation U.S. Steel and Little Steel
  • Administration and expansion General Motors
  • Cooperation trade association
  • Limiting competition connected to fear of

Labor in the New Era
  • Strong economy, but uneven distribution of wealth
  • 2/3 lived no better than minimum comfort
  • 1/3 of the population subsistence and poverty
  • lack of political organization limited power of
    the poor
  • Positive Changes for Labor
  • rise in the standard of living (STUFF)
  • improved working conditions
  • many employers wanted to avoid labor unrest
    allowed trade unions
  • paternalistic welfare capitalism
  • U.S. Steel improved safety and sanitation
  • Ford shortened workweek, raised wages,
    instituted paid vacations

Labor in the New Era Continued
  • Limited / Negative Changes for Labor
  • unions feeble
  • welfare capitalism survived only as long as
    industry prospered when 1929 hit, the entire
    system collapsed
  • limited increase in salary due to large supply of
  • making ends meet with more than one job
  • unemployment 5-7
  • Union movement looked at as best hope, but weak
  • William Green, head of AFL 1924 frowned on strikes

Women and Minorities in the Work Force
  • increased number of women working pink collar
  • salesclerks, telephone operators, secretaries
  • underpaid
  • not represented in unions
  • African Americans
  • janitors, dishwashers, garbage collectors,
  • not represented in unions
  • Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters 1925 all
    black union

Women and Minorities in the Work Force Continued
  • Asians in the West and Southwest
  • excluded from Unions
  • Chinese Exclusion Acts (Angel Island)
  • Japanese success as truck farmers, laws passed in
    response to make it difficult for them to buy
  • Filipinos Anti-Filipino riots led to legislation
    in 1934 eliminating immigration from the
  • Hispanics in the West and Southwest
  • major part of unskilled labor force in the
    Southwest and CA
  • ½ million Mexicans entered US in the 1920s /
  • total over 1 million
  • concentrated in urban cities barrios without
    plumbing or sewage
  • no laws to exclude, necessity for ready pool of
  • low-paid, unskilled, unorganized workers

The American Plan
  • Strength of corporations was the principal reason
    for the absence of effective labor organization
  • Corporate leaders worked hard to label unionism
    with radicalism
  • Protection of the open shop became American
    Plan principal behind harsh campaign of union
  • Government Assistance goes to corporate leaders
  • 1921 the Supreme Court declares picketing illegal
    and supported the right of courts to issue
    injunctions against strikers
  • 1922 Justice Department quells a strike of
    400,000 workers
  • 1924 courts refused to protect members of the
    United Mine Workers when mine owners launched a
    violent campaign to break up a strike
  • union membership decreases as a response

The Plight of the Farmer
  • number of tractors on American farms quadrupled
    in the 1920s lead to 35 million new acres of
  • increased production did not increase demand
    result was overproduction
  • decline in food prices
  • drop in income for farmers
  • farmer only made about a quarter of the salary of
    the non-farmer
  • 3 million people left agriculture in the course
    of the decade many that remained forced into
  • most farmers moderate few demanded govt relief
  • American Farm Bureau Federation
  • Parity a formula for guaranteeing farmers a fair
    price for their crops regardless of national or
    international fluctuations
  • McNary-Haugen Bill vetoed repeatedly by
    conservative presidents

II. The New Culture
  • society in which people could buy things not just
    out of need, but out of pleasure
  • new products electric refrigerators, washing
    machines, electric irons, vacuum cleaners,
    wristwatches, cigarettes, cosmetics and
  • how the automobile changed American life
  • 30 million cars on American roads
  • expanded geographical horizons of millions
  • vacations now available to more people
  • means of escaping rural isolation
  • city dwellers able to escape from city life
  • suburbs
  • social lives for younger, affluent people

Fake Smile
  • advertising grows in response to success of WWI
  • no longer just about sharing information now
    about persuasion
  • The Man Nobody Knows, Bruce Barton portrayed
    Jesus Christ as a super salesman advertising
    looked at as good business
  • new vehicles of advertisement newspapers,
    magazines Saturday Evening Post, Readers Digest
    and Time Magazine

The Movies and Broadcasting
  • Films
  • 40 million had seen films in 1922 / 100 million
    by 1930
  • First feature length talkie The Jazz Singer
  • 1921 Motion Picture Association to set up
    standards on films
  • Will Hays uses broad powers to conform film
  • Rudolph Valentino
  • Radio
  • most important new communications vehicle
  • KDKA first commercial radio station in America
  • National Broadcasting Company (NBC) first
    national radio network
  • 1923 500 radio stations
  • 1929 12 million families owned radio sets
  • much less centralized than filmmaking
  • self regulation
  • more controversial than film industry

Modernist Religion
  • movement to abandon some literal interpretation
    of the Bible for a belief system that would help
    individuals live more fulfilling lives in the
    present world
  • Harry Emerson Fosdick aim of Christian religion
    was not unexamined faith, but a fully developed
    personality liberal Protestantism
  • many stopped well short of embracing this new
    religion but pointed to general trend the
    devaluing of religion to a secondary role
  • Sunday becoming a day filled with activities and

Professional Women
  • substantial group of women now combined marriage
    and careers 25 of all women workers married
  • continued debate about what were suitable roles
    for women workers
  • new professional woman was a vivid and widely
    publicized image in the 1920s but reality was
  • most female workers were lower class and
    unskilled most middle class women in the home

Changing Ideas of Motherhood
  • 1920s redefinition of motherhood
  • behaviorist psychology began to challenge the
    idea that women had an instinctive capacity for
  • mothers should rely on assistance of experts and
  • motherhood more connected to institutions outside
    of the family
  • women become less likely to allow children to
    intervene with development of marital
  • focus of sex shifts from procreation to romantic
  • birth control both a cause and an effect of
    this new way of thinking
  • Margaret Sanger advocate of birth control
  • working class women
  • poor communities
  • spread to middle class
  • Many birth control devices banned in many states
    abortion illegal nearly everywhere

Margaret Sanger
The Flapper Image and Reality
  • some women believed that the in the New Era it
    was no longer necessary to maintain a rigid,
    Victorian female respectability general
    release from repression and inhibition
  • smoke and drink
  • dance
  • wear seductive clothes and makeup
  • attend lively parties
  • flapper term used to describe New Era woman
    whose liberated lifestyle found new expression
  • dress
  • hairstyle
  • speech
  • behavior
  • huge impact on lower-middle class and working
    class single women who were flocking to new
    industrial jobs in the service sector
  • despite independent image of flapper, most women
    remained highly dependent on men workplace and
    at home

Pressing for Womens Rights
  • realization that the new woman was a myth lead
    many women to continue to press for reform
  • Alice Paul National Womens Party, continued to
    press for an Equal Rights Amendment
  • League of Women Voters
  • 1921 Sheppard-Towner Act provided federal funds
    to states to establish prenatal and child
    healthcare programs 1929 program terminated due
    to opposition on many fronts
  • 1929 discovered that female vote had done little
    change to electoral votes women divided the same
    way as men thus male politicians felt little
    concern about the consequences of opposing the
    demands of female reformers

Education and Youth
  • more people going to school than ever before
  • high school attendance from 2.2 million to 5
    million during decade
  • enrollment in colleges and universities goes up
    threefold from 1900 to 1930
  • attendance increasing at trade and vocational
  • emergence of separate youth culture concept of
  • influenced by Freudian psychology
  • extended period of training and preparation was
    necessary before a young person was ready to move
    into the workplace
  • school not just a place for academics, but
    extracurricular activities

The Decline of the Self-Made Man
  • increase in the beliefs of education and
    adolescence lead to the gradual disappearance of
    this theory
  • crisis of self-identification and dependence
    among many American males
  • Different outlets for masculinity
  • sports
  • fraternities
  • warfare
  • Creation of three heroes all of which
    represented the triumphs of modern technology,
    but did not have formal education
  • Thomas Edison inventor of light bulb and other
    technological marvels
  • Henry Ford creator of assembly line, one of the
    founders of auto industry
  • Charles Lindbergh first aviator to make a solo
    flight across the Atlantic Ocean

Henry Ford
Thomas Edison
Charles Lindbergh
The Disenchanted
  • generation of artists and intellectuals who found
    new society disturbing
  • rather than change society, they tried to isolate
  • Lost Generation (Whos Lost?)
  • belief that modern America no longer provided
    individuals with avenues by which they could
    achieve personal fulfillment
  • aftermath of war was shattering war was a fraud
  • saddened by repudiation of idealism with
    business as usual
  • disgust with materialism and consumerism

The Disenchanted Continued
  • Ernest Hemmingway, Farwell to Arms
  • debunkers writers who wrote savage critiques of
    nearly every aspect of society
  • H.L. Mencken why do people go to the zoo?
  • Sinclair Lewis
  • F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby
  • many went to live in isolated places and engaged
    in hedonistic lifestyles
  • end result was one of the greatest decades of
    American Literature

The Harlem Renaissance
  • once an affluent white suburb in northern
    Manhattan by the end of WWI one of the largest
    and most influential African American communities
  • Harlem Renaissance term used to describe a new
    generation of black artists and intellectuals who
    created a flourishing African American culture
  • nightclubs (The Cotton Club) featuring jazz
    musicians (Duke Ellington, Jelly Roll Morton,
    Fletcher Henderson)
  • theatres featuring musical comedies
  • poetry (Langston Hughes, Claude McKay)
  • visual art (Aaron Douglas)
  • Brought African American products to the
    attention of larger society
  • Some blacks combined there art with radical

The Southern Agrarians
  • centered around Vanderbilt University
  • questioned modern industry
  • Renegades not originally connected to the
    South, but eventually targeted the South because
    it was underdeveloped became Agrarians
  • Ill Take My Stand Agrarian manifesto
  • Justified segregation
  • Critique of industrialization
  • backwards South as model for a nation drunk
    with visions of limitless growth and

III. A Conflict of Cultures
  • when passed, huge symbol of progressivism
  • within a year noble experiment not working well
  • did reduce drinking in some regions of the
  • produced growing violations that brought
    integrity of the law into question
  • in many places, easier to acquire illegal alcohol
    than it was to acquire legal alcohol before

Prohibition Continued
  • trade once operated by legitimate businessmen now
    operated by organized crime
  • Al Capone, Chicago
  • Violent deaths of 250 people between 1920 1927
  • rural, Protestant Americans continue to defend
  • saw drinking to be connected with Catholic
  • old stock Americans trying to discipline new
  • wets v. drys
  • 1933 repealed during Great Depression
  • (21st Amendment)

Nativism and the Klan
  • again, old stock trying to discipline new stock
  • post war ideology immigration associated with
  • Spreading Growth
  • 1921 immigration act establishing quotas cut
    immigration from 800,000 to 300,000
  • National Origins Act of 1924 banned immigration
    from east Asia entirely
  • Large communities of foreign peoples, threat to
    older more homogeneous America lead to rebirth of

Nativism and the Klan Continued
  • KKK
  • Leo Frank, 1914 Jewish man lynched in Atlanta,
  • Stone Mountain, near Atlanta in 1915
  • D.W. Griffiths film The Birth of a Nation
    glorified early Klan
  • Originally connected to intimidating blacks, but
    after WWI, primary concern shifted to Catholics,
    Jews and foreigners
  • Spreading in North (Indiana) and West (Oregon and
  • 1923 3 million members / 1924 4 million
  • Systematic Terrorism
  • boycott businesses
  • threaten families
  • public whipping
  • tarring and feathering
  • arson
  • hanging

Nativism and the Klan Continued Again
  • The Klan didnt just fear racial impurities
    they feared any challenge to traditional values
  • Provided poor whites with a sense of community
    and seeming authority
  • secret language and excitement
  • social sphere for women
  • Downfall of Klan 1925
  • David Stephenson, Indiana convicted of murder
  • He had control of everyone in Indiana with
    written agreements
  • However, he breaks all of the rules of KKK (1.
    Prohibition 2. Protecting White Women 3. Acting
    like a Christian)
  • Drinking, Rape, Caniballism, and Murder!!!
  • Stephenson, individually, helped the rise and the
    FALL of the KKK!

Religious Fundamentalism
  • American Protestantism divided into two camps
  • Modernists mostly urban, middle-class people who
    had attempted to adapt religion to modern science
  • Traditionalists largely rural, fighting to
    maintain the centrality of religion in American
    life fundamentalists
  • i. strongly opposed Darwin
  • ii. literal interpretation of the Bible
  • Tennessee March 1925 adopted a law making it
    illegal for any public school teacher to teach
    evolution opposed to creation

Religious Fundamentalism Continued
  • American Civil Liberties Union founded in 1920
    by citizens who were alarmed with the repressive
    legal and social climate of the war and its
    aftermath (Jane Addams, Norman Thomas and Helen
  • offered free council to anyone willing to defy
    the law
  • 24 year old biology teacher, John T. Scopes
    agreed to have himself arrested
  • Trial pitted two famous lawyers against each
  • Clarence Darrow famous defense attorney
  • William Jennings Bryan important fundamentalist
  • Judge refused expert testimony by expert scholars
  • Scopes was fined 100, case later dismissed in a
    higher court
  • Bryan put on the stand as an expert on the
  • Scopes Trial huge setback for fundamentalists
  • Who were the real winners???

The Democrats Ordeal
  • suffered in response to fractions between urban
    and rural factions
  • on one side prohibitionists, Klansmen, and
  • on the other side Catholics, urban workers, and
  • 1924 Primary 103 Ballots! Split between Alfred
    E. Smith (urban Catholic) and William McAdoo
  • 1928 Alfred E. Smith secures party nomination
    and secures total division in Democratic party
    (the next and last Catholic to receive a major
    party nomination would be JFK)
  • Herbert Hoover took office widely believed to be
    one of the most capable and well equipped to take

Harding and Coolidge
IV. Republican Government
  • two men who characterized the nature of 1920s
    politics passive
  • Warren G. Harding
  • undistinguished
  • easily controlled
  • lacked the strength to abandon interests that
    made him president
  • Scandal! Secretary Fall convicted of bribery for
    selling govt oil preserves one year in prison
    (TeaPot Dome Scandal)
  • died of heart attack
  • Calvin Coolidge
  • main advisers were from the advertising industry
  • built a reputation as a simple man defending
    country virtues but was thoroughly urban man of
    modern sensibilities
  • conviction that govt should interfere as little
    as possible
  • He aspired to become the least President the
    country ever had. He attained his desire
  • Silent Cal but not governor of Massachusetts
  • Written statement I do not choose to run for
    president in 1928

Warren G. Harding
Calvin Coolidge
Government and Business
  • despite ineptness of presidents, much govt was
    working effectively to adapt public policy to the
    widely accepted goal of helping business and
    industry operate with maximum efficiency and
  • Business continued to work with govt but in
    altered form which was contrary to progressive
  • Business Secretary of Treasury Andrew Mellon cut
    taxes on corporate profits
  • Herbert Hoover believed public institutions had
    a responsibility to create a new, cooperative
  • William Howard Taft Chief Justice 1921
  • Lochner v. New York struck down a law limiting
    the number of hours bankers in New York could be
    required to work.
  • Bailey v. Drexel Furniture struck down federal
    legislation regulating child labor
  • Adkins v. Childrens Hospital nullified a
    minimum wage law for women
  • Sanctioned trade unions as being hurtful to
    competition, but allowed U.S Steel to continue
    its monopolistic practices

Government and Business Continued
  • Remaining progressive reformers lacked the power
    to overthrow presidential vetoes
  • Some progressives were encouraged with the
    election of Herbert Hoover widely regarded as
    the most progressive member of the Harding and
    Coolidge administrations but he would have
    little opportunity to prove himself