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Lesson 1: Basic Map Skills

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Title: Lesson 1: Basic Map Skills


1
Unit 1 Louisianas Physical and Cultural
Geography
Lesson 1 Basic Map Skills
2
Lesson 1 Basic Map Skills
  • Objectives
  • AGENDA

3
Parts of a Body (Map)
4
What are the worlds oceans? ?
5
What are the worlds oceans? ?
Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian
6
What are the worlds continents? ?
7
What are the worlds continents? ?
Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe,
North America, South America
8
What ocean do you cross when traveling from the
United States to Europe? Africa? Australia? ?
9
What ocean do you cross when traveling from the
United States to Europe? Africa? Australia? ?
Atlantic Atlantic Pacific
10
What continent do you cross when traveling east
from the United States to Russia? ?
11
What continent do you cross when traveling east
from the United States to Russia? ?
Europe
12
Aerial View of the Gulf Coast
13
Whats on a map?
  • Maps have a lot of information.
  • You need to know how to read them.
  • There are several parts to a map which explain
    details and help you really see where you are and
    where you're going.

14
Legend
  • Help you decode the symbols used on a map.
  • Also called a key.
  • The clues on this map include symbols for parts
    of a fairground.

15
Compass Rose
  • The compass rose shows the directions on a map
    north, south, east, and west.

16
Cardinal Directions
  • North, South, East and West are called the
    cardinal directions.

17
Index
  • The index tells you where to find a specific
    place on a map. Depending on the size and type of
    map you're using, the index can help you locate a
    city, town, or street.

18
Scale
  • The scale helps you measure the distance between
    two places. When you know the distance you can
    calculate how long the trip will take.

19
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20
Types of Maps
  • Maps cover a variety of information
  • Rainfall, population, land/water, types of
    terraindesert, mountain, etc., temperature,
    climate, time zone, land use, and more
  • Some Types of Maps are
  • Political shows boundaries, states, countries,
    that are man made
  • Reference
  • Physical shows natural features, i.e., water,
    landforms, etc.
  • Historical
  • Economic
  • Road map

21
World Map
  • The 7 large land areas are the continents. (North
    America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia,
    Australia, and Antarctica)
  • The 4 largest bodies of water are the oceans.
    (Pacific, Arctic, Atlantic, Indian)

22
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23
Location
Location and distance are stated using a system
known as latitude and longitude.
24
Location
  • Location and distance are stated using a system
    known as latitude and longitude.
  • Lines of latitude (parallels) measure a
    locations distance N or S. of the equator and
    run from E to W.
  • Latitude is measured in degrees from 0 to 90.
  • The line of latitude that most people know is the
    equator and it is 0 degrees. It runs around the
    center of the earth and divides the earth in
    half.

25
  • The area N of the equator is known as the
    northern hemisphere and the area S of the equator
    is known as the southern hemisphere.

Northern hemisphere
Southern hemisphere
26
  • Line of longitude (meridians) measure a
    locations distance E or W of the prime meridian
    and run from N to S.
  • Longitude is measured in degrees from 0 to 180.
  • The line of longitude that most people know is
    the Prime Meridian and it is 0 degrees. It runs
    around the center of the earth through Greenwich,
    England and divides the earth in half.
  • The area E of the Prime Meridian is known as the
    eastern hemisphere and the area W of the Prime
    Meridian is known as the western hemisphere.

27
Western hemisphere
Eastern hemisphere
28
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29
  • The absolute location for a place is the exact
    spot on the earths surface where a place is
    found. The line of latitude is always read first
    followed by the line of longitude.
  • Relative location explains where a place is in
    relation to another place or places.
  • i.e. Down the street from Walmart.

30
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31
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32
Time Zones (Read more on page 25)
  • Earth has 24 time zones.
  • United States has six.
  • Pacific, Mountain, Central and Eastern are the
    four time zones in the contiguous (connected)
    United States.

GLEs 1
33
U.S. Time Zones
34
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35
  • The earth rotates on its axis once every 24
    hours. For this reason, the earth is divided
    into 24 standard time zones, one time zone for
    each hour in the day.
  • The earth rotates towards the east, which means
    that if you cross into the next time zone to the
    east, it is one hour later. If you cross into
    the next time zone in the west, it is one hour
    earlier.

36
  • The International Date Line plays an important
    role in time zones. It is located at 180 degrees
    longitude.
  • If you are standing on the east side of the
    International Date Line it is one day (Monday)
    however, on the west side, it is a day ahead
    (Tuesday).
  • LA is in the central time zone.

37
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38
Scenario
  • I am at home (B.R.) and want to call my 10
    friends. Help me figure out the times.
  • It is 10am in B.R. What time is it in
  • New Orleans New York, NY
  • San Francisco, CA Denver, CO
  • It is 5pm in B.R. What time is it in
  • Paris, France Rome, Italy
  • Bombay, India Tokyo, Japan
  • Sidney, Australia Baghdad, Iraq

39
Task Calculate Time Zones
  • Label world map
  • Label time zones
  • Calculate the given time zones

40
Louisianas Geography
41
Geography
  • Geography is the study of places, their
    locations, and their physical and human
    characteristics.
  • There are 2 types of geographies
  • Physical geography (study of landforms, oceans,
    weather, and climate)
  • Cultural geography (study of how people have
    interacted w/ change and adapted to different
    places on the Earth)

42
Louisianas Geography
  • Louisiana lies between 28 degrees and 33 degrees
    N. latitude and between 89 degrees and 92 degrees
    W. longitude.
  • 24 states lie east of LA and 25 lie west of LA.
  • Louisiana is located in the SE part of the US.
  • The only state both N and S. of LA is TX.
  • LA ranks 31st with an area of 48,523 square miles.

43
Major Cities in Louisiana
44
Major Highways in Louisiana
45
Boundaries
46
Boundaries
  • Borders of LA
  • East (MS, 31 degrees N. latitude, MS River, and
    Pearl River)
  • West (TX, 94th degree W. longitude, Toledo Bend
    and Sabine River)
  • South (Gulf of Mexico)
  • North (AK at 33 degrees N. latitude)
  • Changes in bodies of water have made the exact
    location of boundary lines confusing and
    sometimes controversial for parishes (political
    divisions in the state).

47
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48
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49
A Geologic History All Its Own
  • Geology The study of how the earth was formed
  • Pangaea 250 million years ago, the worlds
    landmass was one giant continent.
  • Pangaea was also known as All Land.
  • At end of Paleozoic Era, Pangaea began breaking
    apart, and the continents drifted away from one
    another.
  • Ocean formed between continents Gulf of Mexico
    formed.

50
Pangaea
51
Pangaea to Continents
52
Gulf Coastal Plain
  • During the Ice Age, much of the worlds water was
    trapped in glaciers.
  • Ocean levels were about 400 feet lower than
    today.
  • The glaciers froze and melted several times.
  • As the glaciers melted, the Mississippi River
    flooded the Louisiana coastline.
  • Mississippi River deposited sediment into the
    Gulf of Mexico, filling in part of it.
  • Sediment suspended particles of dirt and sand
    carried by rivers
  • Coastal plains developed.
  • Coastal plain relatively low flat region built
    up by river sediment
  • Continental shelf the edge of landmass where the
    Gulfs floor drops off into very deep water
  • The Gulf Coastal Plain is formed of layers of
    river sediment.
  • Louisiana is the only state that lies entirely on
    the Gulf Coastal Plain.

53
The Gulf Coastal Plain
54
Station Tasks
  • 1 - Calculate Time Zone Problems with Traveling
  • 2 - Create My Dream Vacation Itinerary
  • 3 Use computer for interactive map of Pangaea
    and draw comic strip

55
Closure Map Quiz
Match the letters on the map with the places and
physical features of the earth.
1. North America 2. South America 3. Africa 4. Asi
a 5. Europe
6. Australia 7. Antarctica 8. Indian
Ocean 9. Atlantic Ocean 10. Pacific Ocean
56
Checking for Understanding
  • How do you calculate current times in different
    places? Give an example.
  • What is the International Date Line?
  • What is the prime meridian?

Unit 1 Louisianas Physical and Cultural
Geography
57
Closure How did we meet our daily objectives?
58
Lesson 2 Rivers and Coastal Erosion
  • Objectives
  • AGENDA

59
Statement Coastal Erosion will never affect my
life.
  • Get with clock buddy
  • Create 2 questions you would like answered
    related to that statement.
  • Share with class.

60
Vocabulary Chart
  • Use the Vocabulary Chart to draw pictures and
    write the meanings of important words as we
    encounter them.
  • VAGO - hasten

61
Erosion Video
  • Look for answers to your questions.

62
The Awesome Power of Rivers
  • Rivers sediment creates the land.
  • Rivers movement shapes the land.

63
Floodplain
64
Floodplains
  • A floodplain serves as a reservoir to hold
    excess water when the river floods.

65
The Red River (Read more about it on page 7)
66
Red River (near Natchitoches)
67
Deltas
  • Formed when a river flows into an ocean
  • Shaped like a birds foot or a fan
  • Mississippi Delta where the river enters the
    Gulf of Mexico
  • Bars (underwater barriers of mud) are formed at
    the mouth of the river.

68
Bird-Foot Pattern of a Delta
69
Coastal Marshes
  • Wet grasslands formed by river sediment deposited
    along the coast
  • Freshwater, saltwater, or brackish (mixture)
    depending on nearness to the ocean

70
Mud Lumps (Read more about it on page 9)
71
Checking for Understanding
  • How are floodplains different from coastal
    marshes?
  • How is brackish related to coastal marshes? P. 9
  • How are meanders different from deltas? P. 6

Unit 1 Louisianas Physical and Cultural
Geography
72
Grand Isle (Read more about it on page 10)
73
What Do You Think?
  • How and why do specific regions change as a
    result of physical phenomena?
  • Identify describe 3 5 factors that cause a LA
    region to change.

Unit 1 Louisianas Physical and Cultural
Geography
74
Coastal Erosion
  • One of Louisianas biggest ecological problems
  • More than 35 square miles of land is lost each
    year.

GLEs 6, 7, 8, 9, 14, 17
75
Coastal Area at Risk
76
TASK GoingGoingGone? Causes of Coastal Erosion
  • With clock buddy, identify 6 factors that are
    speeding up (hastening) coastal erosion on p.
    11-13. Also identify how it can be slowed or
    prevented. Use the chart on your guided notes to
    organize problems and solutions that you find.
  • Forces hastening Coastal Erosion
  • Forces preventing Coastal Erosion

77
GoingGoingGone? Causes of Coastal Erosion
  • As the river abandons its original delta,
    sediment no longer rebuilds the coastline.
  • Pounding waves and severe storms accelerate
    erosion.
  • Global warming causes ocean levels to rise, which
    causes coastal marshes to disappear.
  • Levee systems force sediment into the deep waters
    of the Gulf, where it cannot settle and rebuild
    the coastlines.

78
Who Should Pay for Preservation?(Read more
about it on page 12)
79
Human Interference
  • Damaging Practices
  • Dammed rivers create reservoirs that trap the
    sediment that would otherwise refresh the
    marshland.
  • The search for oil involves the construction of
    pipelines and canals that allow saltwater
    intrusion, which kills the marsh grasses that
    hold soil in place.
  • Marshlands may sink because of vast holes
    created by underground drilling for oil and/or
    salt.
  • Preservation Measures
  • Grasses are being planted to keep soil intact.
  • Sand is pumped onto barrier islands to reinforce
    them.
  • Caernarvon Diversion Project and Davis Pond
    Freshwater Diversion

80

81
Slowing Coastal Erosion (Read more about it on
page 13)
82
Table Discussion
  • Imagine you are an adult living and working in LA
    ten years from now. Even if your community is not
    on the coast, your life and that of your family
    will be impacted by coastal erosion if solutions
    are not found. Describe three specific ways
    coastal erosion could impact you.

83
What are wetlands?
  • Wetlands- swamps, marsh, and other areas that
    have a natural supply of water and are covered or
    soaked with water at least part of the year.

84
Uses of LAs wetlands
  • Recreational opportunities
  • Thriving habitats
  • Wildlife pantry
  • Water filter (maintains water quality)
  • Storm buffer/controls flooding
  • Economic resource

85
Problems facing LA Wetlands
  • Coastal Erosion
  • Flooding
  • VANISHING!!!
  • ?Louisianas wetlands are disappearing at a rate
    of one football field EVERY 30 MINUTES!

86
Unfortunately, our wetlands are vanishing.
  • Natural Causes subsidence, wave erosion, salt
    water intrusion, sea level rising, tropical
    storms/hurricanes
  • Human Causes because of our ever-increasing
    population, humans have eliminated or converted
    millions of acres of wetlands for other uses. We
    drain wetlands to create more land for
    agriculture and urban development.

87
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88
Louisiana animals are losing their habitat.
89
What can we do to help?
  • Get Involved!
  • Save Water (reduced amount of water going through
    sewage treatment plants)
  • Dispose of household products, pesticides, and
    other chemicals carefully
  • Help to control soil erosion (reduce hard
    surfaces around your home)
  • Recycle your Christmas Trees!

90
A Few Solutions
  • Conservation
  • Regulate Use
  • Restoration Projects
  • (EX replanting marsh grasses)

91
Preventing Erosion by Planting Grasses
92
Table Group Brainstorm
  • How have humans created environmental problems in
    LA and caused a LA region to change?
  • Brainstorm ways
  • Create a wall chart or use inspiration to list
    and draw symbolic representations comparing human
    causes to natural causes.

93
Checking for Understanding
  • Name two ways barrier islands help protect LAs
    mainland from erosion. P. 10
  • Why is coastal erosion such a threat to LA?
  • What are two ways our state is working to stop
    coastal erosion?
  • Explain how or why specific regions are changing
    as a result of physical phenomena.
  • Identify describe factors that cause a LA
    region to change.

94
Task Activity 2
  • Identify waterways, land regions, and unique
    features on a map.
  • Write the best direction in narrative form for a
    mass evacuation from any of the coastal cities.

95
Closure How did we meet our daily objectives?
96
Lesson 3 Louisianas Natural Resources
  • Objectives
  • AGENDA

97
Concept Map
98
United Streaming Clip on Louisianas Natural
Resources
99
The Sparta Aquifer (Read more about it on page
15) As sediment deposits slowly build up the
land, freshwater sometimes become trapped b/t two
layers of sediment. Now we are drawing out more
water than is being replaced by nature.
100
The Sparta Aquifer
101
What Do You Think?
  • If the Sparta Aquifer runs dry, where will the
    people who depend on it turn for their water
    needs?
  • Should our state leaders be thinking about this?
    Why?

102
Salt Domes
  • Ancient seas dried up, leaving a layer of salt
    and other minerals exposed on the ocean floor.

103
SaltDome
104
Famous Salt Domes The Five Islands
  • Jefferson Island
  • Avery Island
  • Weeks Island
  • Cote Blanche
  • Belle Isle

105
The Five Islands
106
Oil and Salt Dont Mix (Read more about it on
page 16)
107
Louisianas Natural Resources
  • Mississippi delta is rich with natural resources.

108
Sulphur
  • Closely associated with salt domes
  • Used to make acids, fertilizer, rubber, paper,
    and other products
  • One of Louisianas important minerals

109
Oil
  • Oil production has been the most important part
    of our economy for many years.

110
Coal
  • Created when organic material is compressed by
    layers of sediment

111
Who Pulled the Plug? (Read more about it on
page 17)
112
Task Create a Flowchart of LA Natural Resources
113
Louisiana Faults
  • Weak areas where tectonic forces cause the land
    to break off and slide downward

114
Fault Line
115
Earthquakes
  • Ground movement along faults
  • Frequent in Louisiana, but most are small and
    unnoticeable

116
Earthquakes in Louisiana
117
Tsunami! (Read more about it on page 18)
118
Piney Hills and Coastal Marshes The Geography
of Louisiana
119
Physical and Cultural Geography
  • Geography the study of places, their locations,
    and their physical and human characteristics
  • Physical geography the study of landforms,
    oceans, weather, and climate
  • Cultural geography the study of how people have
    interacted with, changed, and adapted to
    different places on the earth
  • Louisianas physical geography has shaped its
    cultural geography.

120
Bayou Segnette State Park
121
Geographic Location
  • Resembles a boot
  • Florida Parishes stretch from Baton Rouge to
    Hammond to Bogalusa
  • Of the 50 states, LA ranks 31st in size
  • 3,600 square miles of water (1/4 of the state is
    wet)

122
Louisianas Location in the United States
123
Boundaries
  • Four natural boundaries
  • Mississippi River to the east
  • Pearl River to the east
  • Gulf of Mexico to the south
  • Sabine River to the west
  • Three artificial boundaries
  • 33 north latitude Separates Louisiana and
    Arkansas
  • 31 north latitude Separates the Florida Parishes
    from Mississippi
  • 94 west longitude Separates Louisiana from Texas

124
Louisianas Boundaries
125
Disputed Land
126
Is it Louisiana . . . or
Mississippi? (Read more on page 24)
127
Chapter 1 Project
  • Create a Fair or Festival in honor of an assigned
    LA resource.
  • resources timber, seafood,(oil or natural gas),
    (sulphur, lignite or limestone), crops, salt.
  • Include where the resource is found where
    festival will be held.
  • Impact of resource on the community.
  • Describe a unique souvenir based on resource from
    festival.
  • Describe unique food based on resource (if
    applicable).
  • Create a billboard to advertise festival.

128
Checking for Understanding
  • What are the 3 key natural resources found
    underground in LA and how are they used?
  • Name three of the five salt domes located in S.
    LA.

129
Closure How did we meet our daily objectives?
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