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Tire Design, Manufacturing and Performance Considerations

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... Michelin North America Governmental Requirements Dan Guiney, Yokohama Tire Corporation Tires, Tire Tread Wear and Vehicle Fuel Economy Sim Ford, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Tire Design, Manufacturing and Performance Considerations


1
Tire Design, Manufacturing and Performance
Considerations
  • CIWMB Market Development and Sustainability
    Committee
  • Sacramento, CASeptember 12, 2007

2
RMA Tire Company Members
3
RMA Tire Company RepresentativesHere Today
Bridgestone Americas John Sheerin
Continental Tire North America Don Amos
The Goodyear Tire Rubber Co. Sim Ford
Michelin North America Mike Wischhusen
Yokohama Tire Dan Guiney
4
Presentation Outline
  • Tire Performance Overview
  • Mike Wischhusen, Michelin North America
  • Governmental Requirements
  • Dan Guiney, Yokohama Tire Corporation
  • Tires, Tire Tread Wear and Vehicle Fuel Economy
  • Sim Ford, The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.
  • Recycled Content and New Tires
  • Don Amos, Continental Tire North America
  • Conclusions
  • Tracey Norberg, RMA

5
Section 1Tire Performance OverviewMike
WischhusenMichelin North America
6
The hidden side of the tire
7
The hidden side of the tire
A tire also contains hidden complexity
8
The tire your only contact with the ground
At the steering wheel, the only thing linking you
to the road is the tire.
9
Obeying the driver's orders
10
Traction on Wet Surfaces
11
Vehicle Handling
A tire under great stress - steering -
acceleration - braking
12
Working in the long term
13
Rolling Tire
14
Transversal Bending
15
Working in the long term
Endurance
60 miles per hour means 10 15 revolutions per
second, or 20 to 30 deformations per second (20
30 Hz)
16
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17
Constant improvements in comfort
Mechanical and acoustic comfort
Obstacle on the road noise and vibrations
Measurement of noise when a vehicle passes
18
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19
Average Consumer
Rolling resistance
Rotational direction
Energy loss due to deformations
20
Rubber Compounds
21
Rolling Resistance and Hysteresis
60 mph means 10-15 deformations per second,
10-15 Hz.
22
Grip and Hysteresis
The surface deformation responsible for grip
occurs at frequencies between 103 and 1010 Hz
23
RR, Grip and Hysteresis
HYSTERESIS
Energy Dissipation
Rolling ResistanceRange
Grip Range
10
100000
10000
1000
100
FREQUENCY Hz (log scale)
24
RR, Grip and Hysteresis
HYSTERESIS
Energy Dissipation
Rolling ResistanceRange
Grip Range
10
100000
10000
1000
100
FREQUENCY Hz (log scale)
25
Consuming less
Rolling resistance
26
The art of balance
Car tires
27
Source Automotive News 2007 Global Market Data
Book
28
Section 2 Governmental Requirements Dan
GuineyYokohama Tire Corporation
29
U.S. Government Requirements
  • Performance Standards
  • Passenger Tires Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
    Standard (FMVSS) 109 will be changing to 139 in
    September 2007
  • Commercial Tires FMVSS 119 also being
    revised proposal expected soon
  • Tire Labeling specifications for information on
    tire sidewall

30
U.S. Government Requirements
  • Consumer Information Requirements
  • Uniform Tire Quality Grading
  • Traction, Tread Wear, Temperature
  • Applies to same tires as AB 844
  • Early Warning Reporting vehicle and component
    manufacturers required to report production,
    warranty and property damage claims, injuries and
    fatalities to NHTSA

31
Compliance with US Governmental Requirements
  • Compliance with federal requirements demonstrated
    through self-certification of product
  • NHTSA conducts compliance audits of sample of
    tires each year to assess compliance
  • Companies also self-report if compliance or
    defect issue is discovered with a particular tire
  • Companies conduct voluntary consumer satisfaction
    programs and mandatory recalls if necessary

32
Tire Testing / Grading
  • Uniform Tire Quality Grade 49 CFR 575.104
  • TreadwearComparative rating based on wear rate
    of the tire when tested under controlled
    conditions on a specified government test course.
  • TractionRated AA, A, B, C. Grades represent the
    tires ability to stop on wet pavement as
    measured under controlled conditions on specified
    government test surfaces.
  • TemperatureRated A, B, C. Grades represent the
    tires resistance to the generation of heat and
    its ability to dissipate heat when tested under
    controlled conditions on a specified indoor
    laboratory test wheel.

33
International Governmental Requirements
  • Europe
  • Japan
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Other Countries (India, China, Brazil, Australia,
    Mexico, Peru, etc.)

34
Customer Requirements
  • Tire industry must also meet exacting customer
    requirements
  • Original equipment (auto company) customers
    typically interested in low rolling resistance,
    ride, handling, noise, comfort
  • Replacement market customers interested in long
    tread life, traction and price

35
Section 3 Tires, Tire Tread Wear and Vehicle
Fuel Economy Sim FordThe Goodyear Tire
Rubber Company
36
Environmental Considerations in the Design Process
  • Tire materials content issues
  • Manufacturing emissions issues
  • Toxicity issues
  • Worker health and safety issues
  • Tire rolling resistance and vehicle fuel economy
  • Tread wear miles and scrap tire generation

37
California Interests
  • California Energy Commission addressing tire
    efficiency tire rolling resistance and vehicle
    fuel economy
  • RMA is working closely with CEC on implementation
    of AB 844
  • CIWMB addressing scrap tire issues
  • RMA is committed to working with CIWMB on these
    issues
  • Tire rolling resistance and tire tread life are
    interrelated tire performance properties
  • Key is to balance interest in improving vehicle
    economy with interest in longer wearing tires, so
    as not to create unintended consequences

38
Tire Rolling Resistance
  • Tire rolling resistance is the tires
    contribution to vehicle fuel economy
  • The lower the tire rolling resistance, the more
    fuel efficient the vehicle will be, all other
    things being equal
  • Tire rolling resistance is affected by
  • Tire design and construction
  • Rubber compounds
  • Tire inflation pressure
  • Roadway surface
  • Vehicle alignment

39
Rolling Resistance Trade-Offs
Improved compound and construction technologies
can minimize performance trade-offs. Expect
potential trade-offs in dry traction and wear.
40
Rolling Resistance Impact on Fuel Consumption
Fuel energy is dissipated in many ways, including
rolling resistance
A 10 improvement in rolling resistance gives a
1-2 improvement in fuel economy
National Research Council, "Automotive Fuel
Economy How Far Should We Go?", 1992)
41
Rolling Resistance Impact on Fuel Consumption
U.S. Department of Energy Energy Technology
and Fuel Economy - Typical energy losses in city
driving.
42
Rolling Resistance Impact on Environment
  • Improved rolling resistance performance reduces
    vehicle fuel usage
  • 1-2 for every 10 improvement in tire rolling
    resistance
  • Poor tire inflation maintenance negates tire
    design benefits
  • Improved rolling resistance decreases tire wear
    life, so more tires are required for the same
    miles
  • More raw materials, more energy to produce and
    bring to market
  • Increased scrap tires

43
Longer Tread Wear Tires
  • Tires can also be designed to optimize tread wear
    potential for longer-wearing tires
  • Tire tread life is affected by
  • tire design
  • tread compound
  • tire inflation
  • roadway surfaces
  • vehicle (size, aerodynamics, loads, alignment)
  • driver (aggressiveness, maintenance habits)

44
Longer Tire Tread Wear Trade-Offs
  • Design trade-offs usually mean reduction in some
    characteristics to improve others
  • Tire wear improvements generally require reduced
    rolling resistance and traction

45
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46
Longer Life Tires Impact on Environment
  • Improving tire tread life
  • Reduces number of scrap tires
  • Improves customer satisfaction
  • Reduces fuel economy
  • Reducing tire tread life
  • Increases materials and energy required to
    produce and bring tires to market
  • Increases number of scrap tires
  • Poor tire maintenance reduces tread life

47
Tire Inflation Pressure An Environmental Issue!
  • Vigilant tire inflation pressure maintenance
    improves vehicle fuel economy and prolongs tire
    tread life
  • Properly inflated tires have lower rolling
    resistance than when under inflated
  • Tires underinflated by 7 psi will achieve 1-2
    reduction in vehicle fuel economy effects are
    even greater with lower inflation pressures (TRB,
    2006)
  • Under inflated tires achieve fewer tread miles
    due to uneven tread wear caused by the
    underinflation

48
NHTSA Air Pressure Study
  • Independent study commissioned by NHTSA in
  • February 2001
  • Tire pressure measured on 11,530 vehicles
  • 6,442 passenger cars
  • 1,874 SUVs
  • 1,376 vans
  • 1,838 pickup trucks
  • Tire pressures measured hot
  • Survey of drivers

49
NHTSA Air Pressure Study
  1. 3 of passenger cars and 6 of light truck
    vehicles have all four tires significantly
    underinflated
  1. 27 of passenger cars and 33 of light trucks
    have at least one tire significantly underinflated
  1. And these tires were measured hot!

50
Pressure Effects on Tire Wear Performance
51
National Tire Care and Maintenance Education
Program
RMA Objective
Educate consumers about proper tire care and
maintenance.
52
  • Be Tire Smart Play Your PART
  • Pressure -- Check it every month
  • Alignment -- vehicle pulling to one side?
  • Rotation -- Every 5,000 8,000 miles
  • Tread -- Penny test

53
Benefits of Proper Tire Care and Maintenance
  • Maximize safety
  • Improve fuel economy
  • Increase tire life

54
National Tire Safety Week
  • Begun in 2002
  • Serves as tire industry rallying point to focus
    attention on tire care
  • Provides media opportunities to communicate
    messages
  • Last week in April

55
Transportation Research Board (TRB) Report
  • Tires and Passenger Vehicle Fuel Economy
    Informing Consumers, Improving Performance,
    April 2006
  • 12-member panel studied issues relating to tire
    rolling resistance, vehicle fuel economy, tread
    wear, tire inflation pressure and other related
    issues
  • Panel concluded that consumers should be provided
    with information about a tires contribution to
    vehicle fuel economy at point of sale and that
    vigilant tire inflation maintenance is important
    to achieve optimal fuel economy
  • RMA working to ensure implementation of TRB
    findings in Congress

56
Section 4 Recycled Content in New Tires Don
AmosContinental Tire North America
57
New Tire Manufacturing
  • Tires contain about 20 components, each with
    unique rubber compounds and chemicals
  • Tire is built and cured, or vulcanized with
    heat and pressure
  • Tire compounds bond to one another chemically and
    physically
  • Finished product is chemically distinct from
    uncured tire components and chemicals not a sum
    of its parts

58
Potential Methods of Using Scrap Tires in new
Tire Manufacturing
  • Devulcanization
  • Breaking chemical bonds in cured tire material to
    create an uncured rubber material
  • Not technically or economically viable
  • Pyrolysis
  • Creating raw materials for tire manufacturing
    (pyrolytic char substitute for carbon black,
    oils)
  • Nor technically or economically viable
  • Inconsistent product without applications
  • Ground rubber
  • Focus of current recycled content use

59
Current Methods of Using Recycled Content
  • Ground rubber is the benchmark product
  • 30 mesh is threshold for tread
  • 80 mesh is threshold for carcass components
  • 140 mesh is required some applications
  • 200 mesh foreseen for high content
  • Pyrolytic char (limited)

60
Ground Rubber in New Tires
  • Recycled content is affected by
  • Ground rubber particle size
  • Ground rubber content (natural rubber, carbon
    black, impurities)
  • Tire service requirements

61
Ground Rubber in New Tires
  • Used primarily as a low-cost filler material
  • Curing materials and anti-degradent content
    impact mixing and curing
  • Reduced size improves performance but increases
    cost
  • typical crumb rubber is 40 mesh
  • Increased amounts of recycled material decreases
    properties and decreases life
  • More demanding tire applications (i.e., more
    heat buildup) can use less recycle content

62
Tread Compound Property Impacts from Ground
Rubber Use
Control (0 Crumb) 20 phr Crumb 30 phr Crumb 40 phr Crumb
Tensile 100 85 80 75
300 Mod 100 91 82 77
100C Rebound 100 94 93 91
Mooney Scorch 100 93 81 79
Cure Amount 100 92 79 78
Abrasion 100 90 83 68
Heat Build-up 100 89 86 78
Viscosity 100 73 73 56
63
Challenges with Processing Tires for Ground
Rubber Use in New Tires
  • Tire structure is composed of various rubber
    compounds, fabric reinforcement, and steel
    reinforcement
  • The structure is designed and manufactured to be
    resistant to break-down
  • Materials must be mechanically separated to be
    usable
  • Ground rubber plant is capital intense with a low
    margin product
  • Feed stock is inconsistent product is
    inconsistent

64
Continental Recycled Content Study
  • P215/60R16 Continental Touring Contact AS
  • 15 major components
  • 14 rubber major separate rubber compounds
  • 2003 Experimentation
  • Regular Production 4.60 80m-WTGR (10 in Tread
    Cap)
  • Experimental Production 13.6 80m 140m -WTGR
    (20 in Tread Cap) Pyro black (2.4 to 25 in
    various components)

65
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66
Continental Recycled Content Study
  • Study showed negative tire performance
    implications including
  • lower tread wear life
  • lower wet traction
  • longer wet stopping distance
  • lower snow traction
  • higher rolling resistance
  • Continental has discontinued this research
    project due to the unacceptability of the
    negative performance implications and the
    unavailability of acceptable source material

67
Recycled Content Impact on Environment
  • Increased recycle content in tires
  • Increases amount of crumb rubber used
  • Reduces tire durability, performance and tire
    life
  • Tire life decrease approximates recycled content
    on percentage basis (Continental study)

68
Conclusions Tracey NorbergRubber Manufacturers
Association
69
Conclusions
  • Tire manufacturers around the world recognize the
    need to balance tire safety, customer
    satisfaction, and environmental concerns
  • Tire manufacturers have dramatically improved
    tire performance, rolling resistance, and tire
    wear through extensive research and development
  • Tire manufacturers are dedicated to ensure safety
    and improve performance and environmental aspects
    of tires

70
Thank you!
  • Questions?
  • Comments?
  • Contact
  • Tracey Norberg
  • Rubber Manufacturers Association
  • 202-682-4839
  • tnorberg_at_rma.org
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