Genetic Technology DNA Technology Genetic Engineering ALL THE SAME - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Genetic Technology DNA Technology Genetic Engineering ALL THE SAME

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Genetic Technology DNA Technology Genetic Engineering ALL THE SAME Genetic Engineering: DNA Technology process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Genetic Technology DNA Technology Genetic Engineering ALL THE SAME


1
Genetic Technology DNA Technology
Genetic Engineering ALL THE SAME
2
Genetic Engineering DNA Technology
  • process of making changes in the DNA code of
    living organisms
  • uses DNA technology to cure diseases, treat
    genetic disorders,
  • improve food crops, etc.

3
How do we make changes to DNA of an organism???
  • USING.Restriction Enzymes
  • bacterial enzymes
  • act like scissors that
  • cut DNA molecules
  • at specific sites
  • create sticky ends that can easily bind to
    complementary DNA and form new sequences of
    nucleotides

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Plasmids are
  • ring of DNA found in a bacterium (bacteria) in
    addition to its main chromosome
  • these plasmids can be cut with restriction
    enzymes, allowing other genes (donor genes) to be
    spliced into the plasmid
  • once gene has been spliced into plasmid, the
    plasmid is returned to the bacteria

6
  • insulin production

7
Plasmids are
  • the bacteria then divides, giving copies of the
    new gene
  • recombinant DNA- combination of DNA from two or
    more sources
  • Ex. inserting human gene for insulin into
    bacteria in order to produce large amounts of
    insulin for people whose bodies do not produce
    enough

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MORE DNA Technology Techniques
  • DNA Fingerprinting pattern of bands made up of
    specific fragments from an organism's DNA
  • Uses
  • -determining relationships between individuals
  • -determining how closely species are related
  • -helping solve crimes

10
DNA Fingerprinting
  • How it works
  • use RFLP analysis to (omit) extract DNA and cut
    it using restriction enzymes
  • gel electrophoresis DNA placed into wells made
    on a gel fragments or segments of DNA are then
    separated based on size and charge

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12
  • Gel-Electrophoresis-Animation-

13
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  • used to quickly make many
  • copies of selected segments of DNA, only requires
    tiny amounts of DNA

14
Conceiving a Clone Media Center
15
Human Genome Project (began in 1990)
  • Purposes
  • to determine the nucleotide sequence of the
    entire human genome (approx. 3 billion nucleotide
    pairs)
  • to map the location of every gene on each
    chromosome
  • improve diagnoses, treatments, and cures for
    genetic diseases

16
Human Genome Proj.
  • J. Craig Venter Designing Life - 60 Minutes -
    CBS News

17
Cloning
  • A group of genetically
  • Identical cells
  • May be produces asexually (Mitosis)
  • Growing Body Parts

18
Gene Therapy
  • treating a genetic disorder by introducing a gene
    into a cell or by correcting a gene defect in a
    cell's genome
  • involves ethical decisions - Ex. insurance
    companies

19
To Rw. Practical Uses of DNA Technology
  • produce pharmaceutical products inexpensively
  • Ex. insulin

20
Practical Uses of DNA Technology
  • produce effective vaccines
  • interesting research--scientists are creating a
    banana vaccine to vaccinate children against
    viral diseases like Hepatitis B

21
Practical Uses of DNA Technology
  • Increase agricultural yields by
  • protecting plants by transferring genes that are
    harmful to pests into the plants
  • producing plants that are resistant to
    weed-controlling chemicals (herbicides)
  • developing plants that do not require fertilizers
    to grow

22
  • NOVA scienceNOW Personal DNA Testing PBS
  • NOVA Online Cracking the Code of Life Watch
    the Program Here

23
Safety and Environmental Issues
  • genetically engineered foods may contain toxins,
    making people allergic to the foods
  • genetically engineered crops may take over the
    native plant species

24
Example of Genetic Engineering
  • producing tomatoes that ripen without becoming
    soft and are supposed to taste better than
    commercially grown tomatoes

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