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?. Geography


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Title: ?. Geography

?. Geography
  • 1).The Geographical Characteristics of the United
  • Vast area The United States is bigger in
    area than the whole of Europe, spreading from the
    Pacific coast to the Atlantic coast. Diversity of
    land features The United States comprehends land
    features like forest, desert, swamp, mountains,
    plains and one of the worlds largest river

  • 2).The Mississippi River
  • The Mississippi River, often called the
    Father of Waters, is the most important and
    largest river in America. It flows for 6,400

3) The Growth of the Union Since Its Foundation
in the 1780s
  • At the time of its foundation, the original
    Union consisted of thirteen states along the
    eastern seaboard. As settlement spread westwards
    and stable population capable of self-government
    developed new areas, so new states were allowed
    to join the Union. Arizona in 1912 was the
    forty-eight continental state joining the Union.
    In 1959, separate territories of Hawaii and
    Alaska joined the Union. Thus the list of fifty
    states of the United States was complete.

4). New England
  • New England refers to the northeastern six
    states Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont,
    Connecticut, Massachusetts and Rhode Island, a
    area running from the Canadian shore to New York.
    This area resembles old England in many ways.
    Some of the earliest settlement in America
    history was in this area. In general, this part
    of the country is small-scale, long established
    and urban.

5). New York City
  • It is the commercial capital of the United
    States. It is at the southernmost tip of the New
    York State. It is composed of five boroughs
    Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Richmond, and
    Queens, with Manhattan Island as its center. It
    is well known for such places as Wall Street, the
    Empire State Building, Harlem and Central Park.

6). Manhattan Island
  • It is at southeast part of New York City. It is
    the centre of the city and includes things that
    are famous to the world Wall Street, Fifth
    Avenue, Broadway, the Empire State Building.
    Rockefeller Centre, the United Nations Building,
    Central Park, Harlem and so on.

7). The South
  • It refers to the area across the Potomac River
    and southwards down the Atlantic coast. This was
    slave-owning area before the Civil War and mainly
    produced tobacco and cotton. Economically these
    states are notoriously backward, but more
    recently there has been an industrial
    development, helped by federal plans and
    hydroelectric power.

9). The Middle West
  • It describes the northeastern part of the central
    plain, or the northeastern quarter of the United
    States except for the states close to the
    Atlantic. In terms of political geography, it
    refers to these states Illinois, Michigan,
    Indiana, Wisconsin and Ohio and so on. First
    developed for farming, these states include huge,
    sparsely populated open spaces. Chicago and
    Detroit are two of the big industrial cities in
    this area.

10). The search for the California dream
  • California is blessed with attractive scenery
    and mild climate. It has the fertile land for the
    growing of oranges and grapes. And more important
    still are the electronics industry, aero plane
    factories, defense plants of many kinds, and a
    whole new industrial complex in this area.
    Therefore, California is the Promised Land by
    many people to fulfill their goals.

8). The Appalachian Mountains
  • The range of the Appalachian Mountains runs
    behind and through the eastern states, beginning
    for south in Georgia and continuing northwards to
    Vermont and Canada. Sections of the range have
    different names, but rounded hills and forests
    are the main feature. The mountains place a
    barrier to early westward movement in American

  • 11). Great Basin
  • Great Basin refers to the part between the
    Colorado and Columbia Plateaus.
  • 12). Great Central Plain
  • Great Central Plain refers to the landmass
    between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians.
  • 13). Great Plain
  • Great Plain refers to the western part of the
    central plain.
  • 14). The Five Great Lakes
  • The Five Great Lakes refers to Lake Michigan,
    Superior, Erie, Huron and Ontario.

?. History
  • 1). He was a 15th century mariner from Italy
    believed that he could reach the Far East by
    sailing west from Europe. 2). In 1492, he
    persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance
    his voyage to the East. 3). Instead of reaching
    Asia, he landed on one of the Bahama Island in
    the Caribbean Sea and explore most of the
    Caribbean area. 4). After his discovery,
    Europeans began to explore and colonize the New

2. The Europeans colonization of the New World.
  • 1). After Columbias discovery, European
    countries established settlements in the New
    World to claim as much territory as possible. 2).
    Spanish priests wanted to convert the indigenous
    inhabitants of the Americas to Christianity. 3).
    European religious and political dissenters
    needed a refuge from persecution in their
    homelands. 4). Some individuals thirsted for

3. The Pilgrims
  • 1). In England, there had been a group of people
    called Puritans who had broken away from the
    Church of England and formed their own churches
    in order to purify the Church of England. Later
    they fled to Holland to escape the persecution in
    their native land. 2) Several years passed when
    they were again threatened by religious
    suppression, they thought of moving, and this
    time to America. 3). They began to call
    themselves Pilgrims because of their wanderings
    in search of religious freedom. 4). In 1620, they
    crossed the Atlantic in the ship Mayflower and
    settled at Plymouth, Massachusetts.

4. Mayflower
  • 1). It is the name of a ship first bringing the
    Pilgrims to New England. 2). It started in
    September of 1620 carrying 102 passengers. 3). It
    landed out of plan in Provincetown Harbor,
    Massachusetts. 4). It was on this ship that the
    first governor was chosen and the historic
    Mayflower Compact was signed. 5). It finally
    anchored in Plymouth Harbor where the Pilgrims
    had a permanent settlement.

5. Mayflower Compact
  • 1). In order to survive, the Pilgrims on the
    Mayflower needed a means of establishing and
    enforcing proper rules of conduct. Also they
    wanted to protect themselves from rebels within
    their own ranks, so they signed the Mayflower
    Compact. 2). It was the first formal agreement
    for self-government in America. 3) It was signed
    on the Mayflower, choosing the first governor.

6. Boston Tea Party
  • 1). In the years following the French and Indian
    War, British government enforced several acts,
    which were bitterly opposed by colonists. 2). In
    order to ease tensions, British government
    removed all the new taxes except that on tea. 3)
    In 1773, a group of patriots responded to the tea
    tax by staging the Boston Tea Party Disguised as
    Indians, they boarded British merchant ships and
    tossed 342 crates of tea into Boston harbor. 4).
    British parliament then passed the Intolerable
    Acts, and in response to this the First
    Continental Congress was held in September 1774.

7. The First Continental Congress
  • 1). In response to the Intolerable Acts passed
    by British parliament, the First Continental
    Congress met in Philadelphia in September 1774.
    2). This was a meeting of colonial leaders
    opposed to what they perceived to be British
    oppression in the colonies. They urged Americans
    to disobey the Intolerable Acts and to boycott
    British trade. 3). After this, colonists began to
    organized militias and to collect and store
    weapons and ammunition.

8). The Second Continental Congress
  • 1). After the first shot of the American War of
    Independence was fired at Lexington on April
    19,1775, the Second Continental Congress met in
    Philadelphia in May 1775. 2). It began to assume
    the functions of a national government. It
    founded a Continental Army and Navy under the
    command of George Washington, and began to print
    paper money and opened diplomatic relations with
    foreign powers. It adopted on July 4,1776 the
    Declarations of Independence, which was drafted
    by Thomas Jefferson.

9. The Declaration of Independence
  • 1). It held that men have a natural right to
    life, liberty and the pursuit of Happiness
    that government can rule only with the consent
    of the governor that any government may be
    dissolved when it fails to protect the rights of
    the people. 2). This theory of politics came from
    the British philosopher John Locke. And it is
    central to the Anglo-Saxon political tradition.

10. The American War of Independence
  • 1). After British parliament passed the
    Intolerable Acts, tensions were again created
    between colonists and British government. 2). On
    April 19,1775, the first shot was fired at
    Lexington and the American War of Independence
    began. 3). In May 1775, the Second Continental
    Congress met in Philadelphia and began to assume
    the functions of a national government. It
    founded a Continental Army and Navy under the
    command of George Washington and declared
    independence on July 4,1776. 4). In 1781, British
    General Cornwallis surrendered at York-town,
    Virginia and soon British government asked for
    peace. 5). The Treaty of Paris, signed in
    September 1783, recognized the independence of
    the United States.

11. The Constitutional Convention
  • 1). Since 1781, the 13 states had been governed
    by the Articles of Confederation, which set up a
    very weak central government. 2). In May 1787,
    the Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia
    with instructions to revise the Articles of
    Confederation. 3). Three of the delegates, George
    Washington, Benjamin Franklin and James Madison
    drafted a new and more workable Constitution. 4).
    After much debate, the Constitution was accepted
    in 1788.

12. George Washington
  • 1). He was a Virginia planter and veteran of the
    French and Indian War. 2). In 1775, he became the
    commander of the Continental Army in the American
    War of Independence. 3). He was one of the three
    delegates who drafted the Constitution in the
    Constitutional Convention in 1787. 4). He was the
    first president of the United States and governed
    in a Federalist style. He put down the Whiskey
    Rebellion during his administration.

13. The Alien and Sedition Acts
  • 1). During John Adams administration, the US was
    involved in an undeclared naval war with France.
    In an atmosphere of war hysteria, the Congress
    passed the Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798. 2).
    These measures permitted the deportation or
    arrest of dangerous aliens, and prescribed
    fines or imprisonment for publishing attacks on
    the government. 3). Ten Republican editors were
    convicted under these acts. 4). The repression
    occurred under the Alien and Sedition Acts ended
    in 1801 with Thomas Jefferson becoming the

14. Thomas Jefferson
  • 1). He was a Virginia lawyer and author of the
    Declaration of Independence. 2). He spoke against
    the operation of the Alien and Sedition Acts and
    ended the repression under these acts in 1801,
    when he was elected president. 3). As a
    Republican president, he exercised his power
    vigorously. He purchased Louisiana territory from
    France in 1803.

15. The Industrial Revolution in America
  • 1). After the War of 1812, the United States
    enjoyed a period of rapid economic expansion. The
    Industrial Revolution had reached America. 2). A
    national network of roads and canals was built,
    and the first steam railroad opened in Baltimore
    in 1830. 3). There were textile mills in New
    England iron foundries in Pennsylvania. And by
    the 1850s, factories were producing various goods.

16. Andrew Jackson
  • 1). He was the first man born into a poor family
    and born in the west to be elected president in
    1828. 2). He and his democratic party promoted
    popular democracy and appealed to the humble
    members of society. He rewarded inexperienced but
    loyal supporters with government jobs. 3). He
    broke the power of the Bank of the United States.
    4). He made land available to western settlers by
    forcing Indian tribes to move west of the

17. Monroe Doctrine
  • President Monroe put it forward in 1823. Main
    points the European countries ought not to start
    any new colonies in North or South America, not
    to interfere with the newly-established South
    American republics, and the United States ought
    not to interfere in the affairs of European
    countries. Monroe doctrine was an important
    symbol of American expansionism.

18. The American Civil War
  • 1) In 19th- century America, the issue of slavery
    had become the central point of contention in
    politics, economics and cultural life.2). After
    Lincoln won the election in 1861,11 Southern and
    border states seceded from the Union and formed
    the Confederate States of America. The American
    Civil War began. 3). Lincoln issued the
    Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863.
    Southern General Lee surrendered to General Grant
    in April 1865 and all other Confederate forces
    soon surrendered. Lincoln was assassinated on
    April 14,1865.

  • 4). The Civil War was the most traumatic episode
    in American history. It devastated the South and
    subjected that region to military occupation.
    America lost more soldiers in this war than in
    any other. 5). The war resolved two fundamental
    questions. It put an end of slavery, which was
    legally abolished by the 13th Amendment to the
    Constitution in 1865. It also assured the
    integrity of the United States as an indivisible

19. The Ku Klux Klan
  • 1). After the Civil War, some Southern whites
    formed the Ku Klux Klan. 2). It was a violent
    secret society that hoped to protect white
    interests and advantages by terrorizing blacks
    and preventing them from making social advances.
    3). By 1872, the federal government had
    suppressed the Klan, but it revived several times
    in later history.

20. The Situation of Blacks After the Civil War
  • 1). Though the 13th Amendment to the
    Constitution in 1865 had legally abolished
    slavery, it did not ensure equality in fact for
    former slaves. 2). Southern blacks were
    second-class citizens. They were not allowed to
    vote, were threatened by the Ku Klux Klan, and
    their freedom was restricted by the black codes.
    3). Toward the end of the 19th century, the
    segregation and oppression of blacks grew far
    more rigid Southern laws enforced strict
    segregation in many public places most blacks
    had to continue to work as tenant farmers. 4).
    Although blacks were legally free, they lived and
    were treated very much like slaves.

21. Reconstruction
  • 1). After the Civil War, the US Congress put
    forward the program of Reconstruction, or reform,
    of the Southern states. 2). The program was
    bitterly opposed by most Southern whites. 3). It
    ended in 1877, when new constitutions had been
    ratified in all Southern states and all federal
    troops were withdrawn from the south.

22. The Westward Movement
  • 1). The Westward Movement began following the end
    of the Civil War.2). Miners searching gold and
    silver went to the Rocky Mountain region. Farmers
    settled in Minnesota and the Dakotas. Cowboys
    managed cattle on the plains of Texas and other
    western states. 3). As settlers kept moving west,
    they fought with Indians and forced them from
    their land.

23. Cowboys
  • 1). During the Westward Movement, cowboys, or
    hired horsemen managed cattle on the plains of
    Texas and other western states. 2). Most of them
    were former Southern soldiers or former slaves.
    3). They were Americas proletarian heroes, and
    were not so violent as movies later represented
    them to be. 4). They had become most celebrated
    and romanticized figures in American culture.

24. The Great Depression
  • 1). On October 24, 1929----Black Thursday----a
    wave of panic selling of stocks swept the New
    York Stock Exchange. Share and other security
    prices collapsed.2) By 1932, thousands of banks
    and businesses had failed. Industrial production
    was cut in half. Farm income had fallen by more
    than half. Wages had decreased 60 percent. New
    investment was down 90 percent. As a result one
    out of every four workers was unemployed. 3).
    Franklin D. Roosevelt won the 1932 election and
    carried out the New Deal to improve the economy.
    4) Full recovery from the Depression was brought
    about by the defense buildup prior to Americas
    entering the WW ?.

25. The New Deal
  • 1). To deal with the Depression, President
    Franklin Roosevelt rushed through Congress a
    great number of laws within the historic
    Hundred Days. 2). Some of the famous ones in
    this New Deal program were the WPA, AAA and the
    Social Security Act. 3). The New Deal program did
    not end the Depression, but the economy improved
    as a result of this program of government

?. Politics and Government
  • 1. Political Parties in the United States
  • 1). Soon after the Union was established,
    political parties developed. The first two
    political parties in American history were the
    Federalists and the Republicans. 2). At present,
    two parties, Democrats and Republicans, dominate
    the political scene. 3). The two parties are very
    complex in their aims and in their basis of
    popular support. But in the long run, they do
    provide means of keeping government close to the

2. Separation of Powers
  • Influenced by Montesquieus theory of division
    of powers, the US Constitution ruled that
    political structures should share out political
    power between legislative, executive and judicial
    authorities, and that these authorities should
    exercise checks against each other.

3. Government at Various Levels
  • 1). The Federal government has three
    branches----executive (the President),
    legislature( Congress) and judicial. The three
    elements are checked and balanced by one another.
    2).In each state government, power is also
    divided among three agencies---legislature
    (usually the two houses, elected for fixed
    terms), executive (the governor) and judges of
    the State Supreme Court. 3). Each state is
    divided into countries, which have their own
    powers. 4). Within the countries the towns have
    their own local governments, mainly as cities.
    These city governments, with elected mayor,
    council and judges, reproduce the state pattern
    on a smaller scale.

4. The Role of the US Congress
  • 1). It is the law-making body. 2). No federal
    taxes can be collected or money spent without the
    approval of both Houses. 3) If the President
    refuses to sign the laws, his veto can be
    over-ridden by a two-thirds majority in both
    House. 4) All treaties and all the Presidents
    appointments to high offices, are subject to the
    Senates approval.

5. Elections for the Two Houses
  • 1). Elections for both Houses are held in
    November each even-numbered year. 2). The whole
    House of Representatives is elected to serve for
    only two years. Each state has one seat in the
    House of Representatives for every 1/435 share
    that it has of the Whole US population. 3).
    Senators are elected in rotation for six years
    with each states two senators elected at
    separate elections. 4). If a senator or
    representative dies or resigns, a special
    election is held to fill his place for the
    remainder of this term.

6. Federalism
  • 1). The states give up their rights to conduct
    separate relations with each other and with the
    outside world, but each state kept the basic
    powers of government for itself within its own
    territory. 2). The Federal government should have
    only the powers, which are necessary for
    providing for the matters, which are of common
    interest to them all.

7. The US Federal Constitution
  • 1). It is the supreme law in the United States,
    and is the main expression of the American ideal.
    2). It is a short document, which embodies laws
    and principles for the form of the US government.
    Some of the most famous articles in this
    Constitution are the First, the Second, the third
    and the Fifth. And the first ten
    amendments----the Bill of Rights----are very
    important. 3). Some of it is vague and uncertain
    in meaning, and therefore involves much
    difficulty in interpretation. 4) It is the oldest
    written constitution in the world and has
    inspired dozens of other countries seeking
    political reform.

?. Education
  • 1. Day Care Centers
  • 1). They provide care for preschool children of
    working mothers who need a place to leave their
    children all day, five days a week. 2). Free,
    high-quality day care is essential for women if
    they are to participate fully in society. 3). The
    need for more day care centers is acute because
    about 30 percent of mothers with children under
    age six are in the labor force and the number of
    working mothers with preschool children is still

2. Nursery Schools
  • 1). Nursery schools accept children from three to
    five years old for half-day sessions ranging from
    twice a week to five days a week. 2). The typical
    nursery school classroom is equipped much like a
    kindergarten, plus an outdoor playground. 3). A
    youngster who has no playmates his age living
    nearby may greatly benefit from attending nursery
    school. 4). Nursery schools usually charge
    tuition, though some are subsidized and some
    offer scholarship.

3. Kindergarten
  • 1). In most area, free public education begins
    with kindergarten classes for five-year-olds. 2)
    Through these half-day sessions, the child
    becomes accustomed to being separate from Mommy,
    playing and sharing with other children, and
    following the directions of a teacher. 3). He is
    also introduced to skills and information that
    will help him later with academic work. 4). This
    early childhood education is very beneficial to

4. Grammar School
  • 1). In the United States, classes of students are
    divided into twelve academic levels called
    grades. 2). The first academic institution that a
    child attends is called grammar school/ 3). In
    some school systems, it includes grades one
    through eight and in other school systems, one
    through six. 4). Grammar schools teach reading ,
    arithmetic, language and some other subjects.

5. Higher Education
  • 1). It refers to American education on the
    college level. 2). American higher education is
    provide by more than 3,000 institutions. 3). Some
    are supported privately and some by local or
    state governments. Most are coeducational. Some
    are called colleges, and others are universities.
    4). After WW ?, colleges and universities have
    expanded tremendously. This huge expansion
    reflects the trend toward democratizing higher

?. Race and Ethnic Groups
  • 1. The Melting Pot
  • 1). This phrase comes from the play The Melting
    Pot. 2) It holds that America is the great
    Melting Pot where all the races of Europe are
    melting and re-forming. 3). The US is a
    heterogeneous society where diverse races and
    cultures are blended. 4). Recently, some people
    think America should be called a salad bowl.

  • 2 . WASP
  • It stands for the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant.
    It is the dominant group in the US controlling
    economic assets and political power.

3. Slavery in the US
  • 1). It started in mid-seventeenth century. 2).
    The demand for cheap labor led to a massive slave
    trade. 3). The myth of racial inferiority of
    blacks was propagated as a justification for
    their continued subjugation. 4). The institution
    of slavery was finally ended by the Civil War,
    Lincolns emancipation of slaves in 1863. and the
    thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.

4. Segregation Laws
  • 1). After the abolition of slavery wholesale
    discrimination was practiced against black
    Americans. 2). Many states passes segregation
    laws to keep the races apart in school, housing,
    restaurants, and other public facilities. 3)
    Segregation laws continued to be enforced in
    Southern States until the 1950s.

5. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • 1). He was a black leader of the civil rights
    movement in the 1950s and the 1960s. 2). He
    attained national prominence by advocating a
    policy of non-violent resistance to segregation.
    3). In 1964, he was awarded the Nobel Peace
    Prize. 4). In 1968 he was assassinated by a white
    man. The assassination touched off a
    coast-to-coast wave of the most violent protest
    and demonstrations against racial discrimination
    in the US.

6. Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • On December 1, 1955, when Mrs. Rosa Parks, an
    active member of the NAACP (the national
    association for the advancement of colored
    people), refused to give up her seat to a white
    man on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama, she
    got arrested. Under the leadership of Martin
    Luther King, black people in Montgomery decided
    to organize a bus boycott for one day. With
    unflinching determination, the black people in
    Montgomery eventually forced the company to back
    down from its discriminatory position.

7. The Civil Right Act of 1964
  • This Act outlawed discrimination on the basis of
    race, color, religion, sex, or national origin,
    not only in public accommodations but also in
    employment. It also authorized the government to
    withhold funds public agencies that discriminated
    on the basis of race, and it empowered the
    attorney general to guarantee voting rights and
    end school segregation.

8. The Black Underclass
  • 1). They live in the urban ghettos. 2). They
    consist of habitually unemployed or underemployed
    black people. 3). Many members are young and
    unskilled. 4). This underclass continues to
    persist and offers an explosive potential for the

9. The Reservation
  • 1). It was established by the US government for
    the Indians after the Civil War, segregation the
    Indians from the national life. 2). In 1871
    Congress decided that no Indian tribe would ever
    be recognized ad an independent political entity
    again and made all Indians wards of the federal
    government, without any rights of citizenship.
    3). Not until 1924 was the right of American
    citizenship extended to the original inhabitants
    of the land.

10. Hispanics
  • 1). It is a general name for Spanish-speaking
    population of the US. 2). The Hispanic population
    is a large, diverse and rapidly growing one. 3).
    It contains Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and
    other people from various Spanish-speaking
    nations of Central and South America. 4). The
    Hispanic population is growing so rapidly because
    of three factors relative youth cultural
    reluctance to practice family planning constant
    inflow of new immigrants mostly over the Mexican

  • 5). The diverse groups within the Hispanic
    population share a common predicament as a
    primarily poor, Catholic, Spanish-speaking people
    in a predominantly affluent, Protestant,
    English-speaking country. 6). Most Hispanics have
    relatively low levels of education and income and
    they are an overwhelmingly urban population.

11. Chicanos
  • 1). They are Mexican Americans. 2). They have
    been regarded as aliens on American soil since
    the mid-19th century. 3). It is only in recent
    years that the Chicanos have come to be generally
    recognized as a genuinely American minority. 4).
    They are regarded as sojourners in the US who can
    go back home if they are not satisfied. 5).
    Urban Chicanos are concentrated in ethnic
    neighborhoods. 6). The Chicano population is a
    relatively poor one with relatively low
    educational achievement. 7). Chicano farm workers
    have experienced severe economic exploitation.
    8). Chicano leaders are demanding entry into
    mainstream America without assimilation into the
    Anglo culture.

12. The Chinatowns
  • 1). Chinese Americans, because of their own
    choice and discrimination, have kept to their own
    urban communities----the Chinatowns. 2). Despite
    the thriving appearance, the Chinatowns contain
    an array of social problems----most notably
    overcrowding and extensive poverty. 3). The
    Chinese have retained a great deal of cultural
    heritage, including language, cuisine and

13. Jewish American
  • 1). Three percent of all Americans are Jews,
    most of them originally from Eastern Europe,
    including Russia. 2). They tended to be
    concentrated in the eastern area, particularly
    New York. 3). Their political status is rather
    similar to the Catholics, and it is still
    considered unlikely for a Jew to be elected
    President. 4). Many of them have been successful
    in seeking economic prosperity in American
    condition. 5). They are predominantly liberal,
    and inclined to be expressed in politics through
    the Democratic Party.
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