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Nutrient Management Overview

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Nutrient Management Overview Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing Countries Introduction Why are nutrients important? Ensure proper plant growth How are ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nutrient Management Overview


1
Nutrient Management Overview
Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
2
Introduction
  • Why are nutrients important?
  • Ensure proper plant growth
  • How are nutrients lost?
  • Erosion of top soils
  • Plant uptake
  • Importance of Nutrient Budgeting

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
3
Nutrients and Biomass
  • Microbial biomass
  • regulates nutrients transformation, cycling and
    storage
  • Higher percent of biomass C to organic C leads to
    a faster release of nutrients to the plants for
    uptake
  • Increased fixation of C by photosynthesis
    increases soil quality and productivity

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
4
Which Nutrients Matter?
  • Large quantities needed macro
  • N, P, K
  • Small quantities
  • needed micro
  • Ca, Mg, S
  • Very small quantities
  • needed micro
  • Zn, B, Mn, Fe, Cu,
  • Mo, Cl

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
5
How Can a Nutrient Deficiency be Spotted on
Plants?
Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
6
Macro Nutrient Deficiencs
  • Phosphorus deficient plants tend to have stunted
    growth shown by a treated and untreated crop of
    corn below. Leaves tend to turn blue/green and
    can be noticed on the older leaves first.
  • ?
  • ?
  • Nitrogen deficiency can lead to stunted plant
    growth as well as the yellowing of the leaves as
    seen in this Tobacco plant.

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
7
Macro Nutrient Deficiencies
  • Potassium deficient leaves such as the pigeon pea
    shown seem to have brown scorching and the leaf
    tips curled.
  • Symptoms can be mistaken for wind scorch or signs
    of drought.

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
8
Micronutrient Deficiencies
  • Magnesium deficiency in grapes showing the
    yellowing of the leaf while the veins stay green.
  • Calcium deficiency in sorghum showing stunted
    growth and the curling of the leaves.
  • Causes include over use of N K fertilizers.

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
9
Micronutrient Deficiencies
  • Sulfur deficiency in sorghum showing pale yellow
    younger leaves and healthy dark green lower leaves

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
10
Micronutrient Deficiencies
  • Zinc deficiency in maize showing stunted leaves
  • little leaf
  • ?
  • Boron deficiency in groundnut showing seeds with
    hallow heart
  • ?

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
11
Micronutrient Deficiencies
  • Manganese deficiency includes the yellowing of
    leaves and the appearance of brown spots
  • ?
  • Iron deficiency can be spotted by the plant veins
    becoming very green while the leaf tissue is
    turning yellow
  • ?

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
12
Micronutrient Deficiencies
  • Copper deficiency in the barley can be seen as
    white leaf tips.
  • Molybdenum symptoms for deficiency can be seen by
    the leaves inability to develop the dark green
    color as seen with the cauliflower.

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
13
?? Discussion Question ??
  • Can nutrient deficiencies be identified just by
    physical symptoms?

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
14
Answer
  • NO!
  • Many symptoms are similar
  • N, P, Ca, Zn all stunt growth
  • N, Mg, S, Mn, Fe all show the leaves turning
    yellow
  • K Ca cause the leaves to curl
  • Many symptoms are mistaken for viruses,
    scorching, drought, acidic soils and etc.
  • Some physical symptoms occur when too much damage
    has been done to the plant

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
15
Roles of Nutrients
  • PROPER LEVELS
  • Promote growth in plants
  • Promote lush green foliage
  • Promote plant health
  • Tend to have higher yields for season
  • DEFICIENT LEVELS
  • Produce lower yields for the season
  • Increase the chance of loosing crops
  • Increase susceptibility to viruses (ideal/non
    ideal conditions)
  • EXCESS LEVELS
  • Excess of one nutrient can affect transport of
    other required nutrients to the plants

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
16
Micronutrients Harvested in Various Crops
Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
17
?? Discussion Question ??
  • Why would knowing the nutrients removed by each
    crop be important?

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
18
Answer
  • Determine the plants requirement for a growing
    season for proper nutrient application
  • Can determine which nutrients are deficient after
    a crop season
  • Determine best crop for area based on
    available/supplied nutrients.

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
19
What Happened to the Nutrients?
  • Increased use of chemical fertilizers
  • Provides only macronutrients
  • Decreased use of organic fertilizers
  • Good source of micronutrients

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
20
What Happened to the Nutrients?
  • Nitrogen and Potassium are being depleted yearly
  • Phosphorus is accumulating yearly
  • Only diammonium phosphate (DAP) and Urea are
    being applied
  • Increase only N, P, K

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
21
What Happened to the Nutrients?
  • Soil Organic Carbon (SOC)
  • Sharply decreases with cultivation
  • Significant reduction occurs within 15 20 yrs
  • Correlations with physical soil properties
  • High SOC indicates lower bulk density
  • High SOC indicates higher hydraulic conductivity
  • Increasing SOC makes calcium carbonate more
    soluble decreasing soil pH

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
22
Deficiencies from Analysis in 10 Nucleus
Watersheds in Karnataka
Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
23
?? Discussion Question ??
  • There are a significant amount of fields in the
    10 watershed that are nutrient deficient, why has
    this happened?

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
24
Answer
  • Open ended for discussion and ideas based on
    previous knowledge
  • Changing practices in agriculture to be explained
    next

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
25
Changing Practices that Caused Nutrient
Deficiencies
  • Farmyard manure applications (FYM)
  • Good source of all nutrients (macro/micro)
  • Common practice till use of NPK Fertilizers
  • FYM and organic manures
  • Availability and quantity applied has decreased
  • Only applied to high cash crops
  • Low-value crops get application every 3-4 yrs

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
26
Changing Practices that Caused Nutrient
Deficiencies
  • Policies push toward use of particular
    fertilizers
  • N containing urea DAP (causes S deficit) verse
    single super phosphate (contains S)
  • Urea/DAP cause Sulfur deficit because they lack it

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
27
References
  • ICRISAT article 85199
  • ICRISAT article 161-2004
  • ICRISAT article F004
  • ICRISAT article 709-2004
  • ICRISAT article 257-2003
  • ICRISAT atricle 119-2007
  • ICRISAT article Brochure_productivityEnhance-karna
    taka
  • Wikipedia for general information on nutrient
    deficiencies on plants and symptoms
  • USE ICRISAT 518-2004

Sustainable Watershed Management in Developing
Countries
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