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Title: 7th grade review


1
7th grade review
  • 7.1.1 Study the early strengths and lasting
    contributions of Rome (e.g., significance of
    Roman citizenship rights under Roman law, Roman
    art, architecture, engineering, and philosophy
    preservation and transmission of Christianity)
    and its ultimate weakness (e.g., rise of
    autonomous military powers within the empire,
    undermining of citizenship by the growth of
    corruptions and slavery, lack of education, and
    distribution of news.)

2
7th grade review
  • Roman citizenship 212 A.D. An effort was made
    to increase loyalty to Rome so they granted
    citizenship to all free people. Before
    Citizens lived only in Rome.
  • Roman Law based on the Twelve Tables - we
    borrowed many of these beliefs in our government.
  • 1. good government was based on the rule of law.
  • 2. Citizens had equal rights under the law.

3
7th grade review
  • Roman Art statues of emperors and Gods.
    Paintings and mosaics decorated roman Homes.
  • Architecture Built by the government public
    baths, temples, bridges, forums, and
    marketplaces.
  • Engineering They invented concrete, stronger
    than stone. They designed arches, domes, and
    roads 50,000 miles of roads were built
    (soldiers). Aqueducts were built to provide
    fresh waters for the citizens of Rome.

4
7th grade review
  • Preservation and transmission of Christianity
  • Early on Christians were persecuted. The
    Romans even had Jesus executed.
  • 300s Emperor Constantine allowed Christians to
    worship freely. With this protection the
    Christian church grew rapidly.

5
7th grade review
  • Internal Weaknesses
  • Weaker Army Began to recruit foreign soldiers
    in the army. They were not as loyal to Rome.
    They did not follow orders and it became a less
    effective fighting force.
  • Corruption Defending the country was expensive
    charge taxes. Corrupt tax collectors kept
    money for themselves and charged more than they
    should.
  • Slavery Most jobs were done by slaves made
    the empire very lazy.

6
7th grade review
  • Great Schism Breakup between the Roman Catholic
    Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church (Byzantine
    Empire).
  • Catholics believed in the Pope, he was the head
    of the Church. Pope had ultimate power. The
    main language was Latin.
  • Eastern Orthodox believed the emperor was the
    head of the empire. The highest Church official
    is the Patriarch. The Emperor had the power to
    remove a Patriarch from power. The main language
    was Greek.

7
7th Grade review
  • 7.2.2 trace the origins of Islam and the life
    and teachings of Muhammad, including Islamic
    teachings on the connection with Judaism and
    Christianity.
  • Rise of Islam Muhammad 610 A.D. He had a
    vision of the angel Gabriel who told him to
    spread gods word.
  • Connections Allah was the same God who spoke to
    Abraham, Jesus, and other prophets of Judaism and
    Christianity. Muhammad claimed to be the final
    prophet of God.

8
7th grade review
  • 7.2.3 Explain the significance of the Quran
    and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic
    beliefs, practice, and law, and their influence
    in Muslims daily life.
  • Quran For Muslims, this is the word of God.
    The verses discuss the nature of God, creation,
    and the human soul. It also addresses moral,
    legal, and family issues. It must be read in its
    original language because the Quran is the word
    of God.

9
7th grade review
  • The Sunnah This is referred to as the words and
    actions of Muhammad himself. It provides
    guidelines to a proper life.
  • Hadith (the written records of the Sunnah) a
    collection of writings that recorded the thoughts
    and actions of Muhammad.

10
7th grade review
  • Core beliefs
  • There is only one God in Islam. There is no
    human figure that represents God. Muhammad was a
    prophet, but he had no divine power.
  • The Five Pillars of Islam
  • 1. Declaration of faith There is no God
    (Allah) but God (Allah) Muhammad is the
    messenger of God,

11
  • 2. Prayer Pray five times a day. You must
    pray towards Mecca.
  • 3. Almsgiving (Zakat) Muslims believe that
    everything belongs to God and that we must set
    aside a part of our possessions for those in
    need. Each Muslim gives as much as he or she
    can, preferably in secret.
  • 4. Fasting Every year in the month of Ramadan
    , all Muslims fast from dawn until sundown.

12
  • 5. Pilgrimage (Hajj) All Muslims who are able
    are required to make a pilgrimage to the holy
    city of Mecca at least once in their lifetime.

13
7th grade review
  • 7.3.1 Describe the reunification of China under
    the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the spread of
    Buddhism in Tang China, Korea, and Japan.
  • Emperor Taizong reunited China after the fall of
    the Han dynasty. He also brought stable
    government back to China. He helped to revive
    the bureaucracy a government with many
    departments and bureaus, all headed and appointed
    officials.

14
7th grade review
  • Buddhism is a religion based on the teachings
    of the Indian spiritual leader Siddhartha Guatama
    (Also known as Buddha or the - enlightened one).
  • Guatama taught that life involves suffering. The
    way to ease suffering is to give up worldly
    desires and seek perfect wisdom known as
    enlightenment. Those who achieved enlightenment
    entered Nirvana a state of complete peace.
    Those who enter Nirvana also escape an endless
    cycle of suffering, death , and rebirth.

15
7th grade review
  • 7.3.5 trace the historic influence of such
    discoveries as tea, the manufacture of paper,
    wood-block printing, the compass, and gunpowder.
  • Tea sent to the west (Europe) via the Silk
    Road.
  • Paper invented 2,000 years ago.

16
  • Wood-block printing These were blocks that were
    carves on. When ink was placed on the block you
    could print a picture or writing onto paper.
  • Compass invented the first compass used for
    navigation.

17
7th grade review
  • Gunpowder first used in fireworks. However, by
    the Song dynasty they began to make bombs,
    rockets, and other weapons.

18
7th grade review
  • 7.4.1 Study the Niger river and the
    relationship of vegetative zones of forest,
    savannah, and desert to trade in gold, salt,
    food, and slaves and the growth of the Ghana and
    Mali empires.
  • African landscape
  • Vast desert The Sahara dessert covers most of
    Northern Africa.
  • The Sahel a fertile region with limited and
    unpredictable rainfall along the southern edge of
    the Sahara.
  • Savannah (part of the Sahel) south of the Sahara
    is a dry grassland with scattered trees,
    something like American prairies.

19
7th grade review
  • Gold and Salt Trade The Empires of Ghana, Mali,
    and Songhai all got rich off this trade. They
    would exchange an equal amount of salt for gold.
    Salt came from mines in the desert and the gold
    came form West Africa. They would charge a tax
    in between this trade route which made the
    empires prosper.

20
7th grade review
  • 7.5.3 Describe the values, social customs, and
    traditions prescribed by the lord-vassal system
    consisting of shogun, daimyo, and samurai and the
    lasting influence of the warrior code in the
    twentieth century.
  • Shogun supreme military commander. The Shogun
    ruled Japan in the name of the emperor.

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7th grade review
  • Daimyo The job of protecting everyone became
    the responsibility of the local land-owning
    lords. (known as the Daimyo)
  • Feudalism a social system in which lords grant
    people land or other rewards in exchange for
    military service. Each Daimyo relied on peasants
    to work his (shoguns) land. In exchange for
    their labor, he (shogun) promised them
    protection.

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7th grade review
  • Samurai the Shogun protected the peasants
    through a small army called samurais, or highly
    trained warriors. In exchange for their service,
    the Daimyo granted his samurai land or money.
  • Feudal system order
  • Emperor ? Shogun ? daimyo ? Samurai ? Peasants,
    Merchants, Artisans
  • Warrior Code (Bushido) a strict code of conduct
    that guided the behavior of samurai.

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7th grade review
  • 7.5.6 Analyze the rise of a military society in
    the late twelfth century and the role of the
    samurai in that society.
  • First Shogun Warrior clans began to fight the
    emperor of Japan. In 1185 A.D. Minamoto Yoritomo
    overthrew the emperor and became the first shogun
    and most powerful man in Japan. He made the
    title Shogun permanent.

24
7th grade review
  • 7.6.3 understand the development of feudalism,
    its role in the medieval European economy, the
    way in which it was influenced by physical
    geography (the role of the manor and the growth
    of towns), and how feudal relationships provided
    the foundation of political order.
  • Viking raids began to attack Europe. Viking
    attacks went unanswered by governments struggling
    to maintain order. Because the governments could
    not protect people form the Vikings, local nobles
    took over. The result was a system of feudalism
    much like that of Japan.

25
7th grade review
  • Feudal system
  • King/Queen ? Lords (nobles) ? Vassals ? Knights
    ? peasant farmers
  • Lord (nobles) Gave a grant of land (fief), to a
    vassal if they promised loyalty to the Lord. The
    vassal agreed to supply knights, or mounted
    warriors, to the Lord in times of trouble.
  • Chivalry a warriors code of behavior that each
    knight must follow.
  • Castles Built by the Lords and they ruled the
    territories around them. They controlled farms,
    markets, currency, and taxes on their lands.
    When in danger, local farmers flocked to castles
    for protection.

26
7th grade review
  • Manor the self-sufficient estate of a medieval
    lord.
  • The center was the castle or lords stone house.
  • Around it was a clustered village, a church, and
    the surrounding fields and forests.
  • The manor produced everything the lord, his
    family, and villagers needed.
  • Led to the growth of towns.

27
7th grade review
  • 7.6.4 Demonstrate the understanding of the
    conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and
    European monarchs (e.g., Charlemagne, Gregory
    VII, Emperor Henry IV).
  • Charlemagne (8th and 9th century) tried to rule
    in a Christian manner. Many of his advisers were
    drawn from the clergy (a group of people who give
    their lives to serve the Church as priests,
    monks, and higher church officials).

28
  • Charlemagne wanted to become emperor. Pope Leo
    III visited Charlemagne when rivals threatened to
    blind him and remove him form office. A few
    months later the Pope returned to Rome under the
    protection of Charlemagne.
  • On Christmas day Pope Leo III crowned him
    emperor.

29
  • Strengthened the Church. It established the
    principal that only the Pope could crown an
    emperor. However, this complicated the Byzantine
    church (eastern orthodox) because they didnt
    agree with what the Pope did.

30
7th grade review
  • Pope Gregory VII In 1073, a monk named
    Hildebrand became Pope Gregory VII. He declared
    the Pope alone had the power to choose bishops.
    He even claimed the power to remove emperors from
    the thrown.
  • Henry IV (Holy Roman Emperor at the time) Henry
    felt that Pope Gregory was attacking his power so
    he tried to remove the Pope from office.
  • Pope Gregory then excommunicated (kicked him out
    of the Church) Henry IV. In addition, the Pope
    freed Henrys subjects from their feudal oaths of
    loyalty to the emperor.

31
  • Henry IV then marched to Italy and stood outside
    the Popes residence for three days in the snow
    begging for forgiveness. The Pope eventually
    forgave him.
  • Concordat of Worms 1122 the problem was solved.
    This agreement gave the Church sole power to
    appoint bishops but it also allowed emperors to
    give fiefs, in order to win their loyalty.

32
7th grade review
  • 7.6.6 Discuss the causes and course of the
    religious Crusades and their effects on
    Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in
    Europe, with emphasis on increasing contact by
    Europeans with cultures of the Eastern
    Mediterranean world.
  • The Crusades A series of Christian religious
    wars to take back the holy land of Jerusalem.

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7th grade review
  • Effects of the Crusades
  • Christians in Europe Peasants who had never
    been farther from home than the next village
    suddenly saw new lands, peoples, and ways of
    life. Began to increase trade with the East.
    New goods brought in to Europe which resulted in
    more demand and increased trade.
  • Peasants were given their freedom if they
    ventured to the Holy land on a Crusade.
  • Prompted Europeans to explore the world around
    them.

34
7th grade review
  • Effects of the Crusades contd.
  • Persecution of Jews they were the main targets
    for attack in Europe viewed as enemies of the
    Christian faith. Jews were slaughtered if they
    failed to convert to Christianity.
  • Heresy a belief that is rejected by official
    Church doctrine.
  • Inquisition Other Christians who held different
    beliefs than that of the Catholic Church were
    persecuted.

35
7th grade review
  • 7.7.2 Study the roles of people in each society
    (Aztec, Incan and Mayans), including class
    structures, family life, war-fare, religious
    beliefs and practices, and slavery.
  • Mayas
  • Class structure ruled by a god-king, whose
    office passed down from father to son.

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7th grade review
  • Mayas class structure
  • Two social groups Nobles and commoners
  • Nobles were aristocrats born into powerful
    families. They included the king, top officials,
    and priests.
  • Commoners mostly farmers.

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7th grade review
  • Mayas Daily life
  • Men worked the fields, hunted, and maintained
    the village buildings.
  • Women raised children, tending gardens,
    livestock, and preparing food.
  • Extended families a group of families that
    lived together in a central location.

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7th grade review
  • Maya Religion worshipped many gods. Most of
    the Gods represented natural phenomena such as
    rain, lightning, and the planets.
  • Kings were descended from the Gods. They
    communicated to the Gods through sacred ritual.
  • Human Sacrifice people killed were usually
    prisoners of war. Usually the heart was removed
    using a knife.

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7th grade review
  • Incan class structure There are two different
    classes -Nobles and Commoners.
  • Nobles three ranks of Nobles.
  • Nobles by birth they were at the top. They
    were close relatives of the ruling party.
  • Appointed Nobles these were nobles who earned
    noble status as reward for service to the empire.
  • Non Inca Nobles (curacas) These were local
    non-Inca chiefs whose lands had become part of
    the Inca Empire through conquest.

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7th grade review
  • Inca Class Structure
  • Commoners divided into categories depending on
    their age and sex.
  • Ex boys age 9 to 16 herding llamas and
    alpacas. Girls age 9 to 12 gathered wild plants
    for dyes and medicines. Men age 25 to 50 raised
    crops and served as soldiers.
  • Lived in communities called ayllu a group of
    related families that lived in the same location.

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7th grade review
  • Incan Religion
  • Worshipped many gods. The most important god was
    the sun god, Inti. Incans believed they were
    descended from the Init. They believed in nature
    spirits - spirits occupied special places in the
    natural world, such as rocks, caves, and
    waterfalls.

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7th grade review
  • Aztec Class structure
  • Two main classes Nobles and commoners
  • Nobles a small portion of the society. 5 to 10
    percent of the population. Nobles trace their
    ancestry to the first Aztec King. They served as
    government officials.
  • Commoners live humble lives by farming. Soma
    made fine craft goods for Nobles. Other traded

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7th grade review
  • Slavery they worked fro the nobles. Some were
    commoners who had sold themselves into slavery to
    escape poverty or to avoid punishment for theft
    or other crimes. Others were captured during
    war.
  • Religion Huitzilopochtli the most important
    god. He brought success in battle and kept the
    sun in the sky. He needed blood to remain
    strong. They sacrificed thousands every year,
    cutting out their hearts and offering them to the
    Gods.

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7th grade review
  • 7.7.3 explain how and where each empire arose
    and how the Aztec and Incan empires were defeated
    by the Spanish.
  • Defeat of the Incan Empire
  • Francisco Pizzaro He led a small group of
    Conquistadores to the Inca empire in 1531.
    There, a small smallpox epidemic killed many
    Incas. After a Civil War it left the empire very
    weak. Pizarro took advantage of this and
    captured the Incan King. He then ransomed him
    for twenty tons of gold. They gave him the gold
    yet still Killed the Inca King. The empire died
    off.

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7th grade review
  • Decline of the Aztec
  • In 1519, Hernan Cortez attacked the Aztec empire
    at Tenochtitlan. He allied with Aztec enemies.
    As a result his 600 men added about 10,000
    natives to his army. He took the King Moctezuma
    captive and later killed him. He was later
    kicked out. In 1521 he returned and laid siege
    to the town. The town then fell to the Spanish
    and they renamed it Mexico City.

46
7th grade review
  • 7.8.1 Describe the way in which the revival of
    classical learning and the arts fostered a new
    interest in humanism (i.e., a balance between
    intellect and religious faith).
  • During the renaissance interest in classical
    learning grew enormously. This new focus was
    called humanism.
  • Humanism a cultural movement of the Renaissance
    based on the teachings of classical works.

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7th grade review
  • Humanists valued learning not as a preparation
    for a religious life but as a means of self
    improvement. They believed in the human
    potential to achieve excellence in all things.
  • Humanism led the way to secularism This was the
    view that religion need not be the center of
    human affairs. People began to view life as an
    opportunity for enjoyment and pleasure. They did
    not think that life was just a painful pilgrimage
    to heaven.

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7th grade review
  • 7.8.5 Detail advances made in literature, the
    arts, science, mathematics, cartography,
    engineering, and the understanding of human
    anatomy and astronomy (e.g., by Dante Alighieri,
    Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo di Bounarroti
    Simoni, Johann Gutenberg, William Shakespeare).

49
7th grade review
  • Art most art before the renaissance focused on
    religious themes. During the renaissance they
    still focused on religious themes but also wove
    secular themes into the paintings. As time went
    on paintings were not religious at all.
    Individuals, landscapes, and self-portraits
    became popular.
  • Medieval art was stiff and unrealistic.
    Renaissance art was more realistic and focused on
    the living world.
  • Ex Leonardo Da Vincis Last Supper and
    Mona Lisa uses three dimensional views.

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7th grade review
  • Literature Writing began to flourish during the
    renaissance. Writers began to write not only
    about religious themes but about every day life.
  • Ex Dante Alighieri wrote The divine comedy
    .This long poem describes an imaginary journey
    through heaven and hell.
  • Ex William Shakespeare Born three hundred
    years after Dante. He wrote 37 plays that
    include comedies, tragedies, and histories.

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7th grade review
  • Science they began to challenge accepted
    beliefs about religion. They bean to question
    the world around them.
  • Ex Leonardo Da Vinci began to examine the
    human anatomy. Before the renaissance this was
    considered a heretic.
  • Astronomy Scientists began to question how the
    world worked. Copernicus he believed the earth
    was the center of the universe not the earth.

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7th grade review
  • Mathematics Johannes Kepler used mathematics to
    prove that the sun was the center of the
    universe.
  • Printing Johann Gutenberg invented moveable
    type to print. Letters could be re-arranged and
    used over and over. This allowed the spread of
    printed material allover Europe. It also allowed
    different translations of the bible which sparked
    the Reformation.

53
  • Michelangelo a painter, sculptor, and architect
    as well as a great poet. He was a master at
    anatomy and drawing. Most well known for his
    statue of David.

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7th grade review
  • 7.9.1 List the causes for the internal turmoil
    in and weakening of the Catholic Church (e.g.,
    tax policies, selling of indulgences).
  • Indulgences certificates that were sold to by
    the church to earn a spot in heaven. Seen as
    corrupt!
  • Taxes were charged by the church to build
    lavish churches and a rich lifestyle for the
    Pope.
  • These abuses led to a revolt in the catholic
    Church.

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7th grade review
  • 7.9.2 Describe the theological, political, and
    economic ideas of the major figures during the
    reformation (e.g., Desiderius Erasmus, martin
    Luther, John Calvin, William Tyndale).
  • Desiderius Erasmus A Dutch scholar who embraced
    the teachings of Jesus. He believed that life
    lessons of Christ should be the model for Church
    Doctrine. He wrote a book called The Praise of
    Folly which used satire to criticize the
    behavior of the church.

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7th grade review
  • Martin Luther A German monk born in 1483. He
    constantly criticized the church for being to
    abusive. He did not like the rituals involved in
    the Catholic Church. For example the sale of
    certificates of indulgences. These were
    certificates that allowed you to reach heaven
    for a price.
  • In 1510 he nailed the 95 Theses on a church door
    in Worms, Germany. It attacked the Catholic
    Church and its rituals. Luther was put into
    hiding. He is one of the people responsible for
    reforming the Catholic Church (reformation).
    Lutheranism began from his teachings.

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7th grade review
  • John Calvin In the early 1530s he converted
    from Catholicism to Protestantism. He believed
    in predestination the idea that God had long
    ago determined who would gain salvation in
    heaven. Salvation was not a choice but decided
    from the beginning.
  • William Tyndale he printed an English version
    of The New Testament. His translation helped
    bring reformation ideas to England.

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7th grade
  • 7.10.2. understand the significance of the new
    scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus,
    Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of
    new inventions( e.g., the telescope, microscope,
    thermometer, barometer)
  • Copernicus the first scientist to challenge the
    theory that the earth was the center of the
    universe. He believed that the sun was the
    center of the universe. He published his account
    in 1543.

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7th grade review
  • Galileo An Italian mathematician who supported
    Copernicuss views. He was one of the first
    scientists to use experiments to discover the
    laws of nature. He found out that objects that
    weigh the same fall at the same rate of speed.
    He also built his own telescope to observe the
    heavens.

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7th grade review
  • Kepler He used math to find out that
    Copernicuss theory was right. Earth did revolve
    around the sun.
  • Newton He came up with the theory of gravity.
    He was sitting under an apple tree when the apple
    fell to the ground. It was pulled to the earths
    center by force he called gravity. This is the
    force that pulls one object towards another.
    Apples fall to the ground because they are pulled
    to earth. The planets revolve around the sun
    because they are pulled toward the sun.

61
  • Telescope it increased peoples ability to see
    distant objects. They were able to see planets
    and craters on the moon.
  • Microscope a device that uses a lens to magnify
    objects. Using this tool, scientists could see
    details of small objects such as insects or even
    blood cells.
  • Thermometer scientists could measure the
    temperature of gases and liquids. They could
    study how things change as they get hotter or
    colder.

62
  • Barometer an instrument that measures changes
    in the air pressure. Scientists learned that
    changes in air pressure over time were related to
    changes in the weather.

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7th grade review
  • 7.11.5 Describe how democratic though and
    institutions were influenced by Enlightenment
    thinkers (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis
    Montesquieu, American Founders).
  • John Locke He reasoned that by nature people
    are basically rational. They are born with the
    ability to control their own affairs. They are
    also born with natural rights, or rights that no
    government can take from them. These natural
    rights include life, liberty, and personal
    property.

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7th grade review
  • Charles Montesquieu A French philosopher who
    took Lockes views one step further. He focused
    on ways to promote liberty and to prevent rulers
    from becoming despots. He believed that a
    balanced government was the only way to prevent
    rulers from becoming despots. His ideal
    government was composed of three branches of
    government. Legislative made the laws, Executive
    carries out the laws, and judicial interprets the
    laws.
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