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History of Aquatic Science

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Title: History of Aquatic Science


1
History of Aquatic Science
  • This unit will give an introduction to the
    history of oceanic exploration and the major
    events discoveries that shaped the course of
    Aquatic Science.
  • On the following slides, the green sections are
    the most important.
  • Underline words vocabulary!

2
Vessel Matching
B
  • Match the items below to the pictures to the
    right.
  • ROV
  • Satellite
  • Submarine
  • Buoy
  • Sonar

A
D
C
E
3
Aquatic Science
  • What is Aquatic Science?
  • The study of all water environments, and the
    plants, animals, and organisms that live in them.

http//habitatnews.nus.edu.sg/news/pulauhantu/imag
es/LIT000720blog.jpg
4
Background
  • About ¾ of our Earth is water without water,
    life on Earth as we know it would not exist.
  • The ocean is one of our last frontiers the last
    places to discover.
  • Since the beginning of time human kind has
    required water for survival.

http//watserv1.uwaterloo.ca/saibaba/Boy20Drinki
ng20Water.jpg
5
The Ocean
  • Through the study of the worlds oceans, we
  • Enjoy recreation
  • Explore aquatic animals plants
  • Find food
  • Get our weather systems
  • Learn the history of the planet
  • Mine for minerals, oil building materials
  • Trade between countries
  • Transport goods and people

6
Areas of Study in Aquatic Science
  • Physical currents, tides, waves, pressure,
    temperature, depth, density, as relating to
    weather phenomenon
  • Geological history of the Earth, seafloor
    features, sediments, changes over time
  • Chemical evolution and composition of seawater,
    its influences on animal and plant life, and
    impact of water pollution on the environment
  • Biological plants, animals and their ecosystems
    (life cycles, food chains, and environments)

7
Oceanography
  • What is oceanography?
  • A multiscience field encompassing geology,
    geophysics, chemistry, physics, meteorology, and
    biology as they pertain to marine ecosystems.

http//library.humboldt.edu/rls/kelp.jpg
8
Marine Biology
  • Marine Biology the study of marine organisms,
    their behaviors, and interactions with the
    environment.

9
Aquaculture
  • Aquaculture the management of fisheries and
    hatcheries, where fish eggs are incubated and
    hatched.

10
Setting up Your Timeline
  • Take a sheet of legal sized paper.
  • Fold the sheet along the Y axis (skinny) and cut
    along the fold.
  • Tape the two ends of the paper together to make
    one long strip for the timeline.
  • Use the meter stick/ruler to draw a line down the
    center of the paper.
  • Create a key in the lower left hand corner
  • 1 cm 100 years

11
Egyptian Technology
  • The Egyptians established sea trade throughout
    the Indian Ocean as early as 2300 B.C.
  • Ca 1938 - 1756 B.C. built the canal, the Isthmus
    of Suez, to navigate ships across land.
  • It operated until 775 A.D.

http//search.eb.com.ezproxy.uhd.edu/eb/article-22
787
12
The Phoenicians
  • Phoenicians (from the Middle East) Sailed around
    Africa in 590 B.C.

A stone carving from the 1st century AD shows the
kind of ship that the Phoenicians used on the
Mediterranean Sea. The Granger Collection, New
York Image
http//search.eb.com.ezproxy.uhd.edu/eb/art-2116/P
hoenician-colonization-in-the-Mediterranean
13
The Greeks
  • Herodotus (a Greek) published accurate map (see
    below) of Mediterranean region, ca 450 B.C.
  • Greeks Developed trade routes throughout the
    Mediterranean and expanded their empire under
    Alexander the Great, 336 B.C.

http//www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ancientimages/109.
JPEG
14
Amazing Math!
  • 200 B.C. the Greek Eratosthenes mathematically
    calculated the circumference of the Earth to be
    40,000 km.
  • It actually is 40,032 km.
  • 2,200 years ago his math was good enough to be
    off only 32 km!

Eratosthenes knew that at noon on the summer
solstice the Sun is directly overhead at Syene (a
city).He also knew the distance between Syene
and Alexandria (another city), which, combined
with his measurement of the solar angle a between
the Sun and the vertical, enabled him to
calculate Earth's circumference. From
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
15
The Arabs
http//search.eb.com.ezproxy.uhd.edu/eb/art-12539/
A-lateen-rigged-ship-used-by-Arab-merchants
  • ca 200 B.C Islamic and Arab Merchants
    Experienced sailors traded throughout the
    Mediterranean and Indian Oceans.
  • They are believed to have invented the lateen
    sail, the triangular sail important in early
    navigation.

16
In the Middle Ages
  • 900 A.D. The Vikings crossed the North Atlantic
    to colonize Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland
    using the North Star to determine latitude.

Exhumed Viking ship Viking Ship Museum, Oslo,
Norway. Image
17
15th and 16th Centuries
  • Chinese Sailed to influence and impress their
    neighbors.
  • 1492 Columbus Sailing for Spain, sailed the
    Atlantic and discovered the Americas.
  • 1497 Vasco da Gama Sailing for Portugal, sailed
    around Africa from Portugal to India to establish
    trade routes.
  • Europeans searched for the Northwest passage
    through northern Canada to trade with Asia
    explored the Artic.

18
Around the World in
  • 1519 - Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan was
    the 1st European expedition to circumnavigate
    (travel all around) the world.
  • 237 men began the voyage 18 returned.
  • Magellan actually died before the journey was
    finished, but his crew returned in 1522. Trip

http//www.solarnavigator.net/history/explorers_hi
story/ferdinand_magellan_charcoal_fur_robe.jpg
19
Benjamin Franklin
  • 1762- The American Ben Franklin created a chart
    of the Gulf Stream.
  • The Gulf Stream gives the US its warm climate,
    bringing warm water north from the equator.

http//oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/library/readings/hir
es/gulf_stream_map.jpg
20
Harrison Cook
  • 1728 - Device invented by John Harrison (a
    carpenter) who was paid 20,000 pounds by the
    British government a chronometer a device that
    calculates longitude.
  • 1768 - The English explorer Captain James Cook
    made 3 voyages to chart the Pacific Ocean.
  • He was the first to use a chronometer for
    navigation.

http//www.captaincookwhitby.co.uk/captainjamescoo
kportrait.jpg
21
Charles Darwin
  • In 1831 Charles Darwin took his voyage on the
    ship the HMS Beagle which led to the origin of
    species and the modern theories of evolution.

http//uk.gizmodo.com/charles_darwin_l.jpg
22
Matthew Maury
  • U.S. Navys Lt. Matthew Maury, called the Father
    of Modern Oceanography, made charts and sailing
    directions through data collection and wrote the
    first book of oceanography in 1855.
  • Monument named him Pathfinder of the Seas.
    (Richmond, VA)

http//www.18thmass.com/blog/media/2/20070417-Rich
mond20-20Matthew20Maury.jpg
23
The Challenger
  • From 1872 to 1876, the ship HMS Challenger
    Expedition led by Sir Charles Wyville Thomson
    gathered more data in its time than all other
    data to date.

http//www.zamboanga.com/history/histor8.jpg
  • It was this voyage that discovered the worlds
    deepest ocean trench, the Marianas Trench, now
    sometimes called the Challenger Deep.

24
  • The Marianas Trench (8185 m or 26,850 ft) in the
    Pacific Ocean about 200 miles SW of Guam.
  • The map below shows the route of HMS Challenger
    (in red) the expedition lasted 1,000 days and
    covered more than 68,000 nautical miles.

http//oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/03mount
ains/background/challenger/media/route.html
25
20th Century
  • 1898 The world wars were the catalyst for US
    oceanographic research invention of the 1st gas
    engine/battery powered submarine (John Holland)
    bought by US government in 1900.

http//oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/explorations/05arcti
c/background/plan/media/global_explorer_rov_600.jp
g
  • Development of technology including electronic
    equipment, deep sea drilling programs, (1916)
    SONAR, use of GPS (global positioning system) and
    satellites.

26
The Meteor
  • The Meteor Expedition mapped the ocean floor and
    features.
  • 1925-1927 - The German Meteor expedition
    systematically surveys the South Atlantic with
    echo-sounding equipment and other oceanographic
    instruments.

http//oceanexplorer.noaa.gov/history/quotes/tech/
media/echo_600.jpg
27
The Trieste
  • On January 23, 1960, the bathyscaph (small
    submarine) Trieste reached the greatest oceanic
    depth existing on our planet.
  • Don Walsh and Jacques Picard (US navy) piloted
    the Trieste to the deepest part of the trench
    (35,797ft gt 6.5miles) .

http//www.strange-mecha.com/ship/Bathyscaphe/trie
ste.jpg
28
  • ".... I saw a wonderful thing. Lying on the
    bottom just beneath us was some type of flatfish
    Even as I saw him, his two round eyes on top of
    his head spied us Why should he have eyes?
    Merely to see phosphorescence?...Here, in an
    instant, was the answer that biologists had asked
    for the decades. Could life exist in the greatest
    depths of the ocean? It could! - J. Picard

http//www.travel-dive.com/images/frogfish-hairbal
l.jpg
29
Alvin
  • Designed by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute
    and built in 1962, Alvin has traveled around the
    world completing 4,162 dives.

http//www.oar.noaa.gov/spotlite/archive/images/oc
eandumping_alvin.jpg
  • Alvin has mechanical arms and in 1966 helped to
    locate a H-bomb that was lost in the
    Mediterranean Sea.
  • In 1979, Alvin and its crew discovered black
    smokers on the sea floor.

30
The Glomar Challenger
http//www.pixelgraphicsinc.com/images/Glomar.jpg
  • 1968 The Glomar Challenger, a drilling vessel
    that proved seafloor spreading and changes in the
    earths climate by taking core samples from the
    sea floor.

31
View from Space
  • 1985 JASON, a satellite found and documented
    the wreck of the Titanic.

http//topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/mission/images/OSTM-
200707.jpg
32
The Japanese
  • 1989 - Japan launched the Shinkai 6500 which can
    carry a crew without a tether (rope) up to 21,414
    ft deep into the ocean (a world record).

http//www.sstg.org/images/shinkai.jpg
33
21st Century
  • In 2006, a Chinese mineral company (COMRA)
    designed a craft to reach 23,000 ft.

http//interridge.whoi.edu/files/interridge/comra_
celebrate.png
34
How do we study the ocean?
  • Types of Research Vessels
  • Submersibles small underwater vehicles
  • ROV remotely operated vehicle
  • Bathysphere is lowered by a cable from a ship
  • Drilling ships which take sediment cores
  • Floating and Fixed platforms (FLIP floating
    instrument platform) to gather data like
    temperature, salinity, density, and weather
    patterns

35
Other Research Instruments
  • Airplanes
  • Satellites SEASAT 1st satellite dedicated to
    ocean studies
  • Echosounding
  • Underwater cameras
  • Side scan sonar great for sunken ships

http//www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/images/si
de-scan-sonar-rude2.jpg
36
In Conclusion
http//www.cliffshade.com/colorado/images/earth_we
st.jpg
  • The ocean represents the Earths last frontier
    for exploration and the key to understanding the
    future of our planet.
  • The human race depends on the life and
    sustainability of the ocean for economic,
    biological, and environmental stability.
  • The world of Aquatic science is ever reaching for
    new discoveries in this blue realm.
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