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Four Fish

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Four Fish Paul Greenberg Four Fish Now let s return to 2 s from the beginning what do you think????? Four Fish MAJOR ISSUES: - Trophic Structure (need more ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Four Fish


1
Four Fish
  • Paul Greenberg

2
Four Fish
  • Wild Harvest of the Ocean is now 90 million
    tons/yr. (catch 170 billion lbs.) thus we are
    REMOVING more fish (per year!) than can
    naturally restock themselvesthis leads to
    exploitationillegal
  • Amt. 6X greater than in 1950!
    fishingdomesticationaquaculturegames in
    science with farmingignorance (on purpose?) of
    ocean policy andextinction? Or (at least) a
    1,000 sushi dinner
  • We need 4 or 5 oceans to support our demand!

3
Four Fish
  • The King of Fish (Salmon)
  • The (used to be) Commoner (Cod)
  • Holiday Fish (Bass)
  • One Last Bite(Tuna)

4
Four Fish
  • MAJOR ISSUES
  • - Trophic Structure (need more feed than fish
    produced/caught and thus ruining ALL marine food
    webs)
  • - This can lead to pollution/bad
    conditions/biomagnification of contaminants
  • - Habitat Destruction (fishing methods hurt a
    lot more than target)
  • - Livelihoods of fishermen?
  • - Price of demand (to expensive to eat
    healthy?)

5
Four Fish
  • MAJOR ISSUES (cont.)
  • - Farming uses open ocean areas as pens,
    best use of ocean?
  • - Are these animals really wild?
  • -Maritime history lost?
  • - Laws/Enforcement issues?

6
Four Fisha travellers story
  • Salmon lead cavemen to mouths of rivers (they
    came to us!)
  • (Sea) Bass lead us to nearshore/coastal rocks and
    reefs (but in the ocean!)
  • Cod lead us (so brave!) offshore to continental
    shelves (and long fishing trips)
  • Tunathe final frontierleads only a true
    fisherman for the hunt to the open sea

7
Salmon
8
Salmon
9
Salmon
  • 1st wave representative of human exploitation
  • Domestication was launched ON PURPOSE to head of
    extinction

10
Salmon
  • Wild Alaskan
  • Nova Scotian (lox in NY!)
  • Atlantic (all farmed)
  • Pacific (king/sockeye/pink/chum)these are the
    great migrators and best sustained (most
    common/cheapest in markets today) but are 40
    extinct (you eat farmed)

11
Salmon
  • THE KING OF FISH
  • Needs clean, free-flowing, freshwater (to spawn)
  • Swim (upstream) against the current
  • Do not eat after they spawn so must reserve a lot
    of fat to make trip back (the good for us fat
    we eat it for) thus very strong (hence name
    king)
  • (Wild) Filter Feeders (zooplankton)

12
Salmon
  • Problem?
  • They typically need clean, free-flowing,
    freshwater (to spawn) and are strong enough to
    swim (upstream) against the current
  • However, we have found that only WILD species can
    actually do this (what few we have left) and
    farmed (that are released) genomes have lost
    that instinct
  • Long Term implication???

13
Salmon
  • Problem?
  • But still we farm (pg. 49 book)
  • PCBs
  • Wild salmon eat differently (zooplankton) than
    farmed (fish pellets) too
  • So? less value to us?? more fish out to
    produce them? (trophic structure NIGHTMARE)

14
Salmon
  • Future?
  • Eat Wild Salmon RARELY as the delicacy of all
    delicacies! ( prices reflects)
  • Or eat a(n) AqaAdvantage (genetically modified)
    version - eats less and is always female/sterile
    so doesnt impact wild stock (cant mate)
  • Closed System Aquaculture (separate stocks)
  • Science get them to eat something else (algae)
    impact trophic structure(s) less?
  • Pg. 74 book

15
Cod (USA)
16
(No Transcript)
17
Cod
  • (Now) Lives further offshore where continental
    shelf slopes off (but can live/feed a lot closer)
  • Gather, closer to bottom, in these areas annually
    to mate a congregation
  • But fishermen knew of this event and created
    large scale trawlers to catch them (in mass s)
  • Large-scale trawling habitat destruction too
  • Their prey collapsed as well (eat
    alewives/herring need rivers!) from
    mills/industrialization

18
Cod
  • Gadiform (also haddock/hake/pollack) make up 1/3
    of all britians (sea)food diet because its
    cheap (think fish-n-chips) and flaky/white
    (tasty!)
  • Gadiforms are lazy (move slowlybecause they
    live in colder waters) thus not a lot of red
    meat (muscle) and not a lot of blood through
    bloodline (doesnt taste fishy)
  • (Lazy) dont travel to far/fast (easy to catch)
    easy to contain (eat directly from
    surrounding environs as filter feederswill eat
    almost anything but prefer small fish)
  • Store oil in liver (not flesh) thus can be
    stored longer (great industrial fish)

19
Cod
  • Used to have so many you could walk across the
    water on their backs (the commoner)
  • Most common characteristic was its very high
    abundance
  • Cape Cod (New England most common fishing
    areas) closed 1994 (Fed. Govt)
  • Now we have industrial fishing (factories) to
    turn it in to a commoners staple (canned)

20
Cod
  • McDonalds Filet-o-Fish was Cod only .25
    (1962)
  • But we selected for larger fish (removed from
    stock) when smaller ones reproduced the genome
    was changed (not as viable/large)
  • First fish to introduce OVERFISHING concept ? and
    cod crisis (1994) lead to the Sustainable
    Fisheries Act
  • (note) Filet-o-Fish now pollack (same thing is
    crab in California Roll)

21
Cod
  • What will replace it?
  • Alaskan Pollack (now) but issues w/ fishing
    methods (mid-water trawl only?) and amts
    decreasing (increased pressure) so - what later?
  • Hoki (gadiform/lives in same area), Basa, Tra and
    Tilapia (these are FRESHWATER FISH!) all breed
    easy and dont disrupt oceanic food chains
  • Note All have MSC (Marine Stewardship Council)
    certification of Sustainability but isnt it
    odd (sad!) that were replacing a saltwater fish
    w/ a freshwater species???

22
(Striped) Bass (local)
23
Chilean Sea Bass (Patagonian Toothfish)
24
Bass
  • Means any white, meaty fish in that family but
    typically refers to European Sea Bass
  • Bass means bristle (germanic) 5 (odd)
    spines (rays) on dorsal side
  • Others are Branzino, Chilean Sea Bass
    (Patagonian Toothfish), Striped Bass (here!)
    (the future?!) Asian Sea Bass (barramundi)
  • A Perciforme (order of fish that are perch
    shaped) that can dive deep w/ a developed swim
    bladder thus more white meat w/ less bones in
    the way (good/easy to eat) but not too deep (easy
    to catch)

25
Bass
  • Holiday Fish because now (pretty) expensive
  • Lives in shallow, coastal, waters so 1st fish we
    easy reached (so easily outstripped by early
    settlers)
  • Swim bladder prevents extreme depths
  • Anadromous Many spawn in freshwater live in
    seawater (need both conditions)

26
Bass
  • Humans select to domesticate animals that are
  • Hardy
  • Endowed w/ an inborn liking to man
  • Comfort-loving
  • Able to breed freely
  • Needful of only a min. amt. of tending
  • see pg. 90text

27
Are Bass good for this?nope
  • Humans selected to domesticate bass but
  • Do not easily breed in captivity (they actually
    change their hormones when stressed)
  • Even when they figured out how to inject
    artificial hormones the fish actually cleaved
    them (again no go)
  • Eat fish in wild (need to many) or rotifers
    (freshwater zooplankton) in captivity but these
    (in high s) lead to bacteria and you need
    phytoplankton to control them (i.e. hard to
    feed). Tried sea monkey too (same issue)
  • But something good did come of it

28
Bassthe ROSETTA STONE?
  • This was the fish (when studied) that unlocked
    the secrets of development for every major
    commercial ocean fish species.
  • Hormones for breeding, dietary changes, juvenile
    development/needs, environmental factors and
    implications (light cycles needed in captivity
    etc.)
  • Template now used for almost ALL fish we eat!

29
(Atlantic) Bluefin Tuna
30
Bluefin Tuna
31
Tuna
  • Pgs. 206 215
  • Deepwater zones past the continental shelf so
    harder to get tobut a true fishermans dream
    to catch
  • STATELESS FISH - Deepwater zones mean they are
    PAST the EEZ and regulations are very hard to
    enforce
  • Gold Rush of wild food (sushi)

32
Tuna
  • 48 species fastest, most powerful fish in the
    world (tuna, in greek, means to dart)
  • Lightening fast ( 40 mph)
  • (Largest Atlantic Bluefin) has a range that
    encompasses entire ocean and can easily be 14
    and 1000-1500 lbs.
  • WARM-BLOODED (tail development for vibrationnot
    effort!)
  • Others include longfin albacore (canned)
    yellowfin/bigeye (ahi) but not in as much
    dangereventually (replace all) w/ Jack?

33
Tuna
  • Of 48 species (largest) Atlantic Bluefin most
    prized
  • Single fish price (at market) in excess of
    150,000 (hence s have crashed)
  • Over 90 of (ABT) species extinct/overfished
    why?
  • Pressure and very slow growing (7 years to sexual
    maturity and longer for giants) so cant
    restock popultion

34
Four Fish
  • Now lets return to 2 slides from the
    beginningwhat do you think?????

35
Four Fish
  • MAJOR ISSUES
  • - Trophic Structure (need more feed than fish
    produced/caught and thus ruining ALL marine food
    webs)
  • - This can lead to pollution/bad
    conditions/biomagnification of contaminants
  • - Habitat Destruction (fishing methods hurt a
    lot more than target)
  • - Livelihoods of fishermen?
  • - Price of demand (to expensive to eat
    healthy?)

36
Four Fish
  • MAJOR ISSUES (cont.)
  • - Farming uses open ocean areas as pens,
    best use of ocean?
  • - Are these animals really wild?
  • -Maritime history lost?
  • - Laws/Enforcement issues?

37
What should you eat?
  • Hook and line fisheries (pay attention to
    methods) for habitat destruction minimalization
  • Vegetarian fish (watch what you eat eats) for
    lower trophic structure impact
  • Aquaculture species with sound husbandry
  • Dining on a 500 lb. fish is the equivalent of
    driving a Hummer (dont eat the big fish or
    support industries that do!)
  • What else? (MSC, BOI seafood watch etc.)
  • ?? Eat Whale?? (whats the difference!?)

38
(LT) How to Make it Better?
  • Pg. 246 252 book
  • Reduce global fishing pressure
  • Create significant no-catch areas
  • Global protection of species that migrate (watch
    markets)
  • Protection of lowest trophic structure species
    too!
  • Aquaculture species that are efficient,
    nondestructive to wild systems, limited in ,
    adaptable, function in a polyculture
  • KEEP THE LAST WILD FOOD WILD!

39
(LT) How to Make it Better?
  • Educate yourself ( others)
  • - Know what you order/buy (see next 2 slides)
  • - know COOL (Country of Origin Labeling)
  • - Know how caught
  • - Know how preserved shipped (i.e. Frozen at
    Sea may decrease carbon footprint)
  • - Is wild really WILD? (or farmed?)
  • - No such thing as organic fish

40
Albacore (tuna)
41
Bluefin (Tuna) Note Yellowfin looks similar
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