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English for Academic Reading and Writing

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Title: English for Academic Reading and Writing


1
English for Academic Reading and Writing
  • Chin-cheng Huang (???)
  • Fooyin University
  • Department of Applied Foreign Languages
  • cchuang_at_mail.npust.edu.tw

2
ESP Classification by Professional Area
  • EGP
  • English for (academic) science and
    technology
  • EAP English for (academic) medical purposes
  • English for (academic) legal purposes
  • ESP English for management, finance and
    economics
  • E for professional purposes E for medical p
  • EOP E for business p
  • E for vocational purposes Pre-vocational E
  • Vocational E

3
The Pyramid of English Proficiency
Academic performance
Translation expertise
Speaking ? active skills Writing ?
creative skills
Listening ? passive skills Reading ?
receptive skills
Vocabulary ??2000 word families Grammar ??Basic
sentence pattern
4
Technological Students Problems
  • They lack
  • confidence
  • motivation
  • Interesting
  • They have limited English competence.

5
Solutions
  1. Need analysis
  2. Focus on what you need
  3. Constantly reading and writing
  4. Apply what you know to decode what you dont know
  5. Increase your vocabulary knowledge
  6. Happy learning

6
Influence of Vocabulary Size on Reading
Comprehension
  • Hu and Nation (2000) Even reading a fiction text
    for pleasure, a reader should possess
    approximately 98 coverage of the vocabulary in a
    reading text.
  • Nation and Hwang (1995) Two thousand word
    families of general service vocabulary and the
    University Word List (UWL) might cover about 95
    running words in general academic texts.

7
Influence of Vocabulary Size on Reading
Comprehension
  • Laufer (1989, 1992) An L2 reader had to
    recognize 95 (around 3,000 high-frequency words)
    of the running words of a general text s/he then
    can correctly gain adequate information from the
    reading text.
  • Hirsh and nation (1992) A reader who is able to
    read novels for pleasure should know 95-98 of
    the running words (about 5,000 words families).

8
Vocabulary Knowledge
  • High-frequency words
  • Academic words
  • Technical words
  • Low-frequency words

9
Word Acquisition
  • 2,000 sight words
  • Alphabetic order
  • Belongings/Topic
  • Parts of speech
  • Word family
  • Affix, suffix
  • Word roots
  • Compound words
  • From know words to unknown words

10
Alphabetic Order (1)
  • A a(an), a few, a little, a lot, a.m., able,
    about, above, abroad, absent, accept, accident,
    across, act, action, active, activity, actor,
    actress, actually, add, address, admire, adult,
    advertisement, advice, advise, affect, afraid,
    after, afternoon, again, against, age, ago,
    agree, ahead, aim, air, air conditioner,
    airlines, airplane (plane), airport, alarm,
    album, alike, alive, all, allow, almost, alone,
    along, aloud, alphabet, already, also,
    altogether, always, ambulance, America, American,
    among, ancient, and, angel, anger, angry, ankle,
    animal, another, answer, ant, any, anyone
    (anybody), anything, anywhere, apartment,
    apologize, appear, apple, appreciate, April,
    area, argue, arm, armchair, army, around,
    arrange, arrive, art, artist, as, ask, asleep,
    assistant, assume, at, attack, attention, August,
    aunt, autumn (fall), available, avoid, away

11
Alphabetic Order (2)
  • J jacket, jam, January, jazz, jealous, jeans,
    jeep, job, jog, join, joke, journalist, joy,
    judge, juice, July, jump, June, junior high
    school, just
  • Kkangaroo, keep, ketchup, key, kick, kid, kill,
    kilogram, kilometer, kind, kindergarten, king,
    kingdom, kiss, kitchen, kite, kitten, knee,
    knife, knock, know, knowledge, koala

12
Belonging/Topics (1)
  • 1. People
  • --- adult, baby, boy, child, couple, customer,
    fool, genius, gentleman, giant, girl, guest, guy,
    hero, host, kid, king, lady, male, man, master,
    neighbor, partner, people, person, prince,
    princess, queen, stranger, teenager, visitor,
    woman, youth
  • 9. Money
  • --- bill, cash, cent, change, coin, credit card,
    dollar, money, price
  • --- borrow, buy, charge, cost, earn, lend, pay,
    spend
  • --- cheap, expensive

13
Belonging/Topics (2)
  • 10. Food drink
  • --- fruit, apple, banana, grape, guava, lemon,
    mango, orange, papaya, peach, pear, pineapple,
    strawberry , tangerine, tomato, watermelon.
  • --- vegetable, bean, cabbage, carrot, corn,
    lettuce, nut, onion, potato, pumpkin, meat
  • --- beef, bread, bun, burger, cereal, chicken,
    dumpling, egg, fast food, fish, flour, food,
    French fries, ham, hamburger, hot dog, instant
    noodle, noodle, pizza, pork, rice, salad,
    sandwich, seafood, shrimp, soup, spaghetti,
    steak, tofu
  • --- breakfast, brunch, dinner, lunch, meal,
    snack, supper
  • --- beer, coffee, Coke, drink, ice, juice,
    liquid, milk, milk shake, soda, soft drink, tea,
    water
  • --- cake, candy, cheese, chocolate, cookie,
    dessert, doughnut, ice cream, moon cake, pie,
    popcorn, toast
  • --- butter, ketchup, cream, jam, oil, pepper,
    soy-sauce, salt, sugar, vinegar
  • --- hungry, full, thirsty
  • --- bitter, delicious, hot, sour, sweet, yummy
  • --- bake, boil, burn, cook, eat, order
  • --- menu, diet

14
Belonging/Topics (3)
  • 37. Other adverbs
  • --- always, ever, never, often, seldom,
    sometimes, usually
  • --- actually, again, also, away, too, almost,
    altogether, especially, even, finally, hardly,
    least, maybe, nearly, perhaps, probably, rather,
    really, so, still, then, together, very, quite,
    yet
  • --- aloud
  • --- abroad, ahead, everywhere, anywhere,
    somewhere
  • --- either, neither, no, nor, not, yes (yeah)

15
Parts of speech (1)
  • Articles Determiners
  • a, an, the, this, that, those, my, our, your,
    his, her, its, their
  • Pronouns reflexives
  • I, me, we, us, you,.
  • all, another, any, anybody, anyone.
  • mine, ours, yours, hers, theirs
  • myself, ourselves, yourself, yourselves.

16
Parts of speech (2)
  • Wh-word
  • How, what, which, who, whose, when, where,
    whether, while, why
  • Be Auxiliaries
  • am, do, could.
  • Prepositions
  • about, above, across, after.
  • Conjunctions
  • Although, and, as, because, but, however, if....

17
Parts of speech (3)
  • Interjections
  • hello, hey, hi, oh, oops, uh-uh, wow.
  • Nouns
  • Verbs
  • Adjectives
  • Adverbs

18
Word family
  • be?be, been, being, am, are, is, was, were
  • Defer, deferred, deferring, deference, deferent,
    deferents
  • Survive, survives, survived, surviving, survival,
    survivals, survivor, survivors, survivors,
    survivalist, survivalists, survivability

19
Affix
  • Ab, abs-- (away, from)
  • Abdicate, abnormal, abominate, aboriginal,
    abrupt, absence, absolute, absolve, absorb,
    abstract, abundant, abuse
  • Uni-- (one)
  • Uniform, unify, union, unique, unison, unit,
    unite, unity, universal, universe

20
Suffix
  • Abolish, accomplish, admonish, anguish, astonish,
    banish, blandish, blemish, brandish, burnish,
    cherish, demolish, diminish, dish, distinguish,
    embellish, establish, extinguish, famish, finish,
    refinish, fish, overfish, flourish, furnish,
    refurbish, garnish, impoverish, languish, lavish,
    nourish, undernourish, perish, pish, plenish,
    deplenish, replenish, polish, publish, republish,
    punish, ravish, relinquish, relish, skirmish,
    tarnish, vanish, evanish, vanquish, varnish,
    whish, wish, unwish.

21
Word Roots (1)
  • --ane?
  • banebugbane, carbane, fleabane, henbane,
    murbane, ratsbane, urbane, inurbane
  • canearcane, chicane, hurricane, sugarcane
  • Dane
  • fane--profane
  • laneair lane, plane, sealane
  • maneballetomane, humane
  • pane--marchpane
  • sane--insane
  • vanedogvane, paravane
  • wane

22
Root words (2)
  • see vis look spect
  • hear audi say dict
  • speak log speak loqu
  • speak parl speak fabl, fabul
  • language lingu tongue glot, gloss
  • letter liter read leg
  • write scrib, script write scrib,
    cript
  • paint pict laugh rib, ris
  • blow flat breathe spir, hal
  • will vol, volunt know sci, cogn
  • (Adopted from ??(1990)??????????????????????????
    )

23
Compound words
  • bakehouse, bathhouse, boathouse, beerhouse,
    blockhouse, bordinghouse, cavehouse, chophouse,
    clubhouse, coffeehouse, countinghouse, cowhouse,
    customhouse, deckhouse, dyehouse, farmhouse,
    firehouse, flophouse, gashouse, greenhouse,
    guardhouse, guesthouse, guesthouse, icehouse,
    lighthouse, outhouse, packhouse, packinghouse,
    penthouse, pesthouse, playhouse, poorhouse,
    pothouse, porterhouse, powerhouse, roadhouse,
    showhouse, smokehouse, statehouse, storehouse,
    sugarhouse, summerhouse, teahouse, tollhouse,
    treasurehouse, warehouse, washhouse, weighthouse,
    wheelhouse, White House, workhouse.
    (pp.674-75)

24
From Known words to Unknown words
  • book
  • 1. ?
  • 2. ?
  • 3. ????
  • 4. ?? keep books ??
  • 5. ???
  • 6. ???????

25
Academic Words
  • Coxheads Academic Words List (AWL) 570 words
  • Nations University Words List (UWL) 868 words

26
Grammar (A)
  • Types of Sentence
  • 1. Declarative sentence
  • 2. Interrogative sentence
  • 3. Imperative sentence
  • 4. Exclamatory sentence
  • 5. Simple sentence
  • 6. Compound sentence
  • 7. Complex sentence
  • 8. Compound-complex sentence

27
Grammar (B)
  • Parts of Speech
  • Nouns (n.)
  • Verbs (V.)
  • Pronouns (pron.)
  • Adjectives (adj.)
  • Adverbs (adv.)
  • Articles
  • Prepositions (prep.)
  • Conjunctions (conj.)
  • Demonstrative (Dem.)

28
Grammar (C)
  • NP (noun phrase)
  • VP (Verb phrase)
  • AP (Adjective phrase)
  • PP (Preposition phrase)

29
Reading Strategies (1)
  1. Getting an overview from abstracts
  2. Checking the keywords
  3. Using all the features of the text such as
    titles, headings, typeface (??), tables and
    figures
  4. Skimming for content and meaning
  5. Scanning for specifics
  6. Identifying organizational patterns

30
Reading Strategies (2)
  • 7. Understanding relations within a sentence and
    between sentences
  • 8. Using cohesive markers
  • 9. Predicting, inferring, and guessing
  • 10. Identifying main ideas, supporting ideas and
    details (examples)
  • 11. Processing and evaluating the information
    during reading
  • 12. Taking notes.

31
Getting an Overview from Abstracts
  • Abstract
  • Managers in the service sector are under pressure
    to demonstrate that their services are
    customer-focused and that continuous performance
    improvement is being delivered. It is essential
    that customer expectations are properly
    understood and measured under the constraints
    that organizations must manage. The majority of
    the work to date has attempted to use the
    SERVQUAL (service quality) methodology in an
    effort to measure service quality. In this study,
    firstly the concept and factors of service
    quality are examined. Then a fuzzy AHP (analytic
    hierarchy process) is structured to evaluate the
    proposed service quality framework. A case study
    in healthcare sector in Turkey is presented to
    clarify the methodology.

32
Checking the Keywords
  • Service quality SERVQUAL Healthcare quality
    Fuzzy AHP
  • A recommender mechanism based on case-based
    reasoning
  • Chen-Shu Wanga, , Heng-Li Yang
  • Keywords
  • Recommender mechanism Case-based reasoning
    Multiple stage reasoning
  • Genetic algorithm Artificial intelligence
    application

33
Using All the Features of the Text
  • Titles
  • Strategic analysis of healthcare service
    quality using fuzzy AHP methodology
  • Gülçin Büyüközkan, Gizem Çifçi, Sezin Güleryüz
  • Expert Systems with Applications Volume 38,
    Issue 8, August 2011, Pages 94079424

34
Using All the Features of the Text
  • Title
  • A framework for designing robust food supply
    chains
  • Jelena V. Vlajic, ,Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst ,
    René Haijema
  • International Journal of Production Economics
  • Volume 137, Issue 1, May 2012, Pages 176189
  • Analysis of outsourcing cost-effectiveness using
    a linear programming model with fuzzy multiple
    goals
  • Wang, Earl Juei1 Chen, Yen Chun1 Wang, Wen
    Shi1 Su, Tai Sheng2
  • International Journal of Production Research,
    Volume 48, Number 2, January 2010 , pp.
    501-523(23)

35
Using All the Features of the Text (Headings
subheadings)
  • A Study of the Dispatching Order System to
    Support Module Structured Production System for
    the Demand Synchronized Production
  • Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design System, and
    Manufacturing , 2010, 4(2)
  • 1. Introduction (Background)
  • 2. Module Structured Production System (MSPS)
  • 2.1 Definition and configuration of the system
  • 2.2 Flexible configuration

36
Using All the Features of the Text (Headings
subheadings)
  • 3. Dispatching Order System
  • 3.1 Problems and requirements of
    demand-synchronized production suing MSPS
  • 3.2 Configuration and procedure of
    dispatching order system
  • 3.3 Operation flow of dispatching order
    system
  • 3.4 Calculation method of evaluation values
  • 3.5 Features of dispatching order system
  • 4. Evaluation of Dispatching Order System
  • 5. Conclusion

37
Using All the Features of the Text
  • Typefaces
  • In this section, some fundamental definitions and
    features about the concepts of supply chain,
    supply chain management are proposed.
  • In this paper we use the term supply chain. as it
    is defined by the last of the quotes above.
  • The objective of supply chain management is to be
    able to have the right products in the right
    quantities (at the right place) at the right
    moment at minimal cost.

38
Using All the Features of the Text (tables)
  • Table 1. Characteristic differences between
    traditional ways of managing the supply chain and
    SCM (Cooper, Ellram, 1993) mentioned in
    (Vrijhoef, Koskela, 1999)
  • Element Traditional management
    Supply chain management
  • Inventory management Independent efforts
    Joint reduction of channel
  • approach inventories
  • Total cost approach Minimize firm costs
    Channel-wide cost efficiencies
  • Time horizon Short term Long
    term

39
Using All the Features of the Text (figures)
40
Skimming for Content and Meaning
  • To read something quickly to find the main facts,
    information, or ideas in an article
  • Read the first sentence and last sentence of a
    paragraph

41
Scanning for Specifics
  • To examine an area carefully but quickly, often
    because you are looking for a particular person
    or thing
  • Applying 2 or 3 keywords or target terms to scan
    a passage

42
Identifying Organizational Patterns
  • Genres
  • 1. Note nursing note
  • 2. Memorandum (Memo)
  • 3. E-mail
  • 4. Report business report
  • 5. Resume
  • 6. Letters business letters

43
Identifying Organizational Patterns
  • 7. Newspapers, magazines
  • 8. story, novel
  • 9. Legal documents Contract agreement
  • 10. Present illness (PI) (??)
  • 11. Journal articles
  • 12. Theses, dissertations

44
Understanding Relations Within a Sentence and
Between Sentences
  • 1. Temporal overlap while, meanwhile
  • 2. Temporal sequence first, second, third, next,
    and then, last, finally.
  • 3. Reason-result because, since, because of,
    therefore, and therefore, so, and so, thus, as a
    result, sothat.
  • 4. Means-purpose to, for, by, using

45
Understanding Relations Within a Sentence and
Between Sentences (2)
  • 5. Statement-example such as, for example, for
    instance, like, particularly, including....
  • 6. Statement-amplification and, as well as,
    also, an also, furthermore, moreover
  • 7. Statement-exception besides, except, in
    addition (to)

46
Understanding Relations Within a Sentence and
Between Sentences (3)
  • 8. Concession-comment although, though, but,
    however, even though
  • 9. Condition-consequence if, even if, in case
    of, unless, so long as
  • 10. Compare-contrast Based on, according to,
    regarding to, with regard to, concerning, on the
    other hand, both A and B, asas,???,???

47
Using Cohesive Markers
  • Conjunctions
  • Co-ordinate conjunctions and, both and, not
    onlybut also, as well as, neither (nor),
    neverbut, What is more (worse) moreover,
    furthermore, likewise, besides, in addition,
    similarly, further, indeed, also
  • Adversative conjunctions but, however, indeed
    but, It is truebut, whereas, on the contrary,
    while, only, still, yet, but yet, nevertheless,
    on the other hand

48
Using Cohesive Markers
  • Alternative conjunctions or, notbut,
    eitheror, otherwise
  • Illative conjunctions so, thus, ( and)
    consequently, therefore, then, so then, (and)
    accordingly, hence
  • Explanatory conjunctions for, such as, that is
    (to say), namely, for instance, to wit
  • Subordinate conjunctions that, when, as , while,
    which, who, what, where cl.
  • Meanwhile, thus

49
Predicting, Inferring, and Guessing
  • Regarding to the title, heading or subheading,
    and figures or tables to predict the content
  • Based on the facts or numerical data to infer the
    unmentioned events or results
  • Applying what you know to guess the familiar
    words, terms, and contents that you are reading

50
Identifying Main Ideas, Supporting Ideas and
Details
  • Main ideas It is usually the first sentence of a
    paragraph.
  • Supporting ideas It usually follows the main
    idea sentence or starts from the second sentence
    of the paragraph.
  • Details They are used to described supporting
    each idea. They usually include one or more
    examples.
  • Inferences Based on the information you read,
    you may infer some results that are not showed in
    the texts.
  • Criticize According to the texts you read, offer
    the shortages or lacks of them.
  • Comments Write down your feelings, opinions,
    views, or systematic suggestions.

51
Processing and Evaluating the Information during
Reading
  • Holding your original attempt
  • Taking the information that you really need
  • Evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of
    the information
  • Extracting, highlighting, and recording the
    relevant information

52
Taking Notes
  • It may be the use of layout, capital letters,
    headings, systems of numbering, indentation,
    underlining, abbreviation symbols etc. One
    tendency of linear note-taking is that it is apt
    to become unnecessarily lengthy, whereas only a
    maximum of 10 per cent of the original is
    normally needed for recall purposes.

53
Taking notes ?????????
???? ?????? ??????? ???
Zimmermann 28 ???? ???? ????,????LP????,??Pareto???????????????????????????
Leberling 15 ??? ?? ???? ????,?Zimmermann?????,??Pareto??????????????????????
Hannan 2 ?? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???? ????????????????,???????????????????????,???????????????????????,??Pareto????
54
?????????
???? ?????? ??????? ???
Luhandjula 16 ???? ????? ????LP????,????,??Pareto????????????????????????
Sakawa 22 ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ??????????????,???????????????????????????,???????????????????
Hsu and Tzeng 1 ?Sakawa?? ????????? ??Zimmermann?Hannan?Sakawa?????,???????????????,????????????????????????,???????????????????
55
Writing an abstract (1)
  • Including research purpose(s), research
    question(s), research method(s), result(s) or
    finding(s), and implication

56
Research purposes
  • This article presents .
  • The present study aims to .
  • The main purpose of this (the) XXX study
    (research) is to .
  • ? This work presents a linear programming model
    with fuzzy multiple goals for analysing cost
    effectiveness during vendor selection.

57
Research purposes
  • The purpose of this paper is to develop a
    conceptual model on the role that information
    systems (IS) architecture planning plays in
    enhancing IS outsourcing's impact on IS
    performance and to empirically test the model.

58
Research purposes
  • This work presents a novel interactive multiple
    fuzzy objective linear programming (MFOLP) model
    for solving the aggregate production planning
    (APP) decision problem in a fuzzy environment.

59
Research method(s)
  • In order to sustain a competitive advantage, a
    manufacturer needs to anticipate this dynamic
    environment and offer the right amount of the
    right products at the right time to the right
    markets. Therefore, companies need to understand
    and analyze the different influencing factors.
    Many of these factors occur at periodical
    intervals and demonstrate a cyclic behavior. This
    article proposes a number of models and
    methodologies for anticipating and managing the
    different occurring cycles.

60
Research method(s)
  • Survey data were gathered and structural equation
    modeling technique is used to test hypotheses.

61
Research method(s)
  • The majority of the work to date has attempted to
    use the SERVQUAL (service quality) methodology in
    an effort to measure service quality. In this
    study, firstly the concept and factors of service
    quality are examined. Then a fuzzy AHP (analytic
    hierarchy process) is structured to evaluate the
    proposed service quality framework.

62
Result(s) or finding(s)
  • The implementation results demonstrate that .
  • The results (findings) show (reveal) that .
  • Results showed that the image projected by the
    vendors was a major factor in their selection,
    while reliability, responsiveness, and customer
    empathy were less important.

63
Result(s) or finding(s)
  • Therefore, the analytical results of this study,
    regardless of application outcomes or analysis
    methodology, provide decision criteria for
    manufacturing firms and introduce a new area of
    academic research.

64
Result(s) or finding(s)
  • The empirical test clearly demonstrates the
    important role that IS architecture planning
    plays in enhancing IS outsourcing's impact on IS
    performance. In other words, it shows that IS
    architecture planning provides a blueprint for
    establishing necessary technical and
    administrative platforms, based on which IS
    outsourcing can be effectively implemented to
    positively impact IS performance. Consequently,
    the key proposition in the conceptual model of
    the study has been empirically validated.

65
Implication
  • The empirical support of the key proposition that
    IS architecture planning enhances IS
    outsourcing's impact on IS performance makes it
    very clear that IS management should make due
    efforts to improve their understandings of
    various IS components, associated business
    processes, and their interactive relationships
    for better IS outsourcing management. Further,
    the identification of the antecedents of IS
    architecture planning will enlighten
    practitioners about how to improve their IS
    architecture planning competence.

66
Writing an abstract (2)
  • ??
  • 1. ????
  • 2. ??????????
  • 3. ????
  • 4. ?????????????
  • 5. ????
  • 6. ??????

67
Writing an abstract (2)
  • 7. ???????
  • 8.?????????
  • 9.??????
  • 10.? ?????
  • 11.??????
  • ???(2003) ?????????????

68
Writing an abstract (3)
  • Application of a linear programming model with
    fuzzy multiple goals for virtual business
    investments
  • Abstract
  • This article assesses the feasibility of
    virtual business investment planning models with
    specific virtual settings. The multiple criteria
    approach with fuzzy goals is deployed to analyze
    the available options as the model

69
Writing an abstract (4)
  • is formulated in compliance with long-term
    settings. The model is developed to determine the
    optimum solution and suitable virtual options.
    The multiple objective approach is utilized to
    determine the cost and revenue interactions
    between capital limitations and profitability
    from a long-term viewpoint of outsourcing
    effectiveness in terms of virtual decisions.

70
Writing an abstract (5)
  • The implementation is designed to survey the
    parameter variations of outsourcing quantities
    and escalation factors. The implementation
    results demonstrate that the use of both LP and
    multiple objective models enables business
    planners to employ a theoretical rigor not found
    in simpler decision models for virtual concepts.

71
Writing an abstract (6)
  • Key words fuzzy multiple, virtual business
    investment, outsourcing effectiveness

72
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