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Building Fluency The Old Fashion Way


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Title: Building Fluency The Old Fashion Way

Building Fluency The Old Fashion Way
  • Presented by
  • Quality Quinn

For more information
  • Click on presentations
  • Find your state on the map
  • Click!

Process for Leadership
  • Challenge the process
  • search for opportunities
  • change status quo
  • Inspiring a shared vision
  • imagine the ideal situation
  • Enabling others to act
  • foster cooperation
  • modeling the way
  • Encouraging the heart to begin the journey

State of the Nation
  • Annual testing -NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
  • The Real Agenda The STEMs
  • Science,Technology,Engineering,Mathematics
  • Social Studies

Ireland, India, China
  • High levels of literacy
  • High levels of math literacy
  • Low cost of living
  • Low wages
  • Language

You Cant Tutor What Hasnt Been Taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught

The goal of the teacher is to create an
environment that allows every reader to move as
quickly as possible to grade level, content area
  • without selling-out and just attempting to teach
    to the test.
  • What immediate steps will ensure growth were
    looking for growth!

The Model
  • Rigorous state Standards that raise
  • Curriculum and benchmarks aligned to state
  • Quality, on-going professional development for
    teachers who support and teach reading
  • Resources to support new instructional strategies
    and classroom management strategies
  • Informal classroom diagnostic assessment for math
    and reading growth
  • Maximizing Federal Dollars (Title 1) to buy more

Grade Level Meetings-Student specific
  • Find and use ALL data
  • Do analysis for strength and weakness
  • Prioritize needs
  • Set goals (what of sub groups will grow 04-05)
  • Brainstorm specific strategies
  • Results indicators
  • Action Plan

How we can help?
  • Prepare for early success
  • Prevent learners from falling behind
  • Intervene for below level learners
  • Challenge above grade level learners

Three Flavors of Assessment
  • Summative Assessment External Reporting
  • Scorekeeping
  • Broad data for identifying specific populations
  • Program evaluation and budget indicators
  • Formative Assessment Internal Reporting
  • Intervention Do something differently,
    immediately (STOP Spray and Pray!)
  • Progress monitoring over time for individual
  • Data used to plan next move for instruction
    (lesson design)
  • Getting a Grade Comfort the troubled, trouble
    the comfortable
  • Public relations
  • A,B,C,D,F Coin of the realm

The Challenge
  • After third grade, the achievement gap with
    minority, second language, and low-income
    learners widens substantially
  • Incomplete beginning reading instruction
  • Serious vocabulary deficit
  • Very limited knowledge of text structure
  • Misconceptions about fluency
  • Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment

The three most important words for the struggling
  • Words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-wo
    s-words-words-words-you get it!!!!

Registers of Language R. Payne
  • Frozen Language that is always the same
  • Formal Standard sentence syntax of work and
  • Consultative Formal register when used with
    conversation. Discourse patterns slightly less
  • Casual Language between friends 400-800 word
    vocabulary. Non-specific word-choice non-verbal
    assists determine meaning. Sentence syntax often
  • Intimate Language between lovers or twins. The
    language of sexual harassment.

Vocabulary Instruction
  • Concept vocabulary
  • Big idea words attrition, populism, hypothesis
  • Context vocabulary
  • Words that have multiple meanings economy,
    mine, elements, book, state, set, case
  • Vocabulary structure
  • Words with recognizable Latin cognates
    migratory, revolt, spectator
  • Jim Cummins-Word Harvesting

What Words to Teach Bringing Words to LifeROBUST
Vocabulary Instruction Isabel Beck ,Nancy MacKowen
  • First tier words Words that you wish students
    knew, hope they can get, but you dont have time
    to teach.
  • Second tier words High utility words that they
    need to know in your class, and everyone elses.
  • Third tier words Extremely specific words in your
    content area that require considered, deliberate
    and in depth instruction.

Text Structures
Language Arts
Language Arts
  • Whose woods these are I think I know his house
    is in the village, though. He will not mind me
    stopping here to watch his woods fill up with
    snow. My little horse must think it queer to stop
    without a farmhouse near. He gives his harness
    bells a shake, to ask if there is some
    mistake.The only other sounds the sweep of easy
    wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely dark
    and deep,but I have promises to keepand miles to
    go before I sleep. And miles to go before I
  • Pronouns, demonstrative adjectives

  • The Hall-Heroult process is essentially the
    electrolytic decomposition of purified bauxite.
    In a cell made of iron, a solution of Al2O3 in
    molten cryolite, Na3AlF6, conducts the current.
  • Procedural words, ordinals, first, then, next,

Social Studies
Social Studies/History
  • Although The Confederacy represented the Southern
    states, its army attacked Gettysburg from the
    North. The Confederate Generals, having spent a
    tough winter and spring in the Shenandoah Valley,
    were desperate for supplies, particularly shoes.
    Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, a farming and shoe
    manufacturing community would hopefully provide
    the much needed supplies.
  • Subordinating conjunctions since, while,
    because, although, yet, if, as if, however, etc.

  • The architect and contractor were conferring over
    the blueprints of the new ten story parking
    garage. It needed to be ten floors and have space
    for compact cars. Each floor required twenty-two
    I beams, plus one additional beam for each
    additional floor after the first. Determine the
    number of I beams and show a possible
    structural configuration.

Math Research
  • Embed in real worldmake it engaging, generating
    more questions
  • Create a language rich classroom
  • Justifying, generalizations, highly verbal,
    highly visual students
  • Draw pictures, create mental images, foster
  • Build from charts, graphs tables- also, the
    misinterpretation of data
  • Dont leave out measurement

Lets Demystify Reading
Three Muscles
  • Early Language Experience
  • Phonemic awareness and concept development
  • Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic
  • Decoding muscle
  • Three ways of getting meaning off the page
  • (1)phonicsprimary decoding strategy
  • (2)semantics and vocabulary
  • (3) syntax and structure
  • Fluency muscle
  • Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension
  • Class libraries of high-interest content related
  • Every day, every reader reading at a level of
    success of self-selected quality literature
    (fiction or non-fiction)

News Flash!!!!!
  • 26 letters and 44 sounds
  • 17 reliable letters, (letters that always sound
    the same) q,w,,t,p,d,f,h,j,k,l,z,x,v,n,m,b,
  • 4 that are switch hitters... s,g,cr
  • 3 that are pests ...a,o,u
  • 3 that will make you CRAZY!!!!i,e,y
  • Double vowels oa, oo, ee, ea, oi, ou, au
  • Blends ch, sh, wh, st,str, pl, sl, fl, gl, cl,
    bl, kl,cr,scr,

Vocabulary and Phonics
  • stench ap-pal-ling
  • de-hu-man-ize intro-spec-tion
  • in-e-qui-ty el-e-ments
  • cru-el-ty re-a-li-ty in-hu-man-i-ty
  • in-hu-man col-lab-o-ra-tion
  • e-con-o-my hur-dle
  • shame re-con-struc-tion
  • em-path-y mine

Teaching Word Attack (phonics) in Science
  • Con-ser-va-tion bun-dle
  • Ac-cel-er-a-tion state
  • Force base
  • Mass mol-e-cule
  • Grav-i-ta-tion-al force gas-e-ous
  • Ter-min-al vel-o-city
  • Grav-i-ta-tion-al at-trac-tion
  • Mo-men-tum

  • An-thro-po-log-i-cal-ly

  • Aus-tra-lo-pith-e-cine

Definition of Comprehension
  • Comprehension is defined as
  • intentional thinking during which meaning is
    constructed through interactions between the text
    and the reader (Harris Hodges,1995)

  • Clarifying
  • Comparing and contrasting
  • Connecting to prior experiences
  • Inferencing (including generalizing and drawing
  • Predicting
  • Questioning the text
  • Recognizing the authors purpose
  • Seeing causal relationships
  • Summarizing
  • visualizing

an excerpt
  • Draped for the formal unveiling May 31 with
    only an insouciant topknot and Horton The
    Elephants trunk peeking out the sculptures
    frolic on the wide green linking the city library
    and its four museums that gave wing to the
    authors imagination.--

Testwiseness An Important Piece of a
Comprehensive Intervention Strategy
  1. On-going, sustained test readiness and rehearsal,
    i.e. testwiseness
  2. Phonics instruction for those who received
    hit-or-miss decoding during whole language
    approach analyze spelling errors
  3. Build fluency with an every day, every child
    reads at a level of success approach assess for
    oral expression, pace and accuracy
  4. Use regular non-fiction writing events to teach
    science soc. studies syntax CRCT high-level
    comprehension objectives

Teaching Comprehension Directly
  • Monitor the use of the strategy
  • Offer less coaching as less is called for
  • Ask what strategy they are using why, therefore
    bringing the strategy to the students awareness
  • Give students continued opportunity to observe
    more modeling
  • Provide multiple and ongoing opportunities for
    students to interact w/others using a variety of

How do I teach those strategies?
  • Decide which strategy you want to model and which
    text to use
  • Tell your students which strategy you are going
    to practice while you read
  • Read the passage to the students modeling the
    strategy you are using..think aloud
  • During real reading, give your students multiple
    chances to practice
  • Continue modeling as the genre or text structure
  • Give students a chance to practice without your
    coaching or support

5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth
  • Lesson Design
  • Reading Content alignment vertical and
    horizontal teamingELL, Spec.Ed.
  • Assessment driving differentiated instruction
  • Classroom Management
  • Instruction in terms of minutes
  • Collaboration
  • Whole class, small group, think-pair-share,
  • Grade Level Meetings
  • Agendas, increased frequency, evidence driven
  • Student specific with proofs of
  • The Role of the Literacy Coach

5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth
  • New expectation for ALL learners
  • Interactive learning and discourse for meaning
  • What the brain likes-MULTISENSORY
  • Reading for MATH
  • Analyzing Data
  • Moving from being data rich to analysis poor
  • SOAP
  • Subjective, Objective, Analyze-Assess, Plan
  • ELL, Spec. Ed.

Struggling Older Reader
  • Incomplete beginning reading instruction
  • Lacks metacognitive strategies
  • Limited prior knowledge
  • Limited word study skills and spelling
  • No text available at level of success
  • No adults modeling reading
  • No history of reading success

Five Keys to No Child Left Behind
  • Vertical team study of 4-9 reading curriculum
    with evidence of student work
  • Phonemic Awareness Phonics training for 4th
    through 9th grade teachers
  • Vocabulary instruction training geared more
    toward word harvest
  • Ready availability of compelling leveled text
    with conditional assessment
  • Classroom management strategies that provide
    intensity and focus for below level readers

Process for Leadership
  • Challenge the process
  • search for opportunities
  • change status quo
  • Inspiring a shared vision
  • imagine the ideal situation
  • Enabling others to act
  • foster cooperation
  • modeling the way
  • Encouraging the heart to begin the journey

The Old Syllable-the part of a word controlled by
a vowel- In English, there are 6 types
  • Syllable that is a single letter, single vowel,
    as in a-bout, i-dent-i-fy, e-lec-tric,
  • Syllable ending in vowel, as in cru-el-ty,
  • Syllable ending in a consonant, as in al-co-hol,
    con-su-mer, ath-lete
  • Syllable ending in -tion-sion, as in
  • Syllable ending in -le, as in tin-gle, pic-kle,
  • Syllable ending with a vowel, consonant, silent
    e, as in shame, dime, kite, mon-o-tone,
  • O-le
  • Que-so
  • Cam-e-ro-nes

Recent Headlines and Quotes
  • More than half of California 9th Graders Flunk
    Exit Exam, Education Week
  • It will take at least ten years to reach
    proficiency for all learnersNCLB
  • adequate yearly progress President Bush
  • Still Leaving Children Behind Krista Kafta,
    Heritage Foundation
  • Reading is the New Requisite for Math Education

Grammar IS Syntax
  • The power the lowly preposition
  • The power of the subordinating conjunction

  • State opinion
  • Support with clear evidence or examples
  • Personalize
  • Appeal to the emotions
  • Graphic imagery
  • Structured argument
  • All to action

Phoneme Isolation
  • Children recognize individual sounds in a word.
  • Teacher
  • What is the first sound in van?
  • Children
  • The first sound in van is /v/.

Phoneme Identity
  • Children recognize the same sounds in different
  • Teacher
  • What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun?
  • Children
  • The first sound, /f/, is the same.

Phoneme Categorization
  • Children recognize the word in a set of three or
    four words that has the odd sound.
  • Teacher
  • Which word doesnt belong? Bus, bun, rug.
  • Children
  • Rug does not belong. It doesnt begin with /b/.

Phoneme Blending
  • Children listen to a sequence of separately
    spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to
    form a word.
  • Teacher
  • What word is /b/ /i/ /g/?
  • Children
  • /b/ /i/ /g/ is big.
  • Teacher
  • Now lets write the sounds in big /b/ /i/ /g/.
    (Teacher writes big.) Now were going to read the
    word big.

Phoneme Segmentation
  • Children break a word into its separate sounds,
    saying each sound as they tap out or count it.
  • Teacher
  • How many sounds are in grab?
  • Children
  • /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds.
  • Teacher
  • Now lets write the sounds in grab /g/ /r/ /a/
    /b/. (Teacher writes grab.) Now were going to
    read the word grab.

Phoneme Deletion
  • Children recognize the word that remains when a
    phoneme is removed from another word.
  • Teacher
  • What is smile without the /s/?
  • Children
  • Smile without the /s/ is mile.

Phoneme Addition
  • Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to
    an existing word.
  • Teacher
  • What word do you have if you add /s/ to the
    beginning of park?
  • Children
  • Spark.

Phoneme Substitution
  • Children substitute one phoneme for another to
    make a new word.
  • Teacher
  • The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. Whats the
    new word?
  • Children
  • Bun.

What should be done?
  1. Dedicated developmental reading testing
    preparedness program 5th through 8th
  2. Continued professional development for ALL
    teachers in reading intervention 5-12
  3. Initiate on-going professional development in
    science, social studies, and math reading
  4. Integrate a testwiseness curriculum for state
    testing programs with strong emphasis on the
    content areas

Reader Response
  • Review the story
  • Select a sentence or phrase that lingers
  • Write down two reasons for selecting that
  • Share your sentence and reasons w/others
  • Come to consensus
  • Be prepared to share to group

What is being done?
  • Mandatory summer school
  • Same thing, but LOUDER
  • Expensive intervention programs with uneven
  • Teacher training institutions changing reading

Five Steps to Two Years Growth for One Year of
  • Vertical team study of k-8 reading curriculum
    with evidence of student work
  • Phonics training for 3rd through 8th grade
  • Vocabulary instruction training geared more
    toward word harvest
  • Ready availability of compelling leveled text
    with conditional assessment
  • Classroom management strategies that provide
    intensity and focus for below level readers

The Goal Show Improvement
  • Growth triggers funding
  • Data is the gatekeeper
  • No improvement no money
  • Show enough growth to secure funding
  • What will be considered growth?

What you can do in the classroom?
  • Discipline
  • Use the adult voice first, then the parent voice.
  • To avoid arguments with parents and students, use
    the adult voice.
  • Use discipline interventions as an opportunity
    for instruction.
  • Use the parent voice to stop behaviors. Use the
    parent voice to change behaviors.

Useful References
  • Adams, M.J. (2000). Beginning to Read thinking
    and learning about print. Cambridge, MA The
    MIT Press.
  • Alexander, K. Entwisle, D. (1996). Schools
    and children at risk. In A. Booth J. Dunn
    (Eds.). Family-school links How do they affect
    educational outcomes? Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum.
  • Baker, L. (1994). Contexts of emergent literacy
    Everyday home experiences of urban
    pre-kindergarten children. College Park, MD
    National Reading Research Center.
  • Baker, L., D. Scher, and K. Mackler. (1997).
    Home and family influences on motivations for
    reading. Educational Psychologist 32(2) 6982.
  • Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., Snow, C.E. (1999).
    Starting out right A guide to promoting
    childrens reading success. Washington, DC
    National Academy Press.
  • Baker, L., Allen. J., Schockley, B, Pelligrini,
    A.D., Galda, L. Stahl, S. (1996). Connecting
    school and home Constructing partnerships to
    foster reading development in L. Baker, P.
    Afflerbach D. Reinking (Eds.), Developing
    engaged readers in home and school communities,
    Mahwah, New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 21-41.

  • Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., Snow, C.E. (1999).
    Starting out right A Guide to promoting
    childrens reading success. Washington, DC
    National Academy Press.
  • Bus. A.G., M.H. van Ijzendoorn, and A.D.
    Pellegrini. (1995). Joint book reading makes
    for success in learning to read A meta-analysis
    on intergenerational transmission of literacy.
    Review of Educational Research 65(1) 1-21.
  • Center for the Improvement of Early Reading
    Achievement. (2001). Put reading first The
    research building blocks for teaching children to
    read. Jessup, MD Partnership for Reading.
  • Edwards, P.A. (1995). Empowering low income
    mothers and fathers to share books with young
    children. The reading teacher 48 4888-564.
  • Epstein, J.L., Coates, L., Salinas, K.C.,
    Sanders, M.G., Simmons, B.S. (1997). School,
    family and community partnerships Your handbook
    for action. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press.
  • Gallimore, R., Goldenberg, C. (1993).
    Activity settings of early literacy Home and
    school factors in childrens emergent literacy.
    In E. Forman, N. Minick, A. Stone (Eds.),
    Contexts for learning Sociocultural dynamics in
    childrens development (pp. 315-335). New York
    Oxford University Press.

  • Gentile, L. M., McMillan, M.M. (1992).
    Literacy for students at-risk Developing
    critical dialogues. Journal of Reading, 35,
  • Hart, Betty Risley, Todd R. (1995). Meaningful
    Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young
    American Children. Paul H Brookes Pub Co.
  • Lyon, G.R. (1998). Overview of reading and
    literacy initiatives. Testimony Provided to the
    Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United
    States Senate. Bethesda, MD National Institute
    of child Health and Human Development.
  • Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching Reading is
    Rocket Science. Wahington, DC American
    Federation of Teachers. Available online
    National Center for Education Statistics (1998).
    Characteristics of childrens early care and
    Education programs Data from, the 1995 National
    Household Education Surveys (NCES No. 98-128).
  • National Reading Panel. (1999). Teaching
    children to read An evidence-based Assessment
    of the scientific research literature on reading
    and its implications for reading instruction
    Reports of the subgroups. Washington DC
    National Institute of Child Health and Human
    Development. Available
  • ODonnell, M.P., Wood, M. (1992). Becoming a
    reader A developmental instruction. Boston
    Allyn Bacon.

  • Oldfather, P. Wigfield, A. (1996). Childrens
    motivations for literacy learning in Developing.
    In L. Baker, C. Afflorbach D. Reinking (Eds.).
    Developing engaged readers in home and school
    communities. (pp. 89-113, Mahwah, New Jersey
    Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Riley, J. (1996). The teaching of reading,
    London Paul Chapman.
  • Robbins, C., and L.C. Ehri. (1994). Reading
    storybooks to kindergarteners helps them learn
    new vocabulary words. Journal of Educational
    Psychology 86(1) 54-64.
  • Snow, Catherine E., M. Susan Burns, and Peg
    Griffin. (1998). Preventing Reading
    Difficulties in Young Children. Washington D.C.,
    National Academy Press.
  • Sonnenschein, S., Brody, G., Munsterman, K.
    (1996). The influence of family beliefs and
    practices on childrens early reading
    development, In L. Baker, P. Afflerback D.
    Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in
    home and school communities. Mahwah, New Jersey
    Lawrence Erlbaum. PP. 3-20.
  • U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Start
    early, finish strong How to help every child
    become a reader (America Reads Challenge),
    Washington, D.C. author. Available online

Take Me Out to the Ballgame
  • Take out to the ballgame
  • Take me out to the crowd
  • Buy me some peanuts and crackerjacks
  • I dont care if I ever get back
  • Let me root, root ,root for the home team
  • If they dont win its a shame
  • For its one, two, three strikes youre out
  • At the old ball game

What is fluency
  • Attaching sounds quickly to letters
  • Blending and segmenting quickly
  • Knowing most of the words you are reading
  • Paying attention

Your students the practice
  • Give your students the prac-tice,
  • To read with ease and con-fi-dence
  • And wa----tch ac-c-u-ra-cy and
  • Un-der-sta-a-a-n-ding. Soar by
  • Mo-del flu-et read-ing
  • Do re-pea-ted read-ing
  • Promote phrased read-ing
  • En-list tu-tors (to help)
  • And try readers theater in class

The Challenge
  • 37 of all 8th graders scored below Basic on the
  • After third grade, the achievement gap with
    minority, second language, and low-income
    learners widens substantially
  • The prospect of exit exams yields an increase in

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