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RelativityandIntroductoryParticle Physics

Hilary Term, 2010 S. Biller

www?pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/biller/particle_course

(No Transcript)

Suggested Reading List

Introduction to Elementary Particles Griffiths (a

bit more mathematical)

Nuclear and Particle Physics Williams

(less mathematical but very good)

Introduction to High Energy Physics Perkins

(some very good sections... worth a look)

Quarks

Femtophysics (a bit mathmatical for this

course, Bowler but contains some real

gems !)

The Strong Interaction

Leptons

Facts and Mysteries in Particle Physics Veltman

(Historical - a good read!)

Particle PhysicsA Very Short Introduction Close

(Handbook of basic concepts)

Scientific American articles (generally

written at an extremely good level)

Outline

III. Tools of the Trade High Energy

Units 4-Vectors Cross-Sections

Mean Free path

VII. Symmetries II Charge Conjugation Time

Reversal CPT Theorem Baryon Lepton

Number Strangeness

XI. Weak Interactions Cross-Section and the

W Coupling Cabibbo Angle and CKM Matrix

Parity Violation Kaons and Mixing CP

Violation

(MS sec 3.1-3.4, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6)

(MS sec 4.51, 8.1 chap. 10)

(Rindler sec 20, 22, 26-31)

(MS sec 1.5 append. A B)

I. Experimental Foundations of Special

Relativity Michelson-Morley

Hamar Kennedy Thorndike Alvager

Others Time Dilation

(Rindler sec 1-5 8-11)

IV. Antiparticles Virtual Particles

Klein-Gordon Equation Antiparticles Asymmetry

Yukawa Potential The Pion The Bound State

of the Deuteron Virtual Particles Feynman

Diagrams

VIII. Quarks I Strangeness Meson

Baryon Multiplets 3-Quark Model

The Meson Nonets

XII. Electroweak Theory Kaon Regeneration

Oscillation The Mass of the W Massless

Photon Broken Symmetry The Higgs Mixing

and the Weinberg Angle The Mass of the Z

Z Decay

(MS sec chap 3, 6.2)

(MS chap. 9, 10)

(MS chap. 1, 11.4.2)

XIII. Detectors Visual Track Detectors

Electronic Ionization Devices Cerenkov

Detectors Calorimeters Photomultiplier

Tubes Scintillators Tricks With Timing

Generic Collider Detector

V. QED Symmetry Bohr Magneton

Off-Shell Electrons Vacuum Polarization

Divergences, Running Coupling

Renormalization Yukawa Scattering

the Propagator

IX. Quarks II Quarks and the

Baryon Multiplets Colour and Gluons

Confinement Asymptotic Freedom

Quark Flow Diagrams

(MS sec 6.2, 6.3, 7.1)

(MS sec. 4.3, 4.4, 4.5)

(MS sec 5.1, 5.2, 7.1.2)

II. Relativistic Space-Time Lorentz

Transformations Invariant Intervals

Proper Time EM Unification

Equiv of Mass Energy Space-Time

Diagrams Relativistic Optics

(Rindler sec 6-7 19-21 15-18)

VI. Symmetries I Symmetry Unification

Space-Time Symmetries Gauge Invariance in

EM Noethers Theorem Isospin Parity

XIV. Solar Atmospheric Neutrinos

X. Quarks III The November Revolution

Heavy Quark States Truth R

(MS sec 5.3, 6.1 app. D.1, D.2)

(MS sec 6.4, 7.23, 7.3, 8.23)

(MS sec. 2.3, 11.1)

Websites of Interest

www.anu.edu.au/Physics/Searle ? Visualising

relativistic optics, including movies

(cool!) particleadventure.org ? Nice overview

of various things at basic level pdg.lbl.gov ?

Particle Data Group The Bible of particle

properties, limits, formulae, reviews... www.color

ado.edu/physics/2000/ ? Nifty physics Java

applets (not strictly particle physics)

- check out the Bose-Einstein Condensate

section! www.fnal.gov/pub/inquiring/ ? Overview

and lots of interesting stuff (including

live displays of CDF D0 events with

explanation!) www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/ ? Nice

discussion of linear colliders etc. www.cern.ch

? CERN !! (enough said) hepweb.rl.ac.uk/ppuk/

? Particle physics news and links www.ep.ph.bham.

ac.uk/user/watkins/seeweb/bubblechamber.htm ?

Bubble chamber pictures with explanations and

excercises!

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The Standard Model

Standard Model

Lecture 1 Experimental Foundations of Special

relativity

- Michelson Morley
- Hamar
- Kennedy and Thorndike
- Alvager and Others
- Time Dilation

Useful Sections in Rindler

Section 1-5, 8-11

Relativity review

Special Relativity Review

Einsteins postulates

Einsteins Two Postulates of Special

Relativity

I. The laws of physics are identical in

all inertial frames

II. Light propagates in vacuum rectilinearly,

with the same speed at all times, in all

directions and in all inertial frames

Michelson Morley

Michelson Morley (1887)

ct1 2d

t2

c2t12 4d2

4 ( L2 v2t12/4)

t1

t2

MM publication

MM photo

MM results

MM Conclusions

Conclusions

1) Aether moves with the earth

(aether drag)

or

- Length contraction occurs for all
- objects moving through the aether
- (Lorentz-Fitzgerald hypothesis)

Hamar

Hamar (1935)

(also, no aberation of starlight due to motion

with respect to earths aether)

Kennedy Thorndike 2

Kennedy Thorndike (1932)

Any length contraction alone will affect the

distances (hence, the phases) for paths 1 and 2

to different extents, unless the frequency also

changes to compensate (i.e. time dilation)

Alvager test

Alvager results

If c c kv

Brecher constraint

Expected?

Well, Is There Any Reason To Expect Anything

Different ??

Modern context quantum gravity

Possible QG effect

A Test Of

E L EQG c

?t ??? ?

Amelino-Camelia et al., Nature, 25 June 1998

AGN flare data

Limit on QG Lorentz violation

Astrophysics, abstractastro-ph/9811018 A time

varying speed of light as a solution to

cosmological puzzles Authors Andreas Albrecht,

Joao Magueijo Comments To be published in

Physical Review D. Note added referring to John

Moffat's early work on VSL theoriesJournal-ref

Phys.Rev. D59 (1999) 043516 We consider the

cosmological implications of light travelling

faster in the early Universe. We propose a

prescription for deriving corrections to the

cosmological evolution equations while the speed

of light c is changing. We then show how the

horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant

problems may be solved. We also study

cosmological perturbations in this scenario and

show how one may solve the homogeneity and

isotropy problems. As it stands, our scenario

appears to most easily produce extreme

homogeneity, requiring structure to be produced

in the Standard Big Bang epoch. Producing

significant perturbations during the earlier

epoch would require a rather careful design of

the function c(t). The large entropy inside the

horizon nowadays can also be accounted for in

this scenario.

G. V. Sokolov, 2007 Orbital

Experiment with a Femtosecond Laser for Testing

Light Speed Invariance

Iman Joudaki, 2007 Test of

Special Relativity Using Nano Technology

Einsteins postulates

Einsteins Two Postulates of Special

Relativity

I. The laws of physics are identical in

all inertial frames

II. Light propagates in vacuum rectilinearly,

with the same speed at all times, in all

directions and in all inertial frames

The Start of Insanity

From this, Insanity Follows...