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Management Process

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Title: Management Process


1
Management Process Organizational Behavior
  • Prepared by
  • Preeti Nigam
  • Management Faculty, DSPSR

2
UNIT 1
3
Learning Objectives
  • Introduction
  • Meaning and Nature of Management
  • Management Approaches
  • Processes
  • Managerial Skills
  • Tasks and Responsibilities of a Professional
    Manager

4
Meaning and Nature of Management
  • Management is the process of designing and
    maintaining an environment in which individuals
    working together in groups, efficiently
    accomplish selected aims.
  • As managers people carry out the managerial
    functions of planning, organizing, staffing,
    leading and controlling
  • Management applies to any kind of organization
  • It applies to managers at all organizational
    levels
  • The aim of all managers is the same to create a
    surplus
  • Managing is concerned with productivity- implies
    efficiency and effectiveness
  • All manage organizations for profit or
    satisfaction

5
Few other definitions
  • Another common view is that "management" is
    getting things done through others.
  • Yet another view, quite apart from the
    traditional view, asserts that the job of
    management is to support employee's efforts to be
    fully productive members of the organizations and
    citizens of the community.

6
"Leading versus Managing"?
  • A classic definition is that Leaders do the
    right thing and managers do things right.
  • A more standard definition is usually something
    like managers work toward the organizations
    goals using its resources in an effective and
    efficient manner.
  • A leader is interpreted as someone who sets
    direction in an effort and influences people to
    follow that direction.

7
New Paradigm in Management
  • Driving Forces of Change
  • telecommunications has shrunk the world
  • Increasing diversity of workers
  • Public consciousness
  • third-world countries has joined the global
    marketplace
  • Organizations became responsible to a wider
    community of stakeholders.
  • As a result of the above driving forces,
    organizations
  • were required to adopt a new paradigm, or view
    on the
  • world, to be more sensitive, flexible and
    adaptable to
  • the demands and expectations of stakeholder
    demands.

8
Traits of the New Paradigm
  • Marilyn Ferguson, in The New Paradigm Emerging
    Strategic for Leadership and Organizational
    Change (Michael Ray and Alan Rinzler, Eds., 1993,
    New Consciousness Reader), provides a very
    concise overview of the differences between the
    old and new paradigm.

9
Old Paradigm New Paradigm
promote consumption at all costs appropriate consumption
people to fit jobs jobs to fit people
imposed goals, top-down decision making autonomy encouraged, worker participation
fragmentation in work and roles cross-fertilization by specialists seeing wide relevance
identification with job identity transcends job description
clock model of company recognition of uncertainty
aggression, competition cooperation
work and play separate blurring of work and play
manipulation and dominance cooperation with nature
struggle for stability sense of change, of becoming
quantitative qualitative as well as quantitative
strictly economic motives spiritual values transcend material gain
polarized transcends polarities
short-sighted ecologically sensitive
rational rational and intuitive
emphasis on short-term solutions recognition that long-range efficiency must take in to account harmonious work environment
centralized operations decentralized operations when possible
runaway, unbridled technology appropriate technology
allopathic treatment of symptoms attempt to understand the whole, locate deep underlying causes of disharmony
10
Managerial Functions
  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Staffing
  4. Leading
  5. Controlling

11
Managerial Functions
  • 1) Planning including identifying goals,
    objectives, methods, resources needed to carry
    out methods, responsibilities and dates for
    completion of tasks. Examples of planning are
    strategic planning, business planning, project
    planning, staffing planning, advertising and
    promotions planning, etc.
  • 2) Organizing resources to achieve the goals in
    an optimum fashion. Examples are organizing new
    departments, human resources, office and file
    systems, re-organizing businesses, etc.
  • 3) Leading
  • including to set direction for the organization,
    groups and individuals and also influence people
    to follow that direction. Examples are
    establishing strategic direction (vision, values,
    mission and / or goals) and championing methods
    of organizational performance management to
    pursue that direction.

12
Managerial Functions
  • 4) Controlling, or coordinating,
  • the organization's systems, processes and
    structures to reach effectively and efficiently
    reach goals and objectives. This includes ongoing
    collection of feedback, and monitoring and
    adjustment of systems, processes and structures
    accordingly. Examples include use of financial
    controls, policies and procedures, performance
    management processes, measures to avoid risks
    etc.

13
The Organization
The Three Basic Functions
14
Decisions at Different Levels of Management
15
Management Approaches
  • Managerial Roles Approach by Professor Henry
    Mintzberg of McGill University
  • Management Process or Operational Approach
  • There is a central core of knowledge about
    managing that is pertinent only to the field of
    management. Such matters like line, staff,
    departmentation, managerial appraisal and various
    managerial control techniques involve concepts
    and theories found in situations involving
    managers. Furthermore, this approach absorbs
    knowledge from other fields including systems
    theory, quality and reengineering concepts,
    decision theory, motivation and leadership,
    individual and group behaviour, social systems
    and cooperation and communication plus
    application of mathematical analyses and concepts.

16
Ten Managerial Roles Identified By Mintzberg
  • Interpersonal Roles
  • Figurehead Role
  • Leader Role
  • Liaison Role
  • Informational Roles
  • Recipient Role
  • Disseminator Role
  • Spokesperson Role
  • Decision Roles
  • Entrepreneurial Role
  • Disturbance-handler Role
  • Resource-allocator Role
  • Negotiator Role

17
Management Approaches
  • The Systems Approach to Management Process
  • Business is dependant on its external
    environment- industry to which it belongs, the
    economic system and society. So, the enterprise
    receives inputs, transforms them and exports the
    output to the environment

18
Brief Overview of Contemporary Theories in
Management
  • Contingency Theory
  • Basically, contingency theory asserts that when
    managers make a decision, they must take into
    account all aspects of the current situation and
    act on those aspects that are key to the
    situation at hand.
  • Systems Theory
  • A system is a collection of part unified to
    accomplish an overall goal. If one part of the
    system is removed, the nature of the system is
    changed as well. A system can be looked at as
    having inputs, processes, outputs and outcomes.
    The effect of systems theory in management is
    that writers, educators, consultants, etc. are
    helping managers to look at the organization from
    a broader perspective.

19
Brief Overview of Contemporary Theories in
Management
  • Chaos Theory
  • chaos theory, recognizes that events indeed are
    rarely controlled They suggest that systems
    naturally go to more complexity, and as they do
    so, these systems become more volatile (or
    susceptible to cataclysmic events) and must
    expend more energy to maintain that complexity.
    As they expend more energy, they seek more
    structure to maintain stability. This trend
    continues until the system splits, combines with
    another complex system or falls apart entirely.

20
Basic Principles of Indian Ethos for Management
  • Each soul is a potential God
  • Holistic approach- based on spiritual principle
    of unity, one-ness, non-dual or advaita concept
  • Equal Importance to Subjectivity/Objectivity
  • Karma Yoga (Selfless Work)
  • Yogah Karmasu Kaushalam
  • Cooperation

21
Salient Ideas of Indian Ethos in Management
  • Atmano Mokshartham, Jagat hitaya cha
  • All work is an opportunity for doing good to the
    world and thus gaining materially and spiritually
    in our lives
  • Archyet dana manabhyam
  • Worship people not only with material things but
    also by showing respect to their ever-present
    divinity within
  • Atmana Vindyate Viryam
  • Strength and inspiration for excelling in work
    comes from the Divine, God within through prayer,
    holy readings and unselfish work
  • Yogah karmasu kaushalam. Samatvam yoga uchyate
  • He who works with calm and even mind achieves
    the most

22
Salient Ideas of Indian Ethos in Management
  • Yadishi bhavana yasya siddhi bhavati tadrishi
  • As we think, so we succeed, so we become.
    Attention to means ensures the end
  • Parasparam bhavayantah shreyah param
    bhavapsyathah
  • By mutual cooperation, respect and fellow
    feeling all of
  • us will enjoy the highest good both material and
    social
  • Tesham sukham tesham shanti shaswati
  • Infinite happiness and infinite peace come to
    them who see the Divine in all beings
  • Paraspar Devo bhav
  • Regard the other person as a divine being. All
    of us have the same consciousness though our
    packages are different

23
Traditional Methods of Mind Purification
Managerial Effectiveness
Value Orientation
Pure mind is the origin of all values
Karma Yoga
24
Management- the Indian Way- Swami Someshwaranand-
Extra Reading
  1. Getting the best out of your people
  2. Starting a Business NAMASKAR model
  3. Application of Vedanta in Management
  4. Growth and crisis in leadership PPANCH-BHUTA
    model

25
Management- the Indian Way- Swami Someshwaranand-
Extra Reading
  1. Gearing up a Department EKLAYVA approach
  2. ARJUN model for a Business Yogi
  3. RAJARSHI model of Leadership
  4. Self-motivation
  5. Reengineering organization culture

26
Management- the Indian Way- Swami Someshwaranand-
Extra Reading
  1. Frontiers of Excellence
  2. SHIVA-SHAKTI concept in corporate Vision and
    strategy
  3. Facing crisis to go for a New Dimension
  4. Resolving Ego-clash KRISHNA model

27
Management- the Indian Way- Swami Someshwaranand-
Extra Reading
  1. Transformation in Corporate life BHAGIRATH model
  2. Resolving a corporate Dilemma the Indian way
  3. GITA model for business growth
  4. Coping with frustration and worries

28
Managerial Skills
  • Robert L. Katz identified 3 kinds of skills for
    administrators-
  • Technical Skills- important at supervisory level
  • Human Skills- helpful in frequent interactions
    with sub-ordinates
  • The Conceptual and Design Skills- not critical
    for level supervisors, important at top
    management level

29
Management Gurus
  • Frederick W Taylor - Scientific Management -
    Frederick W Taylor, an American inventor and
    engineer, is considered the father of scientific
    management.Elton Mayo - Human Relations Theory
    - Elton Mayo formed Human Relations theory after
    the surprising results of the Western Electrical
    Company Study.Abraham Maslow - Hierarchy of
    Needs - Abraham Maslow was an American
    psychologist best known for his theory of the
    hierarchy of needs.Frederick Herzberg - Hygiene
    and Motivation Factors - Frederick Herzberg
    proposed that satisfaction and dis-satisfaction
    at work resulted from Hygiene and Motivation
    factors.Peter F Drucker - Peter F Drucker is an
    internationally acclaimed management writer,
    consultant and lecturer.Douglas McGregor -
    Douglas McGregor was an American social
    psychologist best known for Theory X and Theory
    Y opposing assumptions about human behaviour
    behind every management decision or action.

30
Quality Management Gurus
  • W Edwards Deming - Total Quality Management
    Deming's 14 points - W Edwards Deming was an
    American statistician, founder of total quality
    management, Deming's 14 points and statistical
    process control (SPC)Joseph Juran - The Quality
    Trilogy - Joseph Juran's belief that quality does
    not happen by accident gave rise to the quality
    trilogy.Philip Crosby - Zero Defects Right
    First Time - Philip Crosby is an American who
    promoted the phrases 'zero defects' and 'right
    first time' in quality management.Tom Peters -
    Tom Peters' book In Search of Excellence,
    co-authored with Robert Waterman, presents 8
    common themes of successful corporations.Dr
    Kaoru Ishikawa - Quality Circles - Dr Kaoru
    Ishikawa gave his name to the Ishikawa diagram,
    also known as the fishbone diagram or cause and
    effect diagram.Genichi Taguchi - Quality Loss
    Function - Genichi Taguchi is a Japanese quality
    expert, known for the Quality Loss Function and
    'Robust Design'.Shigeo Shingo - Poka yoke,
    source inspection, mistake proofing and SMED -
    Shingo quality teachings were successful as they
    were practical and action oriented, and
    contributed to Just in Time (JIT) production

31
Management Specialists
  • Ken Blanchard - The Situational Leadership Model
    - Ken Blanchard is internationally renowned for
    his situational leadership model developed with
    Paul Hersey and his One Minute Manager series
    co-authored with Spencer Johnson.Dr Meredith
    Belbin - Team Roles - Dr Meredith Belbin, founder
    of team roles theory, is a widely respected
    expert and adviser on organisations and
    teams.Honey Mumford - Learning Style
    Questionnaire - The Honey Mumford
    self-administered learning style questionnaire
    determines your preferred learning style.

32
Tasks and Responsibilities
Manager Strategic Manager
Managing and Leading People Build an efficient and empowered team Monitor, review and evaluate individual and team performance Provide specialist guidance and support, acting as a mentor/coach Contribute to the overall management of the department/school and to the development of strategy, policy and practice Provide effective leadership at all levels Act as a coach and mentor across the department/ school Act as a role model
Managing Change Encourage others to be creative and innovative Scope, plan and drive change  within the team Take account of all stakeholder issues Be aware, and understand implications, of external changes and wider developments in own profession Identify and lead change initiatives within the team and at departmental level
33
Manager Strategic Manager
Managing Activities and Resources Understand the Financial Directives and use appropriately Manage the teams finances Take full responsibility for short-term project management within own area/section Contribute as part of larger department-wide project teams Review customer satisfaction and implement changes to service provision to meet agreed quality standards, guidelines and procedures Ensure sufficient resources/staff are available to deliver team objectives and responsibilities Manage large scale projects Oversee a number of projects consecutively Control budgets/resources/ funding
34
Manager Strategic Manager
Managing Information and Knowledge Liaise with key contacts in to support work of self and team Contribute to strategy documents/departmental plans, etc Make effective decisions and solve problems
Managing Goals and Objectives Demonstrate understanding of the wider departmental aims and objectives and how the team supports these Promote customer care as a key objective Deliver departmental objectives Review service provision for customers and identify and introduce additional services
35
Manager Strategic Manager
Managing Yourself Gain a clear and informed appreciation of the operational context Delegate effectively Demonstrate self motivation Recognise and distinguish between own work and that of the rest of the team Role model effective self management behaviours
Understanding the Organisational Context Show awareness of how team fits into the organisational context Demonstrate awareness of wider departmental aims and objectives Demonstrable commitment to initiatives from above
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