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The New Zealand Situation

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Definitions Indigenous vs Introduced Native vs Naturalized Wild vs Hatchery Natural vs Cultured Ranched vs Farmed Integrated vs ... fisheries management ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Zealand Situation


1
The New Zealand Situation
2
Definitions
  • Indigenous vs Introduced
  • Native vs Naturalized
  • Wild vs Hatchery
  • Natural vs Cultured
  • Ranched vs Farmed
  • Integrated vs Segregated

3
  • USA and Canada have strong legislation that
    protects the unique genetic heritage of
    indigenous native populations
  • Environmentally Significant Units (ESUs)
  • Conservation Units (CUs)
  • Populations occur in AGGREGATES, groups of
    sub-populations that are closely related.

4
Canadas Wild Salmon Policy
  • The goal is "to restore and maintain healthy and
    diverse salmon populations and their habitats for
    the benefit and enjoyment of the people of Canada
    in perpetuity."

(WSP 2005, p.8)
5
Genetic Diversity
  • Two Kinds
  • Identifiable Diversity
  • Measures how close fish are related
  • Increases with the passage of time
  • Often used as index of Functional, but it isnt
  • Functional Diversity
  • Measures range of adaptive abilities
  • Fed by Straying
  • This is the important one

6
  • USA and Canada have strong legislation that
    protects the unique genetic heritage of
    indigenous native populations
  • Environmentally Significant Units (ESUs)
  • Conservation Units (CUs)
  • Populations occur in AGGREGATES, groups of
    sub-populations that are closely related.
  • Identifiably different but functionally similar

7
Canadas Wild Salmon Policy
  • Identify Conservation Units (CUs)

CUs for river-type sockeye salmon
8
Summary of Wild and Hatchery Stocks in BC
Species Stocks HatStocks HatStocks CUs HatCUs HatCU
SockeyeRiver 304 1 0.3 24 1 4.2
SockeyeLake 511 26 5.1 218 13 6.0
Chinook 567 135 23.8 68 35 51.5
Coho 1971 253 12.8 43 25 58.1
Chum, 1803 114 6.3 38 16 42.1
PinkEven 1715 20 1.2 13 3 23.1
PinkOdd 1277 31 2.4 19 5 26.3
8148 580 7.1 423 98 23.2
9
Definitions
  • Indigenous vs Introduced
  • Native vs Naturalized
  • Wild vs Hatchery
  • Natural vs Cultured
  • Ranched vs Farmed
  • Integrated vs Segregated

10
United States
  • Hatchery
  • Introduced
  • Naturalized
  • Cultured
  • Wild
  • Indigenous
  • Native
  • Natural

Canada
  • Wild
  • Indigenous
  • Native
  • Natural
  • Hatchery
  • Indigenous
  • Native
  • Cultured

New Zealand
  • Wild
  • Introduced
  • Naturalized
  • Natural
  • Hatchery
  • Introduced
  • Naturalized
  • Cultured

11
Hatchery Wild Controversy
  • Most of the US literature that criticizes the
    poor performance of Hatchery fish is
    complicated by the fact that most of the stocks
    used in US hatchery programs were not locally
    adapted to the new environments (Chilcote,
    Reisenbichler, Quinn, Berejekian, Ford, Araki,
    Blouin, Phillip, etc.)
  • This literature is generally irrelevant to the
    situations in Canada and New Zealand.

12
Definitions
  • Indigenous vs Introduced
  • Native vs Naturalized
  • Wild vs Hatchery
  • Natural vs Cultured
  • Ranched vs Farmed
  • Integrated vs Segregated

13
  • South Island Salmon Management Plan
  • Mission To have a vibrant salmon fishery that
    provides for the aspirations of present and
    future generations of salmon anglers
  • Rationale for NZ Salmon Enhancement
  • To increase the number of adult salmon

14
  • Q Are NZ river populations separate stocks?
  • A No at most they are separate sub-units within
    an aggregate
  • Q Should NZ rivers/streams be managed as
    separate entities?
  • A Only to the extent that it meets the goal of
    maximizing the production of adult salmon
  • Q What enhancement options should be pursued
  • A Any that work

15
  • Options for NZ Enhancement/Restoration
  • Removal of fish passage barriers
  • Improve spawning/rearing grounds
    (stabilization)
  • Increase spawning grounds (build channels)
  • Ova planting
  • Fry salvage
  • Fry planting (transplant or hatchery)
  • Lake/stream enrichment
  • Predator/competitor control
  • Smolt production

16
Definitions
  • Indigenous vs Introduced
  • Native vs Naturalized
  • Natural vs Cultured
  • Ranched vs Farmed
  • Wild vs Hatchery
  • Integrated vs Segregated

17
Integrated vs Segregated)
  1. Segregated programs. A hatchery program is a
    Segregated Type if the intent is for the
    hatchery population to represent a distinct
    population that is reproductively isolated from
    naturally spawning populations. Used when the
    genetics of the wild and hatchery fish are
    different
  2. Integrated programs. A hatchery program is an
    Integrated Type if the intent is for the natural
    environment to drive the adaptation and fitness
    of a composite population of fish that spawns
    both in a hatchery and in the wild. Used when
    the genetics of the wild and hatchery fish are
    the same

18
United States
  • Hatchery
  • Introduced
  • Naturalized
  • Cultured
  • Wild
  • Indigenous
  • Native
  • Natural

Canada
  • Wild
  • Indigenous
  • Native
  • Natural
  • Hatchery
  • Indigenous
  • Native
  • Cultured

New Zealand
  • Wild
  • Introduced
  • Naturalized
  • Natural
  • Hatchery
  • Introduced
  • Naturalized
  • Cultured

19
American Fisheries Guidelines for the Use of
Propagated Fish
  • Comprehensive Fishery Management Plans
  • Biological and Environmental Feasibility
  • Risk and Benefits Analysis
  • Public Involvement

20
  • Some Information needs for Decision Making
  • Escapement data (accurate residency time)
  • Spawning ground capacity
  • Incubation habitat quality, capacity and survival
    rates
  • Juvenile fish abundance, preferred habitats and
    growth rates
  • Physical characteristics of incubation and
    rearing habitats (chemistry, forage animal
    biology and carrying capacity)
  • Smolt migration times, sizes and survivals to
    adult

21
  • Some Preliminary Recommendations
  • Dont worry about genetics this is not your
    main problem
  • Protect the salmon habitat that exists, add to it
    if possible
  • Stock fish in both marginal and productive parts
    of ecosystems
  • Monitor your stocking activities move to marked
    fry or smolt stocking in productive areas, and
    use tests and controls
  • Ova planting may still be useful in secondary
    streams, but marked fry would be better (both for
    success and information)
  • Tighten up your fish culture procedures (to avoid
    future problems)

22
  • Thank you,
  • For the opportunity to learn about and from you,
  • For your very kind hospitality and forbearance,
  • For your sincere care for and dedication to these
    wonderful animals.
  • Sincerely,
  • Don MacKinlay

23
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