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Relativity and Introductory Particle Physics

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Title: Relativity and Introductory Particle Physics


1
RelativityandIntroductoryParticle Physics
Hilary Term, 2010 S. Biller
www?pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/biller/particle_course
2
(No Transcript)
3
Suggested Reading List
Introduction to Elementary Particles Griffiths (a
bit more mathematical)
Nuclear and Particle Physics Williams
(less mathematical but very good)
Introduction to High Energy Physics Perkins
(some very good sections... worth a look)
Quarks
Femtophysics (a bit mathmatical for this
course, Bowler but contains some real
gems !)
The Strong Interaction
Leptons
Facts and Mysteries in Particle Physics Veltman
(Historical - a good read!)
Particle PhysicsA Very Short Introduction Close
(Handbook of basic concepts)
Scientific American articles (generally
written at an extremely good level)
4
Outline
III. Tools of the Trade High Energy
Units 4-Vectors Cross-Sections
Mean Free path
VII. Symmetries II Charge Conjugation Time
Reversal CPT Theorem Baryon Lepton
Number Strangeness
XI. Weak Interactions Cross-Section and the
W Coupling Cabibbo Angle and CKM Matrix
Parity Violation Kaons and Mixing CP
Violation
(MS sec 3.1-3.4, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6)
(MS sec 4.51, 8.1 chap. 10)
(Rindler sec 20, 22, 26-31)
(MS sec 1.5 append. A B)
I. Experimental Foundations of Special
Relativity Michelson-Morley
Hamar Kennedy Thorndike Alvager
Others Time Dilation
(Rindler sec 1-5 8-11)
IV. Antiparticles Virtual Particles
Klein-Gordon Equation Antiparticles Asymmetry
Yukawa Potential The Pion The Bound State
of the Deuteron Virtual Particles Feynman
Diagrams
VIII. Quarks I Strangeness Meson
Baryon Multiplets 3-Quark Model
The Meson Nonets
XII. Electroweak Theory Kaon Regeneration
Oscillation The Mass of the W Massless
Photon Broken Symmetry The Higgs Mixing
and the Weinberg Angle The Mass of the Z
Z Decay
(MS sec chap 3, 6.2)
(MS chap. 9, 10)
(MS chap. 1, 11.4.2)
XIII. Detectors Visual Track Detectors
Electronic Ionization Devices Cerenkov
Detectors Calorimeters Photomultiplier
Tubes Scintillators Tricks With Timing
Generic Collider Detector
V. QED Symmetry Bohr Magneton
Off-Shell Electrons Vacuum Polarization
Divergences, Running Coupling
Renormalization Yukawa Scattering
the Propagator
IX. Quarks II Quarks and the
Baryon Multiplets Colour and Gluons
Confinement Asymptotic Freedom
Quark Flow Diagrams
(MS sec 6.2, 6.3, 7.1)
(MS sec. 4.3, 4.4, 4.5)
(MS sec 5.1, 5.2, 7.1.2)
II. Relativistic Space-Time Lorentz
Transformations Invariant Intervals
Proper Time EM Unification
Equiv of Mass Energy Space-Time
Diagrams Relativistic Optics
(Rindler sec 6-7 19-21 15-18)
VI. Symmetries I Symmetry Unification
Space-Time Symmetries Gauge Invariance in
EM Noethers Theorem Isospin Parity
XIV. Solar Atmospheric Neutrinos
X. Quarks III The November Revolution
Heavy Quark States Truth R
(MS sec 5.3, 6.1 app. D.1, D.2)
(MS sec 6.4, 7.23, 7.3, 8.23)
(MS sec. 2.3, 11.1)
5
Websites of Interest
www.anu.edu.au/Physics/Searle ? Visualising
relativistic optics, including movies
(cool!) particleadventure.org ? Nice overview
of various things at basic level pdg.lbl.gov ?
Particle Data Group The Bible of particle
properties, limits, formulae, reviews... www.color
ado.edu/physics/2000/ ? Nifty physics Java
applets (not strictly particle physics)
- check out the Bose-Einstein Condensate
section! www.fnal.gov/pub/inquiring/ ? Overview
and lots of interesting stuff (including
live displays of CDF D0 events with
explanation!) www2.slac.stanford.edu/vvc/ ? Nice
discussion of linear colliders etc. www.cern.ch
? CERN !! (enough said) hepweb.rl.ac.uk/ppuk/
? Particle physics news and links www.ep.ph.bham.
ac.uk/user/watkins/seeweb/bubblechamber.htm ?
Bubble chamber pictures with explanations and
excercises!
6
(No Transcript)
7
The Standard Model
Standard Model
8
Lecture 1 Experimental Foundations of Special
relativity
  • Michelson Morley
  • Hamar
  • Kennedy and Thorndike
  • Alvager and Others
  • Time Dilation

Useful Sections in Rindler
Section 1-5, 8-11
9
Relativity review
Special Relativity Review
10
Einsteins postulates
Einsteins Two Postulates of Special
Relativity
I. The laws of physics are identical in
all inertial frames
II. Light propagates in vacuum rectilinearly,
with the same speed at all times, in all
directions and in all inertial frames
11
Michelson Morley
Michelson Morley (1887)
ct1 2d
t2
c2t12 4d2
4 ( L2 v2t12/4)
t1
t2
12
MM publication
13
MM photo
14
MM results
15
MM Conclusions
Conclusions
1) Aether moves with the earth
(aether drag)
or
  • Length contraction occurs for all
  • objects moving through the aether
  • (Lorentz-Fitzgerald hypothesis)

16
Hamar
Hamar (1935)
(also, no aberation of starlight due to motion
with respect to earths aether)
17
Kennedy Thorndike 2
Kennedy Thorndike (1932)
Any length contraction alone will affect the
distances (hence, the phases) for paths 1 and 2
to different extents, unless the frequency also
changes to compensate (i.e. time dilation)
18
Alvager test
19
Alvager results
If c c kv
20
Brecher constraint
21
Expected?
Well, Is There Any Reason To Expect Anything
Different ??
22
Modern context quantum gravity
23
Possible QG effect
A Test Of
E L EQG c
?t ??? ?
Amelino-Camelia et al., Nature, 25 June 1998
24
AGN flare data
25
Limit on QG Lorentz violation
26
Astrophysics, abstractastro-ph/9811018 A time
varying speed of light as a solution to
cosmological puzzles Authors Andreas Albrecht,
Joao Magueijo Comments To be published in
Physical Review D. Note added referring to John
Moffat's early work on VSL theoriesJournal-ref
Phys.Rev. D59 (1999) 043516 We consider the
cosmological implications of light travelling
faster in the early Universe. We propose a
prescription for deriving corrections to the
cosmological evolution equations while the speed
of light c is changing. We then show how the
horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant
problems may be solved. We also study
cosmological perturbations in this scenario and
show how one may solve the homogeneity and
isotropy problems. As it stands, our scenario
appears to most easily produce extreme
homogeneity, requiring structure to be produced
in the Standard Big Bang epoch. Producing
significant perturbations during the earlier
epoch would require a rather careful design of
the function c(t). The large entropy inside the
horizon nowadays can also be accounted for in
this scenario.
27
G. V. Sokolov, 2007 Orbital
Experiment with a Femtosecond Laser for Testing
Light Speed Invariance
Iman Joudaki, 2007 Test of
Special Relativity Using Nano Technology
28
Einsteins postulates
Einsteins Two Postulates of Special
Relativity
I. The laws of physics are identical in
all inertial frames
II. Light propagates in vacuum rectilinearly,
with the same speed at all times, in all
directions and in all inertial frames
29
The Start of Insanity
From this, Insanity Follows...
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