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Divine Command Theories of Ethics

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Divine Command Theories of Ethics Overview We will consider three different accounts of the relationship between religion and reason in ethics: Religion takes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Divine Command Theories of Ethics


1
Divine Command Theories of Ethics
2
Overview
  • We will consider three different accounts of the
    relationship between religion and reason in
    ethics
  • Religion takes priority over reason
  • Divine command theories
  • Teleological suspension of the ethical
  • Compatibilist theories
  • Autonomy of reason theories

3
Divine Command Theories
  • These theories claim that something is right
    because God will it.
  • Augustine and the voluntarist tradition
  • Clear in Islam, where the will of Allah is the
    measure of all that is right
  • Also characteristic of much of fundamentalism in
    all religions.

4
Criticisms of Divine Command Theories
  • How can we know Gods will?
  • Does divine command theory undermine human
    autonomy?
  • Can be used to subjugate the masses.

5
Abraham and Isaac
  • In the old Testament, God commands Abraham to
    sacrifice his only son, Isaac.

6
The Story of Abraham
  • Genesis, 221-10
  • And it came to pass after these things, that God
    did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham
    and he said, Behold, here I am. And he said,
    Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou
    lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah and
    offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of
    the mountains which I will tell thee of. And
    Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled
    his ass, and took two of his young men with him,
    and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the
    burnt offering, and rose up, and went unto the
    place of which God had told him. Then on the
    third day Abraham lifted up his eyes, and saw the
    place afar off. And Abraham said unto his young
    men, Abide ye here with the ass and I and the
    lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to
    you. And Abraham took the wood of the burnt
    offering, and laid it upon Isaac his son and he
    took the fire in his hand, and a knife and they
    went both of them together. And Isaac spake unto
    Abraham his father, and said, My father and he
    said, Here am I, my son. And he said, Behold the
    fire and the wood but where is the lamb for a
    burnt offering? And Abraham said, My son, God
    will provide himself a lamb for a burnt offering
    so they went both of them together. And they
    came to the place which God had told him of and
    Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood
    in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him
    on the altar upon the wood. And Abraham
    stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to
    slay his son.

7
The Story of Abraham
  • Genesis, 2211-19
  • And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of
    heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham and he said,
    Here am I. And he said, Lay not thine hand upon
    the lad, neither do thou any thing unto him for
    now I know that thou fearest God, seeing thou
    hast not withheld thy son, thine only son from
    me. And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked,
    and behold behind him a ram caught in a thicket
    by his horns and Abraham went and took the ram,
    and offered him up for a burnt offering in the
    stead of his son. And Abraham called the name of
    that place Jehovahjireh as it is said to this
    day, In the mount of the LORD it shall be seen.
    And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham
    out of heaven the second time, And said, By
    myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because
    thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld
    thy son, thine only son That in blessing I will
    bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply
    thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the
    sand which is upon the sea shore and thy seed
    shall possess the gate of his enemies And in
    thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be
    blessed because thou hast obeyed my voice. So
    Abraham returned unto his young men, and they
    rose up and went together to Beersheba and
    Abraham dwelt at Beersheba.

8
The Issue
  • Gods command that Abraham should kill his only
    son as a sacrifice to God seems to go against
    reason and morality
  • The issue can God ask us to do things that go
    against reason and morality? Which takes
    precedence, Gods command or reason?

9
The Teleological Suspension of the Ethical
  • According to Søren Kierkegaard, sometimes it is
    necessary to suspend the ethical for the sake of
    God

10
Søren Kierkegaard
  • Kierkegaard sought to heighten the tension
    between faith and reason, rather than try as
    Hegel had done to minimize it.
  • The case of Abraham in Fear and Trembling
  • Either/Or

11
Compatibilist Theories
  • Compatibilist theories say that reason and
    religion can never contradict one another
  • Strong they are saying the same thing
  • Weak they say different things, but not
    contradictory things

12
Strong Compatibilism
  • G. W. F. Hegel thought that reason and religion
    could be completely reconciled.
  • Religion presents same truths as reason, but
    under a different form, as myth rather than as
    reason.

13
Weak Compatibilism
  • Thomas Aquinas believed that reason and faith
    could never contradict one another, but faith may
    reveals truths beyond the react of reason.

14
Supremacy of Reason
  • Bertrand Russell thought that religion was simply
    wrong, and reason was the role guide for action.

15
Rationalistic Theists
  • Immanuel Kant believed in God, but felt that even
    God was subject to the dictates of reason.

16
Criticisms of Autonomy of Reason Theories
  • The heritage of the Enlightenment belief in
    reason and autonomy and individualism
  • Challenges to the Enlightenment belief
  • Human acts of irrationality the Holocaust,
    enslavement of African-Americans, etc.

17
A Crucial Distinction
  • Distinguish two questions
  • Content. Can reason provide us with adequate
    guidelines about how we should act? The answer
    appears to be yes.
  • Motivation. Can reason provide us with adequate
    motivation to do the right thing? Here the
    answer appears to be no.

18
Possible Relationships between Religion and
Reason in Ethics
Supremacy of Religion Compatibilist Theories Supremacy of Reason
Strong version All morality based on divine commands Fundamentalism Reason and religion are identical Hegel Ethics based only on reason atheistic or agnostic Russell
Weak version Teleological Suspension of the Ethical Kierkegaard Reason and religion may be different but do not conflict Aquinas Even God must follow dictates of reason Kant
19
The Role of Religion in the Moral Life
  • Key question Is religion harmful or helpful to
    the moral life?

20
Religion as Harmful to the Moral Life
  • Karl Marx Religion as the opiate of the masses,
    used to enslave them
  • For Marx, religion was only a tool for oppression.

21
Religion as Harmful to the Moral Life
  • Friedrich Nietzsche
  • The Death of God
  • Nihilism
  • Slave morality and ressentiment

22
Religion as Transcendence
  • Supporters of religion point out the way in which
    the religious consciousness allows individuals to
    transcend the oppression of their times.
  • Oscar Romero of El Salvador

23
Religion and Ultimate Justice
  • Is religion necessary to insure ultimate
    justice, that those who suffer in this world will
    be recompensed and that those who gain in this
    world through treachery will be punished in the
    next?
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