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Before Reading_ radiohead

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Quiz Are you an optimist about the future? Or are you a pessimist? ... which serves as a rational basis for us to choose either optimism or pessimism. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Before Reading_ radiohead


1
Before Reading_ radiohead
An English Song
Radiohead is an English band made up of five
schoolmates from Oxford, England. They have often
been praised as among the most creative musical
groups of their era, noted for their
multi-layered songs and often radical evolutions
from album to album. Their first album, Pablo
Honey was released in 1993 which included the hit
song Creep. Their second release, The Bends, was
an even bigger success, and their third release,
OK Computer was nominated for a Grammy in 1998 as
Best Album of the Year. In 2001 they were again
nominated for Best Album for their release, Kid
A. Optimistic is a song from Kid A.
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
2
Before Reading_ listen to the song1






Optimistic
An English Song
If you try the best you can If you try the best
you can The best you can is good enough If you
try the best you can If you try the best you
can The best you can is good enough Id really
like to help you, man Id really like to help
you, man And now this messed up marionnette
(??) Floating around on a prison ship If you try
the best you can If you try the best you can The
best you can is good enough If you try the best
you try If you try the best you can Dinosaurs
ruling the earth Dinosaurs ruling the
earth Dinosaurs ruling the earth
Flies are buzzing round my head Vultures (??)
circling the dead Picking up every last crumb
(??) The big fish eat the little ones The big
fish eat the little ones Not my problem, give me
some If you try the best you can If you try the
best you can The best you can is good enough If
you try the best you can If you try the best you
can The best you can is good enough This ones
optimistic This one went to market This one just
came out of the swamp (??) This one dropped a
payload Fodder (??) for the animals Living on
animal farm
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
3
Before Reading_ questions about the song



An English Song
1. How many animals are mentioned in the song?
What are they?
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Five. They are flies, vultures, fish, pigs and
dinosaurs. Pigs are not mentioned directly.
However, the song Optimistic directly refers to a
book named Animal Farm about pigs.
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
2. As we know, dinosaur is an extinct species on
earth. Why is the song ended with Dinosaurs
ruling the earth? What does it imply?
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
In very ancient times, dinosaurs ruled and
dominated the earth. It implies that all species
are destined for extinction. Were the
dinosaurs currently dominating the planet,
but not forever.
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
4
Before Reading_ questions about the song2



An English Song
3. The song can be interpreted in many ways. Can
you interpret the song from the perspective of
optimism?
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
As is sung in the song, You can try the best you
can. If you try the best, you can. The best you
can is good enough., we should try to be
optimistic and make the best of whats left even
if we are trapped by unpleasant situations.
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
5
Before Reading_ william arthua ward



An English Song
William Arthur Ward (1921 1994), author of
Fountains of Faith, is one of Americas most
quoted writers of inspirational maxims.
The only thing that stands between a man and
what he wants from life is often merely the will
to try it and the faith to believe that it is
possible. It is impossible to win the
race unless you venture to run, impossible to win
the victory unless you dare to battle.
William Arthur Ward
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
6
Before Reading_ learn the poem by heart
Optimist Vs. Pessimist William Arthur Ward
An English Song
Radiohead
The pessimist finds fault. The optimist discovers
a remedy. The pessimist seeks sympathy. The
optimist spreads cheer. The pessimist criticizes
circumstances. The optimist changes
conditions. The pessimist complains about the
apple seeds. The optimist plants them. The
pessimist imagines impending peril. The optimist
sees signs of prosperity. The pessimist
disparages. The optimist encourages.
The pessimist creates loneliness. The optimist
finds friends. The pessimist nibbles at the
negative. The optimist is nourished by the
positive. The pessimist builds barriers. The
optimist removes roadblocks. The pessimist
invents trouble. The optimist enriches the
environment.
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
7
Before Reading_ word web
Directions Figure out the expressions related to
optimistic attitude.
An English Song
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
unlimited confidence
An English Poem
ample happiness
great persistence
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
problem-solving ability
sufficient joy
optimistic attitude
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
positive, constructive thinking
positive attitude
positive affirmation
Discussion
8
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.
An English Song
1. Richard DeVos
Radiohead
Richard DeVos, born on March 4, 1926 in Michigan
of the United States, is a billionaire co-founder
of Amway, restructured as Alticor in 2000. Rich
DeVos is the owner of basketballs Orlando Magic
as well as a very famous speaker and writer. He
is a heart transplant recipient.
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
9
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.2



An English Song
2. Amway Corporation
Radiohead
Name
Amway
Listen to the Song
Type
Private
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
Full Name
American Way
William Arthur Ward
Year of Founding
1959
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Key People
Jay Van Andel and Rich DeVos
Headquarters
Ada, Michigan, USA
Word Web
Industry
Multi-level marketing
Background Information
Products
Personal care products, jewelry, dietary
supplements, water treatment and cosmetics as
well as other products from top brands
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
10
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.3



An English Song
Radiohead
Products of Amway (China)
Personal care, home care, and nutrition and
wellness categories
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
Ways of Sale
Direct sale from business owners to consumers or
sale online
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
11
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.4



An English Song
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
12
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.5
An English Song
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
13
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.6
An English Song
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
14
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.7



An English Song
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
15
Before Reading_ richard devos and amwahy.8



An English Song
Amway is a multi-level marketing company founded
in 1959 by Jay Van Andel and Rich DeVos. The
companys name is the abbreviation of American
Way. Based in Ada, Michigan, Amways business is
built on direct sales from business owners to
consumers. In many markets, Amway also has web
stores where consumers can find information about
the available products and place an order online.
Its product lines include personal care products,
jewelry, dietary supplements, water treatment and
cosmetics as well as other products from top
brands. Amway (China) was founded in 1992 one
year after Rich DeVos visit to China. The
company has 7,000 outlets in 2,000 cities
throughout China offering more than 160 products
in Amways personal care, home care, and
nutrition and wellness categories. Amway (China)
products are made in China at the parent
companys largest factory outside the US.
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
16
Before Reading_ discussion
An English Song
1. How are you feeling today? How do you feel
about your present life? 2. How do you react to
difficulties in life? Can you give an example? 3.
Do you think optimism is the key to a happy and
better life?
Radiohead
Listen to the Song
Questions about the Song
An English Poem
William Arthur Ward
Learn the Following Poem by Heart
Word Web
Background Information
Richard DeVos and Amway Corporation
Discussion
17
Global Reading_ part division of the text
Parts
Paragraphs
Main Ideas
Part Division of the Text
It is necessary to choose optimism to shape our
outlook and expectations.
Questions and Answers
1
13
Table Completion
True or False
The author illustrates the effects of negativism
through his own experiences.
2
47
The author suggests that we direct our attention
to positive and constructive thinking rather than
to negativism.
3
810
18
Global Reading_ questions and answers
1. What does a pessimistic attitude usually lead
to in real life?
A pessimistic attitude usually leads to failure
in real life.
Part Division of the Text
2. What is the relationship between optimism and
success?
According to Rich DeVos, there seems to be a
natural cause-and-effect relationship between
optimism and success.
Questions and Answers
Table Completion
3. Why should each of us choose between optimism
and pessimism to shape our outlook and our
expectations?
True or False
Because there is enough good and bad in
everyones life, which serves as a rational basis
for us to choose either optimism or pessimism.
4. What is the authors choice? Why does he make
such a choice?
Rich DeVos chooses to highlight the positive and
slip right over the negative, because he is an
optimist by choice as much as by nature. And he
finds that the good in life is far greater and
more important than the bad.
19
Global Reading_ table completion1
Summary
The author felt uneasy when the attendant told
him he didnt look well.
Setting 1
In a service station
Part Division of the Text
Questions and Answers
Along the side of the road
He looked at his face in the mirror, puzzled.
Setting 2
Table Completion
He began to feel a little sick and doubted
whether he had picked up some rare disease.
True or False
Setting 3
Back home
In the service station again
He figured out it was the light reflecting off
the walls that made everyone inside the service
station look as though he had hepatitis.
Setting 4
A negative attitude may have a profound effect on
the way we feel and act.
Conclusion
20
Global Reading_ True or False
1. We can be optimists if we think less or even
ignore the difficulties.
F
( )
Part Division of the Text
We can be optimists and still recognize that
problems exist and that some of them are not
dealt with easily.
Questions and Answers
Table Completion
2. Money spent on Americas space program is more
valuable than that on the poverty problem on
earth.
F
( )
True or False
Instead of criticizing money spent on the space
program, we should think about what we can do to
solve the poverty problem with an optimistic
attitude.
21
Global Reading_ True or False
3. If we take an optimistic attitude towards
life, we will look on the positive side of the
situation and gradually cultivate a positive and
constructive way of thinking.
Part Division of the Text
T
( )
Questions and Answers
Table Completion
4. To deal with such issues as big and ongoing as
poverty, only a dreamer is needed.
True or False
F
( )
To deal with such important problems, a dreamer,
who is extremely optimistic, very persistent and
full of confidence, is needed.
22
Detailed Reading_t0
Some psychologists believe that ones state of
mind has great influence over ones social and
intellectual performance, and the quality of life
depends much on ones attitude towards life. If
this is the case, then can we consciously make
our emotions work for us in a constructive way?
The following passage provides a positive answer
by simply choosing optimism, we can lead a better
life.
Detailed Reading
23
Detailed Reading_t1
Choose Optimism Rich DeVos
Detailed Reading
If you expect something to turn out bad, it
probably will. Pessimism is seldom disappointed.
But the same principle also works in reverse. If
you expect good things to happen, they usually
do! There seems to be a natural
cause-and-effect relationship between optimism
and success. Optimism and pessimism are with
powerful forces, and each of us must choose which
we want, so as to shape our outlook and our
expectations. There is enough good and bad
in everyones life ample sorrow and happiness,
sufficient joy and pain to find a rational
basis for either optimism or pessimism. We can
choose to laugh or cry, bless or curse. Its our
decision From which perspective do we want to
view life? Will we look up in hope or down in
despair?
24
Detailed Reading_t2
I believe in the upward look. I choose to
highlight the positive and slip right over the
negative. I am an optimist by choice as much as
by nature. Sure, I know that sorrow exists. I am
in my 70s now, and Ive lived through more than
one crisis. But when all is said and
Detailed Reading
done, I find that the good in life is far greater
and more important than the bad.
An optimistic attitude is not a luxury its a
necessity. The way you look at life will
determine how you feel, how you perform, and how
well you will get along with other people.
Conversely, negative thoughts, attitudes, and
expectations feed on themselves they become a
self-fulfilling prophecy. Pessimism creates a sad
and hopeless place where no one wants to live in.
25
Detailed Reading_t3
Years ago, I drove into a service station to get
some gas. It was a beautiful day, and I was
feeling great. As I walked into the station to
pay for the gas, the attendant said to me, How
do you feel? That seemed like an odd
question,
Detailed Reading
but I felt fine and told him so. You dont look
well, he replied. This took me completely by
surprise. A little less confidently, I told him
that I had never felt better. Without hesitation,
he continued to tell me how bad I looked and that
my skin appeared yellow.
By the time I left the service station, I was
feeling a little uneasy. About a block away, I
pulled over to the side of the road to look at my
face in the mirror. How did I feel? Did I look
that bad? Was everything all right? By the time I
got home, I was beginning to feel a little sick.
Did I have a bad liver? Had I picked up some rare
disease?
26
Detailed Reading_t4
The next time I went into that gas station,
feeling fine again, I figured out what had
happened. The place had recently been painted a
bright but disgusting yellow, and the light
reflecting off the walls made everyone inside
look as though they had
Detailed Reading
hepatitis! I wondered how many other folks had
reacted the way I did. I had let one short
conversation with a total stranger change my
attitude for an entire day. He told me I looked
sick, and before long, I was actually feeling
sick. That single negative observation had a
profound effect on the way I felt and acted.
The only thing more powerful than negativism is a
positive affirmation, a word of optimism and
hope. One of the things I am most thankful for is
the fact that I have grown up in a nation with a
grand tradition of optimism. When a whole culture
adopts an upward look, incredible things can be
accomplished. When the world is seen as a
hopeful, positive place, people are given the
power to attempt and to achieve.
27
Detailed Reading_t5
Optimism doesnt need to be naive. You can be
an optimist and still recognize that problems
exist and that some of them are not dealt with
easily. But what a difference optimism makes in
the attitude of the problem solver! For example,
through the years Ive heard some people say that
the money spent on our space program has been
wasted. Instead of spending 455 million to put
a man on the moon, they say, why not spend that
money here on earth on the poverty problem? But
when you ask them exactly how they would spend
that money to solve the poverty problem, most of
them dont have an answer. Give me a solution,
I tell them, and Ill raise you the money.
Think in positive terms about how to address the
issue rather than criticizing money spent on
another program, such as Americas space program,
which has resulted in many positive discoveries
that have benefited mankind.
Detailed Reading
28
Detailed Reading_t6
Optimism draws our attention away from
negativism and channels it into positive,
constructive thinking. When youre an optimist,
youre more concerned with problem-solving than
with useless fault-finding. In fact, without
optimism, issues as big and ongoing as poverty
have no hope of solution. It takes a dreamer
someone with hopelessly optimistic ideas, great
persistence, and unlimited confidence to tackle
a problem that big. Its your choice.
Detailed Reading
29
Detailed Reading_t1_there seems
There seems to be a natural cause-and-effect
relationship between optimism and success.
Detailed Reading
Can you analyze the cause-and-effect relationship
between optimism and success?
If you expect good things to happen, they usually
do.
30
Detailed Reading_t1_optimism
Optimism and pessimism are with powerful forces,
and each of us must choose which we want, so as
to shape our outlook and our expectations.
Detailed Reading
Why should each of us choose between optimism and
pessimism to shape our outlook and our
expectations?
Because there is enough good and bad in
everyones life, which serves as a rational basis
for us to choose either optimism or pessimism.
31
Detailed Reading_t1_there is
There is enough good and bad in everyones life
ample sorrow and happiness, sufficient joy and
pain to find a rational basis for either
optimism or pessimism.
Detailed Reading
Translate this sentence into Chinese.
??????????????????????????????????????????????
???
32
Detailed Reading_t2_I choose
I choose to highlight the positive and slip right
over the negative.
Detailed Reading
What can we infer from this sentence?
The author chooses to be an optimist rather than
a pessimist.
33
Detailed Reading_t2_But
But when all is said and done, I find that the
good in life is far greater and more important
than the bad.
Detailed Reading
1. What is the implied meaning of this sentence?
Having experienced so many difficulties and
crises, the author believes that the good in life
is far greater and more important than the bad.
2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
??,???????,???????????????
34
Detailed Reading_t2_conversely
Conversely, negative thoughts, attitudes, and
expectations feed on themselves they become a
self-fulfilling prophecy.
Detailed Reading
1. Why does the author say negative thoughts,
attitudes, and expectations become a
self-fulfilling prophecy?
There seems to be a natural cause-and-effect
relationship between pessimism and failure. If
you expect something to turn out bad, it probably
will.
2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
???,?????????????????????????????
35
Detailed Reading_t3_that seemed
That seemed like an odd question, but I felt fine
and told him so.
Detailed Reading
What is the implied meaning of this sentence?
The author was feeling great on that beautiful
day. Although he was a bit surprised to hear the
attendants question, he still told him the fact.
36
Detailed Reading_t5_optimism
Optimism doesnt need to be naive.
Detailed Reading
What does this sentence imply?
To be optimistic doesnt mean to be simple-minded
or happy blindly.
37
Detailed Reading_t6_optimism
Optimism draws our attention away from negativism
and channels it into positive, constructive
thinking.
Detailed Reading
1. Paraphrase this sentence.
If we take an optimistic attitude towards life,
we will look on the positive side of the
situation and gradually cultivate a positive and
constructive way of thinking.
2. Translate this sentence into Chinese.
????????????????????????????????
38
Detailed Reading_ in reverse
in reverse in the opposite way to normal or
to the previous situation
Detailed Reading
US video recorders cannot play European tapes,
and the same applies in reverse.
39
Detailed Reading_ shape
shape v.
Detailed Reading
1. influence sth. such as a belief, opinion, etc.
and make it develop in a particular way
Peoples political beliefs are shaped by what
they see in the papers.
It is true that a peoples character is, to a
great extent, shaped by the environment they live
in.
2. make sth. have a particular shape, especially
by pressing it
The bird shaped its nest from mud and sticks.
Children shaped the sand into a mound on the
beach.
We watched in amazement as she shaped the clay
into a pot.
40
Detailed Reading_ ample
ample adj.
Detailed Reading
1. more than enough
There is an ample supply of consumer goods.
The director of the company receives an ample
salary.
2. (literary) large in a way that is attractive
or pleasant
??????
Hes got an ample bosom.
41
Detailed Reading_ bless
bless v. ask God to protect sb. or sth. have
a special ability, good quality, etc.
Detailed Reading
They brought the children to Jesus and he blessed
them.
We were both blessed with good health.
In some countries, the priest blesses the fields
before seed is sown.
???????
May God bless you.
Pattern
be blessed with sth.
N.B. ?????????,???????????blessing?blessed?
42
Detailed Reading_ curse
curse
Detailed Reading
1. v. 1) say or think bad things about sb. or
sth. because they have made you angry 2) swear
She cursed him for ruining her life.
Gilbert was cursing under his breath.
2. n. 1) a swear word or words that you say
because you are very angry 2) sth. that causes
trouble, harm, etc.
He muttered a curse under his breath.
Mice are a curse in the country.
Gambling is often a curse.
??????????
His wealth proved a curse to him.
43
Detailed Reading_ perspective
perspective n.
Detailed Reading
1. a way of thinking about sth., especially one
which is influenced by the type of person you are
or by your experiences
You have the wrong perspective on that situation.
He views everything from a political perspective.
The death of his father eight months ago has
given him a new perspective on life.
2. a sensible way of judging and comparing
situations so that you do not imagine that sth.
is more serious than it really is
She was under such stress that she lost all sense
of perspective.
We must keep a sense of perspective about what
hes done.
44
Detailed Reading_ view
view v.
Detailed Reading
1. think about sth. or sb. in a particular way
I view his action as a breach of trust.
2. look at sth., especially because it is
beautiful or you are interested in it
The mountain is best viewed from the north side.
Collocations
view sth. as sth. view sth. from sth.
45
Detailed Reading_ highlight
highlight
Detailed Reading
1. v. make a problem or subject easy to notice
so that people pay attention to it
The report highlights the problems of the
unemployed.
I would like to highlight three challenges in the
process of the development of cultural traditions.
2. n. the most important, interesting, or
enjoyable part of sth. such as a holiday,
performance, or sports competition
David Beckham viewed that season as the highlight
of his career.
?????????????????
Her performance was the highlight of the show.
46
Detailed Reading_ live through
live through experience difficult or dangerous
conditions
Detailed Reading
He has lived through two wars and three
revolutions.
The general has lived through more than five
times of murdering.
47
Detailed Reading_ conversely
conversely adv. used when one situation is the
opposite of another
Detailed Reading
You can add the fluid to the powder or,
conversely, the powder to the fluid.
American consumers prefer white eggs conversely,
British buyers like brown eggs.
48
Detailed Reading_ feed on
feed on / upon if a feeling or process feeds on
sth., it becomes stronger because of it if an
animal feeds on a particular food, it usually
eats that food
Detailed Reading
Birds feed on seeds and berries.
Cattle feed chiefly on grass.
Hatred feeds on envy.
?????
????????????????? ????,????????????????
?,??? ????????????????
??????????????????????,???
?????????????????????????
??????????????????????????
????????????????? ?????????
49
Detailed Reading_ feed on 2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the four
words above. Change the form where necessary.
Detailed Reading
_______
1. Milk, eggs, and meat the
bodies of growing boys and girls. 2. It is
mothers duty to her
children. 3. Most large towns are
with electricity. 4. The farmers wife
cattle and sheep every morning. 5. We
want to the new project, not to
destroy it.
nourish
_________
nurture
supplied
_________
______
feeds
_______
nurture
50
Detailed Reading_ odd
odd adj. different from what is normal or
expected, especially in a way that you disapprove
of or cannot understand
Detailed Reading
She gets odder as she grows older.
We always meet in odd circumstances.
???????????,???,??????????
?????,????,?????????????? ??
????????????????????,?????? ????????
???????????????????????
?????????????????????
The doctor thought her strange behavior was
caused by stress.
He is rather an odd man.
This food has got a peculiar taste.
It is a curious fact that he never works but has
plenty of money.
51
Detailed Reading_ pull over
pull over drive to the side of the road and stop
your car, or make sb. else do this
Detailed Reading
Pull (your car) over and let me pass!
52
Detailed Reading_ pick up
pick up get an illness
Detailed Reading
I picked up a virus while I was in America.
Directions Match the definitions with the
sentences.
1. let sb. get into your car 2. learn sth. 3.
catch (an illness) 4. recover regain 5. get
sth. 6. improve become better
5
( )
1. We can pick up the tickets an hour before the
play begins. 2. Unfortunately, many children
picked up the flu. 3. The economy is starting to
pick up now.
3
( )
6
( )
4. She picked up quite a lot of French when she
lived in France. 5. Youll soon pick up health
when you get to the seaside. 6. He picked up the
child.
2
( )
4
( )
1
( )
53
Detailed Reading_ figure out
figure out think about a problem or situation
until you find the answer or understand what has
happened
Detailed Reading
Have you figured out whats wrong with your car?
????????????
I was trying to figure out what was happening.
54
Detailed Reading_ reflect
reflect v.
1. if a surface reflects light, heat, or sound,
it sends back the light, etc. that reaches it if
a person or a thing is reflected in a mirror,
glass, or water, you can see an image of the
person or thing on the surface of the mirror,
glass, or water
Detailed Reading
Look at the trees reflected in the lake.
The sight of my face reflected in the mirror
never pleases me.
Although planets give off no light of their own,
they reflect the light from the sun and look like
stars at night.
2. show or be a sign of a particular situation or
feeling
Her sad looks reflected the thoughts passing
through her mind.
The increase in crime reflects rising
unemployment.
55
Detailed Reading_ reflect2
Modern society asks for modern facilities. Modern
facilities reflect the modern flavour.
Detailed Reading
3. think carefully about sth., or to say sth.
that you have been thinking about
I need time to reflect on your offer.
He reflected how difficult it would be to escape.
???????????????????
You should reflect on the likely result before
you decide to do something.
56
Detailed Reading_ profound
profound adj.
Detailed Reading
1. showing strong, serious feelings
He has a profound sense of guilt.
He opened the door with a profound sigh.
2. showing great knowledge and understanding
We all consider him to be a profound statesman.
?????????????,???????????????
The Chinese civilization, extensive and profound,
and with a long history behind it, has
contributed tremendously to the progress of human
civilization.
57
Detailed Reading_ profound2
Detailed Reading
??????????????? ????,?????,????????
????????
????,????,???????,?????,
????????????????
There is a deep wound in the old tree.
It is hard for you to grasp such a profound
theory.
58
Detailed Reading_ affirmation
affirmation n.
Detailed Reading
stating publicly that sth. is true
The movie Titanic is an affirmation of the power
of love.
59
Detailed Reading_ accomplish
accomplish v. succeed in doing sth., especially
after trying very hard
Detailed Reading
We tried to settle the argument but accomplished
nothing.
We have accomplished all we set out to do.
???????????? ????????????????????
????? ???,??????????????
????????????????,????????
?????????????? ????????,???????????
????? ?????????,????????????????
?????????????,???????
??? ??,???????????????????
60
Detailed Reading_ accomplish2
Directions Fill in the blanks with the four
words above. Change the form where necessary.
Detailed Reading
1. Brown was a brilliant musician but he had
never his early promise. 2. They
the difficult task
assigned to them. 3. The construction work of
the new steel plant has already been 4. It is
more difficult for a woman to
success in modern society. 5. Ill
my obligation to the best of my ability.
_______
fulfilled
accomplished
____________
__________.
completed
_______
achieve
_______
fulfill
61
Detailed Reading_ address
address v.
Detailed Reading
1. make a formal speech to a large group of people
The governor was invited to address the
conference.
2. if you address an envelope, package, etc., you
write on it the name and address of the person
you are sending it to
The letter is addressed to the occupier of the
house.
He gave in to curiosity and opened the letter
addressed to his wife.
3. (formal) if you address a problem, you start
trying to solve it
We must address ourselves to the problem of drugs
among young people.
It is time we addressed ourselves to the main
item on the agenda.
62
Detailed Reading_ criticize
criticize v. express your disapproval of sb. or
sth., or to talk about their faults
Detailed Reading
He was criticized by the committee for failing to
report the accident.
Ron does nothing but criticize and complain all
the time.
Pattern criticize sb. / sth. (for doing
sth.)
N.B. ?????????,???????????criticism?critical?
63
Detailed Reading_ channel
channel v.
Detailed Reading
1. send water through a passage
The river had channeled its way through the soft
rock.
2. control or direct people or things to a
particular place, work, situation, etc.
We must channel all our energies into the new
scheme.
Drugs from government pharmacies were being
channeled into illegal drug markets.
64
Detailed Reading_ tackle
tackle v.
Detailed Reading
1. try to deal with a difficult problem
We should be together to tackle all the
challenges.
Police have launched an initiative to tackle
rising crime.
2. talk to sb. in order to deal with a difficult
problem
Youll have to tackle her parents about her bad
behaviour.
When are you going to tackle your brother about
that money he owes me?
3. start fighting sb., especially a criminal
He tackles fearlessly.
My husband tackled the burglar and made him drop
everything.
65
After Reading_ useful expressions
1. ????
in reverse
Useful Expressions
2. ????
cause-and-effect relationship
Table Completion
3. ??????????
shape ones outlook and expectations
Spot Dictation
4. ????
look up in hope
Optional Classroom Activities
5. ????
look down in despair
6. ?????????
the upward look
Group Discussion
7. ????
slip over
Writing Practice
8. ??????
by choice
Picture Talking
9. ???
by nature
Proverbs and Quotations
10. ??????
live through
11. ????
when all is said and done
12. ??????????
a self-fulfilling prophecy
66
After Reading_ useful expressions2
13. ?????????
feed on / upon
Useful Expressions
14. ???
a service station
Table Completion
an odd question
15. ??????
Spot Dictation
16. ????????
feel a little uneasy
Optional Classroom Activities
17. ?(?)???
pull over
18. ????
pick up some rare disease
Group Discussion
19. ????
figure out
Writing Practice
20. ???????
have a profound effect on
Picture Talking
21. ?????
positive affirmation
Proverbs and Quotations
22. ???????
make a difference
23. ??
result in
24. ???????
great persistence
67
After Reading_ table completion
Directions Find out the antonyms of the
following words in the text.
Useful Expressions
optimism
pessimism
Table Completion
cause
effect
Spot Dictation
bless
curse
Optional Classroom Activities
hope
despair
usual
odd
Group Discussion
sorrow
happiness
Writing Practice
joy
pain
Picture Talking
credible
incredible
Proverbs and Quotations
blessing
curse
irrational
rational
negative
positive
necessity
luxury
68
After Reading_ spot dictation
Directions Listen to the passage and fill in the
blanks with what you have heard.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Optimism includes the assumption that I can do
something to change the for
the better. Defeatism or
_________
pessimism
Spot Dictation
situation
___________
includes the assumption that probably nothing I
do will make any difference. Of course, when
youre , you are more willing to
take action to change things for the better,
which increases the
that things will really change for
the better. Thats how optimism becomes
self-fulfilling. Pessimism can also become a
self-fulfilling you cannot
improve, you will no longer even try, which
increases the likelihood that it will stay the
way it is or get Promise yourself
to be so strong that nothing can
the peace of your mind. Look at the
Optional Classroom Activities
________
optimistic
________
likelihood
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
prophecy
________.
If there is something that you have decided
Picture Talking
_______.
worse
______
Proverbs and Quotations
disturb
sunny
________
side of everything and make your
optimism come true.
69
After Reading_ optional classroom activities1
Quiz
Useful Expressions
Are you an optimist about the future?
Table Completion
Spot Dictation
Or are you a pessimist?
Optional Classroom Activities
This quiz will help you find out.
Group Discussion
Directions Answer the following ten questions.
You will get some points for each answer. Then
figure out the total mark of the ten.
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Your Answer
Points
Proverbs and Quotations
Yes, definitely.
5 points each
Yes, probably.
4 points each
Maybe.
3 points each
No.
2 points each
No, definitely not.
1 point each
70
After Reading_ optional classroom activities2
Do you think that
Useful Expressions
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
people all over the world will be living in peace
in twenty years? people will be enjoying longer,
healthier lives in fifty years? hunger in the
world will be eliminated in your
lifetime? scientists will find a cure for cancer
or AIDS in your lifetime? global warming will be
stopped in your lifetime? the world will be a
better place for everyone by the next
century? you will live your entire life more
comfortably than your parents or
grandparents? the information age will result
in higher education for everyone? that a new
source of energy will be available when fossil
fuels run out? human rights around the world will
improve significantly in the next twenty years?
Table Completion
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
Scoring
71
After Reading_ optional classroom activities3
Scoring
Result
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
010
Pessimistic Youre down in the dumps. Cheer
up!
Spot Dictation
1120
Occasionally pessimistic Every cloud has a
silver lining.
Optional Classroom Activities
2130
Middle of the road You win some. You lose
some.
Group Discussion
3140
Occasionally optimistic Every dog has his day.
Writing Practice
4150
Optimistic Youre on top of the world.
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
72
After Reading_ group discussion
Directions Look at the following pictures and
discuss the following questions
with your classmates.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
1. What do you see in
picture 1?
Spot Dictation
2. Why do different people have different views
in Which one do you think is right?
picture 2?
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
73
After Reading_ writing practice
Directions Write a composition of about 120
words entitled Be an Optimist. You can support
your arguments with words and expressions from
the text.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Be an Optimist
Spot Dictation
1. 2. 3.
???????????????????? ???????????????? ????????????
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
74
After Reading_ writing practice2
Do you see the glass as half full rather than
half empty? The two different answers to the
question represent two different attitudes
towards life optimistic attitude and
pessimistic attitude. Optimism always leads to
happiness, health and success while pessimism, by
contrast, results in hopelessness, sickness and
failure. Thats because optimists and pessimists
deal with the same challenges and disappointments
in very different ways. When things go wrong, the
pessimist tends to blame himself, while the
optimist looks for loopholes. The optimist feels
in control of his own life. If things are going
wrong, he acts quickly, looking for solutions,
forming a new plan of action, and seeking for
advice. On the contrary, the pessimist yields to
the arrangement of fate and moves slowly. He
doesnt seek advice since he assumes that nothing
can be done. Most people are a mix of optimism
and pessimism. Optimism is important in all
aspects of our lives. If you can change your mind
from pessimism to optimism, you may even change
your life.
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
75
After Reading_ picture talking1
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
76
After Reading_ picture talking2
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
77
After Reading_ picture talking2
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
78
After Reading_ picture talking2
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
Group Discussion
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
Proverbs and Quotations
79
After Reading_ proverbs and quotations1
1. Content is happiness.
Useful Expressions
?????
Table Completion
2. An optimist sees an opportunity in every
calamity a pessimist sees a calamity in every
opportunity.
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
?????????????????????????
3. Care brings grey hair.
Group Discussion
??????
Writing Practice
4. An optimist sees the rose a pessimist the
thorn.
Picture Talking
????????,????????????
Proverbs and Quotations
5. Rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation.
Kennedy,
American President
????????,?????????
???? ???
80
After Reading_ proverbs and quotations2
6. Most folks are about as happy as they make up
their minds to be.
Lincoln, American President
Useful Expressions
Table Completion
????????,??????????,??????


???? ??
Spot Dictation
Optional Classroom Activities
7. Optimists always picture themselves
accomplishing their goals.
Seneca, Ancient Roman
philosopher
Group Discussion
????????????????????

?????? ???
Writing Practice
Picture Talking
8. Tough-minded optimists approach problems with
a can-do philosophy and emerge stronger from
tragedies.
Seneca, Ancient Roman philosopher
Proverbs and Quotations
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?????? ???
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