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Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources

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Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources The Grand Cycles ... 3 billion tons ATMOSPHERE carbon dioxide: 635 billion tons HYDROSPHERE dissolved inorganics: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources


1
Industrial Ecology of Earth Resources
EAEE E4001
The Grand Cycles
2
The carbon cycle Global carbon inventory
LITHOSPHERE rocks and sediments 1.4 x 108
billion tons fossil fuels 23000 billion tons oil
equivalent
DETRITUS soil, peat, litter 1750 billion tons
BIOSPHERE plants 830 billion tons animals 3
billion tons
HYDROSPHERE dissolved inorganics 36700 billion
tons
ATMOSPHERE carbon dioxide 635 billion tons
3
The carbon cycle Pre-industrial annual transport
LAND
OCEANS
40 billion tons
60 billion tons
ATMOSPHERE
To atmosphere CO2 by decomposition and
respiration From atmosphere CO2 by
photosynthesis
Human impact now 6.5 billion tons of carbon
(annual increase of 1.6 ppm CO2 25 in 20th
century)
4
Simple representation of carbon bio-reactions
  • Carbon to atmosphere decomposition and
    respiration
  • C6H10O4 6.5 O2 6CO2 5H2O energy
  • Carbon back to land and oceans Photosynthesis
  • 6CO2 5H2O sunlight C6H10O4 6.5O2

5
Global generation of CO2
6
Sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide
7
The sulfur cycle Global inventory
  • LITHOSPHERE
  • in elemental form
  • as hydrated calcium sulfide (gypsum)
  • sedimentary rocks 7800 trillion tons
  • oceanic rocks 2375 trillion tons

HYDROSPHERE dissolved sulfate ions 1280 trillion
tons
ATMOSPHERE mostly carbonyl sulfide (COS) 6
million tons
8
The sulfur cycle Pre-industrial annual transport
LAND
OCEANS
as reduced sulfide or dusts 55 million tons as
SO2 from volcanoes 20 million tons
as ocean spray 140 million tons
ATMOSPHERE
9
The sulfur cycle Global human activities
  • SO2 emissions to atmosphere 93 million tons
  • increased dust emissions 10 million tons
  • fertilization 29 million tons
  • wastewater emissions 13 million tons

coals 1-4 S oils 0.1-0.4 metal sulfides
Human impact now 150 million tons of sulfur
(about the same as pre-industrial flow of S)
10
The nitrogen cycle Global inventory
LITHOSPHERE rocks and sediments 0.032 trillion
tons
HYDROSPHERE dissolved nitrogen 0.71 trillion tons
ATMOSPHERE nitrogen gas (N2) 3900 trillion
tons (Atmosphere 78 N2, 21 O2, lt1 A,
etc.)
11
The nitrogen cycle Pre-industrial annual mass
flow
LAND
OCEANS
transformation of N2 to organic N by plants and
animals 90-130 mill t/y lightning 3-5 mill t/y
Biofixation in marine systems estimates range
from 14-200 mill t/y
ATMOSPHERE
12
The nitrogen cycle Global human activities
  • production of fertilizers 80 mill t/y
  • agriculture, animal breeding 40 mill t/y
  • fossil fuel combustion 20 mill t/y

Human impact now 140 million tons of nitrogen
(about 50 of pre-industrial flow of N)
13
The phosphorus cycle Global inventory
LITHOSPHERE rocks and sediments, continents 19
billion tons , ocean 8.4 x 105 billion
tons
DETRITUS soil, peat, litter 96-120 billion tons
BIOSPHERE continents 2.6 billion tons oceans
0.05-0.12 billion tons
HYDROSPHERE fresh water 0.09 billion
tons oceans 80 billion tons
14
The phosphorus cycle Present flow of P, tons
per year
Major anthropogenic input 14 mill tons
(fertilizers)
LAND
Erosion4-7 mill
dissolved 1.5-4 mill particulate 17 mill
FRESH WATER
erosion and deposition of dust 4.3 mill
OCEAN WATER
Sedimentation 2-13 mill
ATMOSPHERE
15
Conclusions
Industrial Ecology is a virgin field pregnant of
possibilities!
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