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Title: BI 3321, Early Church


1
BI 3321, Early Church
  • Part IV

2
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • The first half of the Middle Ages saw the church
    struggling to survive invasions from without and
    controversies from within.
  • The second half witnessed the theological,
    ecclesiastical, and intellectual power struggles
    perpetrated by the church hierarchy.
  • Some figures pursued noble and worthy causes,
    some sought to drive out evil forces, some
    espoused personal and universal reform, and some
    were determined to gain ascendancy and power over
    others.

3
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • Leo IX was pope at the time of the Eastern Schism
    in 1054 and will perhaps be remembered for that
    above all else.
  • But the papal reforms of the 11th century owed
    much to the impetus of Leo IX, who did much to
    restore the prestige of the papacy through
  • his extensive travels,
  • his stand against simony,
  • his insistence upon the election of bishops by
    clergy and people,
  • his firm position on celibacy and his broadening
    of the College of Cardinals to include others
    outside Rome.
  • When he died suddenly in 1054, Leo IX did not
    know of the Eastern Schism, but he did know that
    the tide of reform was sweeping through the
    western church.

4
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • The papacy and the entire clergy, was in need of
    universal reform.
  • Problems which reflect the decadent state of the
    church included untrained clergy, simony
    (purchase of church posts), sexual laxity, and
    lay investiture (control of the appointment and
    allegiance of abbots, bishops, and popes by the
    lay civil authorities).
  • The papal reforms of the 11th century which dealt
    with all these problems came to be known as the
    Gregorian reforms, so-called after Pope Gregory
    VII, who was such a powerful leader before his
    election to the papacy that he is generally
    better known by his earlier name of Hildebrand.

5
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand. Born about 1025 and reared
    in Rome, where he would someday be the chief
    actor in the papal scene for nearly three
    decades, Hildebrand was educated in a monastery
    and in his early twenties became a monk, probably
    at Cluny.
  • He returned to Rome in the service of Leo IX, who
    admitted him to minor orders. He became a close
    friend of Peter Damian, the Cardinal-Bishop of
    Ostia, and one of the most intense churchmen
    calling for reform.
  • Although his rise to prominence was slow compared
    to others, Hildebrand laid his ground work well,
    worked in the inner circles of power, maintained
    his dedication, and by the time he was 35 he was
    being noticed as a leader of men.

6
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand.
  • In 1058, Hildebrand was presented with the
    opportunity to display his real power.
  • Emperor Henry III died in 1056 and his 6-year-old
    son came to the throne as Henry IV under the
    regency.
  • After the brief reigns of popes Victor II and
    Stephen IX, the royal regency elected Benedict X
    to the papacy.
  • Hildebrand was in Germany when he received the
    news of this blatant determination of the
    nobility to retain control over the papacy.
  • He raised an army, expelled Benedict, and seated
    Nicholas II on the papal throne. Nicholas reign
    lasted only two years (1059-61) but was
    distinguished by the establishment of the College
    of Cardinals to elect future popes.

7
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand.
  • This papal decree of 1059 is still the principal
    basis for governing the papal elections. The
    guiding hands behind Nicholas decree were those
    of Hildebrand and Humbert, a cardinal-bishop from
    Toul.
  • Both Humbert and Nicholas died two years later,
    depriving the reformers of two outstanding
    leaders.
  • Again, it was Hildebrand who stepped into the
    breach.
  • He convened the cardinals in Rome and led them to
    elect Alexander II to the papacy.
  • The Roman nobility still had not acquiesced to
    this reform method of electing popes, and
    convinced the regent of Henry IV (still a child
    of eleven years) to appoint an Italian bishop,
    Cadalus, as pope.

8
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand.
  • Although Cadalus was an annoying rival during
    Alexanders entire pontificate, the strong
    influence and skillful administration of
    Hildebrand kept Alexander securely in control.
  • Alexander was an able pope and served from 1061
    to 1073, when he died while in conflict with
    Henry IV over the appointment of the Archbishop
    of Milan.
  • With the death of Alexander, Hildebrand was the
    sole survivor of the band of reformers who had
    started together with Leo IX, and the people
    immediately and loudly acclaimed him as their
    choice for Alexanders successor.
  • The cardinals, abbots, monks, and laity all
    agreed, and Hildebrand, while only a deacon, was
    elected to the papacy.

9
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand.
  • He had to be ordained a priest before he could
    ascend to the throne, where he took the title of
    Gregory VII.
  • His reign lasted from 1073 to 1085 and was one of
    the most outstanding pontificates in history.
  • As Pope Gregory VII, Hildebrand wielded sweeping
    powers of clerical reform but without unanimous
    acceptance.
  • He enforced clerical celibacy with a strong
    determination to free the church from the world
    but priests and their families were thrown into
    such turmoil and controversy that the issue was
    still raging at the time of the Reformation four
    hundred years later.

10
Gregory VII Hildebrand
11
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand.
  • The decree for celibacy however, did eliminate
    the offensive practice of holding church office
    by heredity and it definitely strengthened the
    authority of the pope over the clergy.
  • In fact, the absolute authority of the papal
    office was the central theme of Gregory VII.
  • In his famous Dictatus Papae, he forthrightly
    declared that,
  • the Roman Church was founded by God alone
  • the Roman pope alone can with right be called
    universal
  • he alone may use the imperial insignia

12
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13
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand.
  • In his famous Dictatus Papae, he forthrightly
    declared that,
  • his feet only shall be kissed by all princes
  • he alone may depose the emperors
  • he himself may be judged by no one
  • the Roman Church has never erred, nor will it err
    in all eternity.

14
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • a. Rise of Hildebrand.
  • Gregory also advocated that all Christian states
    should form a world empire with the pope at its
    head as Gods representative on earth.
  • Most of the claims to supremacy were well
    established at least in theory before Gregory,
    but no one had ever expressed them so
    dogmatically and enforced them so successfully.
    He held frequent councils in Rome to enforce his
    measures, with tenacious attention to stamping
    out simony, clerical marriage, and concubinage.
  • He instituted a thorough and permanent chain of
    command, but the bishops were totally dependent
    on the pope, for he was determined to destroy the
    practice of lay investiture which became the
    chief issue of his reign.

15
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • b. The Investiture Controversy. In 1059 Pope
    Nicholas II had articulated the reform position
    on the selection of important clergymen, which
    was to be henceforth by the authority of clergy
    and people and not civil rulers.
  • The pope himself was to be elected by a college
    of cardinals.
  • This attitude and action was opposed by the civil
    authorities with varying degrees of hostility
    rising and falling.
  • Gregory VII brought the whole issue to a head by
    decreeing through the Lateran Synod of 1075 that
    all clergy were forbidden to receive a bishopric
    or abbey or church from the hands of a secular
    prince or lord, even from the king or emperor.

16
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • b. The Investiture Controversy.
  • His unrelenting position that investiture of
    clergy should be received only from the pope as
    Gods supreme representative in the world was a
    radical revolution within the medieval legal and
    political world.
  • As an immediate example for implementing the
    investiture decree, Gregory suspended some
    bishops in Germany who had been appointed by
    civil authorities.
  • Henry IV retaliated in anger by appointing some
    bishops to sees in Italy itself.
  • When Gregory threatened to excommunicate Henry
    for this sort of action, the emperor put together
    the Synod of Worms in 1076, attended by
    disgruntled bishops who were easily convinced to
    declare Gregory unfit to be pope.

17
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • b. The Investiture Controversy.
  • Armed with the synods verdict, Henry demanded
    that Gregory resign the papacy.
  • The following month, Gregory deposed Henry for
    his unheard-of arrogance and iniquities, placed
    him under anathema, and relieved his subjects of
    allegiance to him.
  • In a swift stroke of power Gregory swung the
    German political factions behind him, and Henry
    found himself without followers.
  • The emperor following the line of political
    expediency asked the pope for forgiveness and
    restoration.
  • In the well-known and often-told incident of
    absolution, Henry and Gregory met at Canossa in
    1077 where the pope had taken refuge in a
    fortress while journeying to Augsburg.

18
Henry IV at Canossa
19
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20
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • b. The Investiture Controversy.
  • Gregory would not at first receive the penitent
    Henry who stood in the snow for three days,
    barefooted and thinly clad, seeking an audience.
  • Gregory finally received him, and after exacting
    specific promises from the emperor he absolved
    him.
  • This remains one of the most vivid demonstrations
    of papal power in history.
  • Later, however, both Gregory and Henry broke
    their vows to each other, shattering the accord
    of Canossa.
  • When Henrys enemies in Germany elected a rival
    sovereign, Gregory supported them and declared
    Henry deposed again in 1080.

21
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • b. The Investiture Controversy.
  • This time the people felt that Gregory had been
    unfair to Henry and supported the emperor when he
    invaded Rome and called a synod to pronounce
    Gregory deposed.
  • The synod had elected another pope, Wibert, in
    Gregorys place Wibert proceeded to crown Henry
    emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Gregory retreated to the safety of the castle of
    San Angelo in Rome until he was liberated by his
    loyal Normans from the South.
  • The Normans savagely retook Rome and reinstated
    Gregory as pope.

22
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • b. The Investiture Controversy.
  • Within the year however, Gregory died a
    disillusioned and bitter refugee in Salerno.
  • He died with his dream of absolute supremacy
    crumbling around him.
  • He had wanted too much. He was not interested in
    separation of church and state, but wanted
    absolute control of church over state.
  • Gregorys struggle in the investiture controversy
    did eventually culminate in formal settlements.

23
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers
  • b. The Investiture Controversy.
  • In 1122, Emperor Henry V of Germany agreed to the
    Concordat of Worms, in which the emperor
    relinquished the right of selection and
    investiture of the spiritual office of bishop
    but the bishop was to be answerable to the civil
    ruler in temporal matters.
  • The compromise solutions reflected the offsetting
    powers of church and state, and stabilized the
    balance of power for centuries to come.

24
Concordat of Worms
25
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers.
  • c. The Influence of Cluny. The sweeping papal
    reform of the 11th c. which came to be called the
    Hildebrandine or Gregorian reform, owed its
    instigation, in great part, to the influence of a
    monastic reform movement which originated in the
    monastery of Cluny.
  • So powerful in fact was the impact of this
    monastery, that all the reforms of the 10th,
    11th, and 12th centuries are often referred to as
    the Cluniac Reformation.
  • In 910, William, Duke of Aquitaine designated the
    town and manor of Cluny, in southern Burgundy,
    for the erection of a Benedictine monastery.
  • The religious order received not only the lands,
    waters, and revenues in the donation, but also
    the serfs, the workers on the land.

26
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29
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers.
  • c. The Influence of Cluny.
  • Thus, with the serfs supplying the essential
    physical labor the monks were free to give
    themselves to spiritual pursuits.
  • They were also free, according to the conditions
    of the grant, from interference from the patron,
    his successors, or the king.
  • The monks were to retain their own possessions
    and elect their own abbot.
  • The monks of Cluny were directly responsible only
    to the papacy.
  • A deep sense of piety resulted from the long
    hours of attention to prayer and study, and soon
    a conviction for reform began to prevail.

30
Cluniacs at Worship
31
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers.
  • c. The Influence of Cluny.
  • The program of Cluny involved, first of all, a
    call for clerical reform, especially as related
    to simony, celibacy and concubinage.
  • But it also spread to include all of
    societymonastic, civil, and ecclesiastical.
  • The goal was to permeate society with Christian
    ideals.
  • To implement this goal, the monks dedicated
    themselves to prayer, education, and hospitality.
  • The monasteries of the Cluny chain became the
    inns of the Middle Ages where Christian teachings
    were imposed on the travelers.

32
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers.
  • c. The Influence of Cluny.
  • Many new monasteries were erected in the Cluny
    tradition and many older monasteries became
    affiliated, until there were more than 300 houses
    in the Cluniac movement, with all of them subject
    to the mother house at Cluny
  • The cluniac reformers worked to eliminate feudal
    warfare, teaching that nobles should use their
    arms only to vindicate the weak and protect the
    church.
  • They inaugurated the Truce of God which
    restricted the times for fighting, and the Peace
    of God which restricted the combatants.
  • Under the Truce of God, there could be no
    hostilities from sunset Wednesday to Monday
    morning or on holy days.

33
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers.
  • c. The Influence of Cluny.
  • Under the Peace of God, there were to be no
    attacks upon priests, nuns, pilgrims, merchants,
    farmers, their animals, tools, or properties.
  • These efforts often did more harm than good, the
    princes breaking their vows to keep the Truce
    and Peace.
  • The bishops began organizing armies to punish the
    oathbreakers, and then the kings raised armies to
    suppress the churchs armies.
  • The Cluniacs were extremely influential in the
    fight to free the church from the control of
    secular powers.
  • Since Cluny had been founded upon independence
    from local bishop and civil authorities, it would
    naturally tend to support the independence
    movement.

34
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers.
  • c. The Influence of Cluny.
  • Pope Gregory VII, who waged the great investiture
    controversy with Henry IV, received his training
    in the monastery at Cluny.
  • Cluny appears to have achieved its stated
    objects, which were
  • return to strict Benedictine rule,
  • cultivation of the personal spiritual life,
  • reduction of manual labor,
  • expansion of the splendor of worship,
  • foundation of a sound economical organization,
  • and independence from lay control.

35
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 1. The Gregorian Reformers.
  • c. The Influence of Cluny.
  • The success of the Cluniac monasteries, however
    brought a backlash of concern about worldly
    success within monasticism.
  • The wealth of the Cluny houses, their easy
    relations with the secular world, and their
    emphasis on worship services led some reformers
    to seek a more austere and primitive path.

36
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • Both the advocates of Cluny and those who desired
    a new direction supplied new fervor for the
    monastic life-style.
  • In fad, during this period, monastic orders
    multiplied so rapidly that the pope was forced to
    prohibit additional orders at the Fourth Lateran
    Council in 1215.
  • Later, an exception was made in the case of some
    Mendicant Orders, but the issue reflects the
    intensity with which medieval piety had plunged
    into asceticism, the renouncing of the world to
    search for holiness.

37
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • a. Ascetic Orders. There were some orders which
    retreated to remote regions, practicing severe
    discipline and constant contemplation.
  • These Knights of Asceticism were determined to
    reverse the Cluniac trend of involving
    Christianity in the affairs of the world.
  • (1) The Carthusians. In 1004, Bruno, a German
    from Cologne, resigned his teaching position in
    the cathedral school of Rheims and established an
    extremely strict, contemplative order of monks
    near Cartusia at the Grande Chartreuse.

38
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • a. Ascetic Orders.
  • (1) The Carthusians.
  • The emphasis of this order was renunciation of
    the world and mortification of the flesh.
  • To attain these goals, the monks lived in
    austerity and self-denial, vowed to silence and
    committed to solitude.
  • Each monk had his own private cell and private
    garden and prepared his own food, eating with his
    brothers only on feast days.
  • Some of the Carthusians became scholars, mystics,
    and writers of devotional works but they had
    limited influence on society.

39
Carthusians
40
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • a. Ascetic Orders.
  • (1) The Carthusians.
  • Their main achievement was spiritual separation
    and anonymity through cultivated silence.
  • Because of their isolation and extreme
    asceticism, the Carthusians were the least
    affected by the decline of monasticism in the
    later Middle Ages.
  • During the Reformation, numbers of them were put
    to death by Henry VIII and even more were killed
    during the French Revolution.
  • Most of them found refuge in Spain and were not
    able to return to Grande Chartreuse until 1940.

41
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • a. Ascetic Orders.
  • (2) The Cistercians. The most celebrated order of
    ascetic monks was founded at Citeaux in 1098 by
    Robert of Molesme, who sought to establish a form
    of Benedictism stricter and more primitive than
    any existing.
  • As a reaction to the Cluniac style of
    monasticism, the Cistercians emphasized the
    spirit of prophecy rather than the spirit of
    power.
  • Whereas the Cluniacs were free from manual labor
    the Cistercians stressed labor instead of
    scholarship, believing that to work is to pray.
  • They became proficient in the tasks of farming,
    cooking, weaving carpentry and sheep raising.

42
Cistercians
43
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • a. Ascetic Orders.
  • (2) The Cistercians.
  • They became important agricultural pioneers, and
    played a notable part in English sheep farming.
  • Their life-style, characterized by simplicity
    discipline, manual labor, vegetarianism, and
    spiritual contemplation, was very appealing to
    the medieval mind.
  • Thus the order spread rapidly and before the end
    of the twelfth century 530 Cistercian abbeys had
    been established, and 150 more in the next
    hundred years.
  • The most famous Cistercjan monk, Bernard of
    Clairvaux (1090-1153) bridged the age of feudal
    values and the rise of towns and universities.

44
Bernard of Clairveaux
45
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46
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • a. Ascetic Orders.
  • (2) The Cistercians.
  • He was the first of the great medieval mystics.
  • He entered the monastery at Citeaux when he was
    twenty-one, but soon led a group to found a new
    house of Clairvaux in the Champagne region.
  • Bernard became the most extreme Cistercian of
    them all, emaciating his body through
    deprivation lashing out at the worldly
    tendencies of the church, and denouncing pride,
    injustice, and greed wherever found.
  • Because of his moral integrity, knowledge of the
    Bible, devotion to love, and fearless attacks on
    evil, he was often referred to as the conscience
    of Europe.

47
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • a. Ascetic Orders.
  • (2) The Cistercians.
  • Bernards spiritual and intellectual pursuits
    centered in mysticism and produced the concept of
    Christian love being the imitation of Christ,
    especially as one contemplates the wounds of
    Christ.
  • He wielded great power throughout Christendom,
    with at least two popes (Innocent II and Eugenius
    III) being elected on the strength of Bernards
    support.
  • Christians today still sing some of his beautiful
    hymns, such as Jesus, The Very Thought of Thee,
    and Jesus, Thou Joy of Loving Hearts.
  • Cistercian observances widely influenced those of
    other medieval orders, until after the 13th c.
    when the Cistercian fame waned considerably.
  • During the 17th c. the Cistercians enjoyed a
    revival of interest and a flurry of new
    congregations.

48
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders. The Carthusians and
    Cistercians were representatives of a group of
    monastic orders which could have been known as
    the working monks because of their devotion to
    manual labor and contemplation.
  • Another popular group could have been called the
    preaching monks because they went out from
    their monasteries into the world to preach among
    the ordinary population.
  • They became known as the friars (brothers)
    rather than monks, and exist to the present. When
    the friars left their monasteries, they had no
    financial support or physical provisions.
  • They depended on the alms or charity of the
    people, and thus became known as the mendicant
    (to beg) orders.

49
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. The Order of Friars Minor
    (lesser brothers) was founded in 1209 by Francis
    of Assisi, the son of a rich cloth merchant of
    Assisi.
  • Rejecting his fathers wealth and renouncing his
    earlier life of carefree gaiety, Francis resolved
    to devote his life to the ideals of lady
    poverty.
  • On a pilgrimage to Rome, he dumped all his money
    at St. Peters, exchanged clothes with a beggar,
    and begged himself.
  • Returning to Assisi, Francis devoted himself to
    serving lepers and repairing chapels and churches
    in the area.

50
Assisi
51
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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. He took the words of Matthew
    107-19 to be a personal commission to him and
    began preaching that the kingdom of heaven is at
    hand.
  • Crowds and disciples began to follow the
    barefoot, impoverished, intense, and gentle
    Francis.
  • The growing number of brothers necessitated
    organization and rules, and Francis reluctantly
    drew up a simple rule of life for himself and his
    associates (Regula Primitiva).
  • In 1210 Francis obtained approval from Pope
    Innocent III for his simple rule devoted to
    apostolic poverty.

53
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. The Franciscans followed
    their founder in preaching and caring for the
    poor and sick.
  • A society for women, the Poor Clares, began in
    1212 when Clare, an heiress of Assisi, was
    converted and commissioned.
  • Francis was constantly afraid that the order
    would succumb to the attachments of the world,
    and in 1221 he drew up a Second Rule which was
    stricter and more definite concerning vows of
    poverty obedience, chastity, prayer, and
    regulations for organizations.
  • The Third Rule was confirmed by Pope Honorius III
    in 1223, three years before Francis death.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. The basic requirements for
    Franciscans included absolute poverty for they
    were to possess nothing and to trust the Lord to
    provide.
  • They were to guard against pride, vainglory,
    envy, avarice, and were to love their enemies.
  • They were not to preach in a diocese without the
    consent of the bishop and none could preach
    without examination and approval by the minister
    general.
  • They were to discuss, not theology, but penitence
    and forgiveness.
  • They became renowned for the reconciliation of
    feuds, and practically every village, town, and
    farm was visited by these preaching, singing
    troubadours of God.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. The popularity and growth of
    the order meant serious problems on the matter of
    possessions.
  • How could so many live by working or begging for
    enough for only one days provisions (one of the
    rules of the order)?
  • Eventually disruption came when the Spirituals
    insisted on adhering to all the original rules of
    poverty, and the Conventuals advocated reasonable
    compromise, with the church owning and the
    brothers using necessary property.
  • This became the divisive issue of the order with
    violent discussions endangering the whole
    venture.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. Papal bulls permitted
    corporate ownership for the order in 1317-18,
    causing many Spirituals to become schismatics.
  • With material prosperity came spiritual laxity
    and a new group called the Observants took up the
    banner of the old Spirituals.
  • They opposed the lax Conventuals more than a
    hundred years until they finally won and were
    declared the true Order of St. Francis in 1517.
  • At the beginning the rule did not encourage
    learning, and Francis strongly opposed any effort
    to start a house of study.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. After his death, however,
    the general rise of education prevailed in Europe
    and permeated the order.
  • 70 new universities were established in Europe
    between 1200 and 1250, and by 1234 the
    Franciscans themselves had a flourishing
    seminary.
  • Some of the celebrated scholars of Christendom
    who were Franciscans were Bonaventure, Duns
    Scotus, and William of Occam.
  • Much of the work of the Franciscans today is
    carried on in the universities of the world.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (1) The Franciscans. Besides the legacy of the
    order named for him, Francis left the personal
    example of contagious piety and unaffected
    goodness.
  • This gentle lover of people and all of Gods
    creation was especially at home in the wilderness
    among the animals and birds.
  • He went through frequent and long periods of
    fasting and praying, receiving ecstatic visions.
  • He was reported to have performed numerous
    miracles, and one legend says that he received
    the stigmata, bleeding wounds on his body at the
    places where the wounds were on the crucified
    body of Jesus.
  • Francis of Assisi was beloved by everyone from
    lepers to leaders and was perhaps the brightest
    personality in the dreary medieval period of
    history.

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St. Francis statue Sonoma County, CA
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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (2) The Dominicans. Another mendicant order
    differed drastically from the Franciscans in
    their emphases and results.
  • The Franciscan movement symbolized reform,
    redirection, and rededication but the Dominican
    movement symbolized ecclesiastical orthodoxy.
  • The Dominican order was founded by the Spaniard
    Domingo (Dominic) de Guzman (1170-1221), who was
    deeply concerned over converting the Albigenses.
  • He believed, however, that that group of ascetic
    heretics could only be reached by one who lived
    in poverty and simplicity.

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St. Dominic
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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (2) The Dominicans. He gathered around him a
    group of men dedicated to winning heretics and
    heathen by preaching and poverty.
  • To accomplish their task, they became especially
    interested in study and were the first monastic
    order to abandon manual labor and put
    intellectual work in the forefront.
  • Because they also practiced both individual and
    corporate poverty, they, like the Franciscans,
    were compelled to beg for their support from the
    populace.
  • The Fourth Lateran Council denied recognition to
    Dominic and his mendicant friars, but late in
    1216 Honorius III sanctioned their mission, and
    in 1220 their rule was confirmed.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (2) The Dominicans. In 1217, they laid plans for
    expanding world missions, and within four years
    had organized work in eight countries.
  • Because they were devoted to learning from the
    outset, the Dominicans readily established
    themselves in the fast-growing universities and
    gained renown for their scholarship.
  • Since they were also dedicated to combat heresy
    and heathenism, they became the watchdogs of the
    churchs Inquisition.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (2) The Dominicans. The popes also used them
    extensively in the preaching of the Crusades, the
    collecting of monetary levies, and the
    carrying-out of diplomatic missions.
  • The leading medieval theologians produced by the
    Dominicans were Albert the Great and Thomas
    Aquinas.
  • Although the Dominicans have contributed much in
    the fields of devotional books, scriptural
    paraphrases, religious poetry, and popular
    fables, their main interest has always been, and
    continues to be, that of education.

67
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (3) The Carmelites. The Order of Our Lady of
    Mount Carmel was founded in Palestine in 1154 by
    Berthold, and established by the primitive rule
    as laid down in 1209 by Albert of Vercelli, Latin
    Patriarch of Jerusalem.
  • This rule was one of extreme asceticism,
    prescribing absolute poverty solitude, and
    vegetarianism.
  • After the failure of the crusades, many of the
    Carmelites migrated to Europe and organized on
    the lines of the mendicant friars.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (3) The Carmelites. An Order of Carmelite Sisters
    was founded in 1452, and spread rapidly through
    France, Italy, and Spain.
  • In the latter part of the 16th c. the mystical
    Teresa of Avila led in a reform of the Carmelite
    orders, which had grown lax and weak.
  • Her disciple, John of the Cross, led in a similar
    reform among the friars.
  • Thus the so-called Teresian Reform set the
    Carmelites again on the course of contemplation,
    missionary work, and theology.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (4) The Augustinians. In the middle of the 11th
    c. several communities of clerks in northern
    Italy and southern France sought to live the
    common life of poverty celibacy and obedience, in
    accordance with what they believed to be the
    example of the early Christians.
  • They adopted the Rule of St. Augustine, which
    laid down precise monastic observances. The
    sanity of the rule, its adaptability and the
    repute of its supposed author led to its adoption
    by several monastic orders, including the
    Dominicans, the Augustinian Hermits, the
    Servites, and the Visitation nuns.

75
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • b. Mendicant Orders.
  • (4) The Augustinians. The flexibility of the rule
    allowed members to follow various vocations,
    active and contemplative.
  • The Augustinians had special connections with
    hospitals.
  • Some of the more influential Augustinian
    congregations were the Victorines and the
    Premonstratensians.
  • The most notable Augustinian monk was none other
    than Martin Luther.

76
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • c. Military Orders. The most peculiar outcome of
    the monastic movement was the combination of the
    ascetic ideal with that of chivalry in the
    formation of knightly or military orders.
  • (1) The Knights Hospitalers. The beginnings of
    this order are uncertain, but by the end of the
    11th c., it was headquartered in a hospital at
    Jerusalem.
  • Its original duties were to care for the sick,
    and to provide hospitality for pilgrims and
    crusaders.
  • It established an armed guard of knights for the
    defense of pilgrims, which developed into a
    regular army.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • c. Military Orders.
  • (1) The Knights Hospitalers. In 1099, Master
    Gerard obtained papal sanction for the ordei, and
    his successor Raymond of Provence greatly
    developed the organization.
  • During the 12th c. the order spread to Europe,
    and the knights participated in the crusades.
    After the fall of Acre (1291), they escaped to
    Cyprus and conquered Rhodes, which became the
    center of their activities for 200 years they
    then became known as the Knights of Rhodes.
  • The order received the sovereignty of Malta from
    Charles V in 1530 and became known as the Knights
    of Malta.
  • The surrender of Malta to Napoleon in 1798 placed
    the hospitalers in a precarious position which
    they have maintained to the present.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • c. Military Orders.
  • (2) The Knights Templars. The Poor Knights of
    Christ, a military order founded in 1118 to
    defend Jerusalem against the Moslems, soon had to
    drop their name for they had become the
    wealthiest of all monastic orders.
  • Their influence spread quickly, and in a few
    short years they had settlements in nearly every
    country in Christendom.
  • They introduced solemn forms of initiation and
    elaborate organization. They built several
    castles which served as both monasteries and
    cavalry barracks, of which notable ruins still
    remain.
  • Their supporters loaded them with great wealth,
    which was deposited in their temples in Paris
    and London.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • c. Military Orders.
  • (2) The Knights Templars. Thus they developed a
    reputation as trusted bankers.
  • The Templars carried on an unceasing rivalry with
    the Hospitalers.
  • The Templars were suppressed by Clement V at the
    Council of Vienne in 1312 under charges of
    immorality, superstition and heresy.
  • Their guilt or innocence was argued for
    centuries, but most historians now feel the
    suppression was in order to get hold of the
    Templars great wealth.

84
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 2. Flourishing Monasticism.
  • So monasticism thrived in various forms of
    expression, but always there was the testimony of
    dedicated men and women withdrawing from the
    normal intercourse of society to devote
    themselves to an area of spirituality which they
    felt deserved their entire lives.
  • This had a profound effect on the rest of
    Christendom, which was called upon to evaluate
    its own spirituality by the standards of
    monasticism.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 3. Developing Scholasticism.
  • While spirituality was being revived through
    monasticism, the medieval period saw also the
    revival of learning through a movement known as
    Scholasticism, so called because it arose from
    the schools of the period and revolved around the
    works of the school men.
  • This was a new kind of intellectualism, concerned
    with the relation between faith and reason,
    between realism and nominalism.
  • A distinguishing characteristic of Scholasticism
    was its use of the dialectical method of
    philosophy.
  • Theological problems were skillfully and
    energetically studied with the tools of logic and
    metaphysics.

87
Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 3. Developing Scholasticism.
  • The Scholastic method of teaching involved the
    lectio, the public lecture in which the master
    explained the text, and the disputatio, in which
    a view was expounded and objections to it
    proposed and answered in syllogistic form.
  • The Scholastic method of writing was typically in
    the form of commentaries which gave systematic
    expositions over the whole field of theology and
    were known as Summae.
  • The growth of medieval Scholasticism is usually
    divided into three stages, a formative period
    (11th 12th centuries), a period of
    consolidation (13th c.), and one of criticism
    (14th 15th centuries).

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 3. Developing Scholasticism.
  • In the first period Scholastic thought was
    influenced by Platonism derived from Augustine.
  • Aristotelian dialectic became important in the
    12th c. largely through the works of Abelard.
  • This period was dominated by the controversy
    about the nature of universals, but there was
    also Anselms ontological argument for the
    existence of God.
  • The 13th c. saw the culmination and consolidation
    of medieval Scholasticism as evidenced in the
    works of Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas,
    Bonaventura, and Duns Scotus.
  • This period was especially enhanced by the
    acquisition of Aristotles works in Latin
    translations and commentaries, and by the coming
    of the Franciscan and Dominican orders to the
    universities.

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Power Struggle (1054-1305)
  • A. Spiritual Intellectual Renewal
  • 3. Developing Scholasticism.
  • The final period of medieval Scholasticism was
    one of criticism and decline.
  • The critical attitude is found early in the wor
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