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Chapter 4: Society


Chapter 4: Society Bell Work Get Folders and books In folders Draw a line and right Chapter 4 Task #1 Define what you think society is Then Read Page 92 -93 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 4: Society

Chapter 4 Society
  • Bell Work
  • Get Folders and books
  • In folders Draw a line and right Chapter 4
  • Task 1
  • Define what you think society is
  • Then Read Page 92 -93
  • Read up to Hunting/Gathering Societies

  • What is society?
  • Group of people who interact in a defined
    territory and share a culture
  • We will look at four important views explaining
    the nature of human societies

Gerhard Lenski
  • Focus is on Sociocultural Evolution
  • Changes that occur as a society acquires new
  • The more technological info a society has, the
    faster it will change
  • Identifies 5 types of societies based on their
    level of technology

Reading Activity
  • Get with 9 oclock partner
  • Read/Answer section assigned to you
  • 10 minutes
  • Share with class your findings

Hunting and Gathering Based on surroundings
  • Use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather
  • Food production is relatively inefficient
  • Historical Period
  • Only type until about 12,000 years ago (few
  • Prod. Technology
  • Primitive weapons/tools
  • Pop. Size
  • 25-40 people relatively small and scattered

Hunting and Gathering
  • Settlement Patterns
  • Scattered, often nomadic (follows food)
  • Social Organization
  • Family Centered, specialization limited to
  • Little social inequality very egalitarian
  • Examples
  • Bushmen of S.W. Africa
  • Aborigines of Australia
  • Kaska Indians of Canada

Horticultural and Pastoral
  • Historical Period
  • From 12,000 years ago to 3000 B.C
  • Productive Technology
  • Horticultural Use of hand tools to cultivating
  • Pastoral Domestication of animals
  • Population Size
  • Up to several hundred in a settlement
  • Connect up to a thousand thru trading ties

Horticultural and Pastoral
  • Settlement Patterns
  • Horticulturists small permanent settlements
  • Pastoral Nomadic
  • Social Organization
  • Family Centered Religious system developing
  • Moderate Specialization (farmers, herders, etc)
  • Increased social inequality
  • Examples
  • Middle Eastern societies up to 5000 BC
  • Various societies today in New Guinea and Pacific

Agrarian Based on Agriculture
  • Historical Period
  • Started about 5,000 years ago
  • Dwindling numbers today
  • Productive Technology
  • Animal Drawn Plow
  • Initiated Civilization invented Wheel, writing,
  • Population Size
  • Millions
  • Settlement Patterns
  • Cities common, but only contain small portion
  • Social Organization
  • Family importance lessens Religious, economic,
    political systems emerge
  • Extensive Specialization increased
  • Examples Egypt during pyramids, Medieval Europe

Industrial Based on Industrialism
  • Historical Period
  • 1750 to present
  • Productive Technology
  • Advanced sources of energy to power large
    machinery increased goods production
  • Water and steam power to operate mills/factories
  • Population Size
  • Millions of people

  • Settlement Patterns
  • Various cities contain most of population
  • Social Organization
  • Highly Specialized social inequality up then
  • Distinct religious, political, economic,
    educational, and family systems
  • Eroded many traditional values, beliefs, and
  • Examples
  • Most societies today in Europe, N. America,
    Australia, and Japan

Post-Industrial Based on Info Tech.
  • Historical Period
  • Emerging in recent decades
  • Productive Technology
  • Computers that support an info based economy
  • Industrial Production declines info processing
    w/ computers increases and changes job structure
  • Population Size
  • Millions of people

  • Settlement Patterns
  • Remains concentrated in cities
  • Social Organization
  • Similar to Industrial but info processing and
    service industry replacing industrial production
  • Examples
  • High Functioning Industrial societies now
    entering this.

Limits of Technology
  • Expanding Technology can help solve many social
  • Also creates new (often harder) problems as it
    remedies old ones
  • Increases specialization and social inequality

Lesson Closing
  • Work on project stuff, ask questions!!!

Bell Work
  • Complete In the Times pg. 96 in folders
  • Task 2
  • Answer these questions as task 3
  • What were the 5 types of sociology based on
    Technology by Lenski?
  • Hunting Gathering- hunters/gatherers
  • Horticultural/ Pastoral- Growing plants/domestic
  • Agrarian- Farming
  • Industrial- Machinery to power large factories
  • Post-industrial- Information age

Karl Marx Society and Conflict
  • Focus
  • Stressed Social Conflict Struggle b.t. parts of
    society over valued resourcesmostly class
  • Society and Production
  • Divided society in two Capitalists/ Proletariats
  • Capitalists (Profit oriented)
  • People who owned factories and other productive
  • Proletariat
  • People who provided the labor for those
  • Believed in capitalistic society conflict b.t
    these two was inevitable.

Society and Production
  • All societies were made up of Social institutions
  • Major spheres of social life (subsystems) meant
    to meet human needs
  • Believed the Economy to be the infrastructure
    that all social institutions were based
  • Modern societies economies reinforced
    capitalistic domination
  • Basis Materialism
  • That production of material goods shapes all of
  • False Consciousness blaming individual over

Conflict and History
  • Early hunting/gathering societies were equal
  • Movement towards industrial capitalism led to
    increase in social inequality
  • Blame on the bourgeoisie class (capitalists)
  • As well as an increase in the proletariat
  • What do you think his main vision was?
  • Class uprising by the proletariat!!

Lesson Closing
  • Read Post Industrial Workplace
  • Answer Questions in Journals as Task 4
  • Look at Superstructure Diagram pg. 101
  • Do you agree/disagree w/ Marx?
  • Read pgs. 102-104 Capitalism up to Weber
  • Work on any part of projects
  • Ask Questions

Bell Work Get books/folders
  • What is the Focus of Karl Marx?
  • Stressed Social Conflict
  • What did he divide society into?
  • Capitalists
  • Proletariats
  • Explain each division
  • Capitalists owners of factories
  • Proletariats providers of labor
  • What is the infrastructure of all social
  • Economy
  • What is the basis of his view or shaper of
  • Materialism

Capitalism and Class Conflict
  • Two major classes
  • Rulers capitalists
  • Oppressed proletariat
  • Class conflict Inevitable in Marxs view
  • Antagonism (hostility) b.t. classes over
    distribution of wealth in society

Capitalism and Class Conflict
  • How will conflict occur?
  • Proletariat must reach class consciousness
  • Recognition of their class unity against
  • Organize and rise in revolution w/ numbers
  • Nature of capitalists will resist unity

Capitalism and Alienation
  • Marx believed that capitalism promoted Alienation
  • Experience of isolation from feeling powerless
  • 4 Ways Capitalism does this! (Think Rundown)
  • Alienation from the act of working
  • Alienation from the products of work
  • Alienation from other workers
  • Alienation from human potential

  • Certainty that eventually a socialist revolution
    would overthrow the capitalist system!!

Lesson Closing
  • Anomie (loss/erosion of norms/values)
  • Society is failing to give moral guidance to
  • Read rest of Marx vs. Durkheim Supplemental
  • Answer questions in folder as Task 5
  • Then Read What is Marxism
  • Task 6 Summarize the articles key points of
    what Marxism is and look up/define two words you
    didnt know/understand

Bell Work
  • Get books/folders
  • What are the 5 types of societies by Lenski?
  • Hunter/Gatherer, Pastoral/Horticultural,
    Agrarian, Industrial, Post-industrial
  • What did Marx belief to be the foundation of a
  • Economy
  • What was Marxs main focus?
  • Social conflict based on Materialism
  • What is Lenskis main focus?
  • Society changes occur as technology is developed

Max Weber Rationalization of society
  • Direct Contrast to Marx
  • Reflected more of an idealistic perspective that
    human ideas shape society
  • Ideal types
  • Abstract statements of the essential
    characteristics of any social phenomenon
  • I.E. Hunter/Gatherer, pre/post industrial

Max Weber Rationalization of society
  • Two world views
  • Classified according to the way people think
    about their world
  • Members of pre-industrial societies are bound by
  • Sentiments/beliefs passed from generation to
  • People are guided by past, and what is
    right/wrong by what they have accepted for a long
  • Members of post-industrial societies are guided
    by Rationality
  • Deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the
    most efficient means to accomplish something
  • Tradition become just one type of the info

Max Weber Rationalization of society
  • Rationalization of society
  • Historical change from tradition to rationality
    as the main mode of human thought
  • Evidenced by the Industrial revolution and
  • Look at pg. 106 caption
  • This willingness to adopt new technology is a
    strong indicator of how rationalized a society is.

Max Weber Rationalization of society
  • Is capitalism Rational?
  • Considered capitalism the essence of rationality
  • Weber vs. Marx
  • Weber believed it to be rational Marx not.
  • Why?
  • Marx thought it didnt mean the greater good
  • Weber thought it so b/c people used
    rationalization to make money in any possible way

Lesson Closing
  • Task 6 Answer Questions 1-8 on pg. 114
  • Go over with 5 Min.s left

Bell Work
  • Grab books/folders
  • Get article from back
  • Go over answers from 1-8 on pg. 114
  • Finish Weber

Protestants and Capitalism
  • Webers Great Thesis
  • Traced roots of modern rationality (and
    capitalism) to Calvinist Protestantism
  • Preached predestination and notion that success
    in ones calling testified to ones place among
    the saved
  • Working hard and being successful heaven
  • Showed ability of ideas to shape society

7 Characteristics of Rational Social Organization
  • Distinctive social institutions
  • These are rational strategies to meet human needs
  • Large-Scale Organizations
  • Show rational strategies of making larger
    decisions. Church, government, etc.
  • Specialized Tasks
  • Not seen in traditional societies.
  • Personal Discipline
  • Modern societies value this. Encouragement of
    achievement/success show rationality in business

7 Characteristics of Rational Social Organization
  • Awareness of time
  • Summed up in Time is money
  • Technical Competence
  • Rationality judges people on what they are.
  • Basis on education, skills, and abilities
  • Sports saying If youre not getting better
    youre getting worse
  • Impersonality
  • Rational societies use competence for hiring,
    creating an impersonal interaction
  • Concern more over tasks/skills than people

Rationality and Bureaucracy
  • Bureaucracy
  • Large, rational organizations
  • Growth of Rational bureaucracies was key in
    origin of modern society
  • Bureacracy is similar to capitalism
  • Everything wants to be done w/ as much
    speed/efficiency as possible

Rationality and Alienation
  • Agreed w/ Marx in that modern society generated
    dehumanization and alienation
  • Reasoning was different though!!
  • Marx believed it caused by inequality
  • Weber believed it to be caused by the countless
    rules and regulations of bureaucracy.

Lesson Closing
  • Task 7 Read article and answer ?s to it in
    your folder
  • Look at Caption on left of pg. 208 realize what
    it portrays
  • How many times have you heard a govt. official or
    someone say.. Its not personal, its policy, or
  • Task 8Answer Your Turn on pg. 108

Bell Work
  • Get books/Folders
  • Ready for notes right away

Durkheim Society and Function
  • Viewed Social facts as a focus for looking a
    society. Believed them rooted in society and not
    just individual experiences
  • Patterns of human behavior (norms, values,
  • Function Society as a system
  • Idea that social facts help society function as a
    whole system not just individual existence
  • Read section over this (pg. 109)

Durkheim Society and Function
  • Personality
  • People build personalities by internalizing
    social facts
  • How we think, act, and feel is a product from the
    society that nurtures us.
  • Modernality and Anomie
  • He recognized the advantages of modern day
    freedoms but warned of Anomie
  • Condition in which society provide little moral
  • Read Section (pg. 110) and think of a current
    example that proves to this!!
  • Miley Cyrus!?!?

Durkheim Society and Function
  • Evolving Societies
  • Believed in different reasons than Marx/Weber for
    cause of Rapid social change (Ind. Rev.)
  • Key
  • Expanding Division of Labor Specialized economic
  • Traditional Societies
  • Strong collective conscience or Mechanical
  • Social bonds, based on shared values, strong
    among members
  • Modern Societies
  • Mech. Solidarity becomes weaker
  • Organic Solidarity social bonds based on
    specialization, becomes stronger
  • People become less moral conscious and more

Four Visions of Society
  • What holds them together?
  • Lenski United through a shared culture, but
    lessens as technology develops
  • Marx No real unity but more social class
  • Only true unity if production becomes a
  • Weber Tradition joined them in past, now it is
    rational large-scale organizations
  • Durkheim Unity through solidarity, mechanical of
    past and organic today ( morals vs.

How do they change?
  • Lenski
  • Based in terms of changing tech. and production
  • Marx
  • Based on production power that brings class
    conflict into open
  • Weber
  • Occurs b/c people change the way they view the
    world. From traditional (morals) to rational.
  • Durkheim
  • Changes in solidarity, from mechanical (likeness,
    morals) to organic (specialization)

Why have they changed?
  • Lenski
  • Social change through technological innovation
  • Marx
  • Class struggles push for change
  • Weber
  • Ideas push for change (Calvinism)
  • Durkheim
  • Division of labor pushes change

Lesson Closing
  • Read Applying Soc. Box (pg. 112
  • Answer ?s in folder
  • Test on Wednesday
  • Review tomorrow