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8. Physical Development in Early Childhood

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Physical Development in Early Childhood Read Berk Chapter 8 Physical Growth ... Well-nourished children gain 3 & 4 lbs /yr By age 6: average wt = 46 lbs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 8. Physical Development in Early Childhood


1
8. Physical Development in Early Childhood
  • Read Berk Chapter 8
  • Physical Growth
  • Brain growth, lateralization
  • Motor Development
  • Gross motor skills
  • Fine motor - drawing
  • Problems injuries
  • Pre-school books Assignment 2
  • early cognition discussion

2
Growth in Early Childhood
  • Each year from age 2 to 6
  • Well-nourished children gain 3 4 ½ lbs /yr
  • By age 6
  • average wt 46 lbs (21Kg),
  • average ht 46 (117cm)
  • Size depends on genes, health, nutrition
  • Are asynchronies in growth
  • Body systems differ in the timing of their
    maturation

3
Growth in Early Childhood
4
Growth in Early Childhood
  • Factors influencing growth
  • Heredity hormones
  • Emotional well-being
  • Sleep
  • Nutrition

5
Factors influencing growth
  • Heredity hormones
  • Genes influence when hormones are released
  • Two hormones released - pituitary gland
  • growth hormone (GH) - height
  • thyroid stimulating hormone
  • Stimulates thyroid to release thyroxin
  • Nerve cells of brain, influences GH

6
Factors influencing growth
  • Emotional well-being (lack of)
  • Extreme emotional deprivation interferes
  • With release of GH
  • Can lead to psychosocial dwarfism
  • Very short stature
  • decreased GH secretion
  • Immature bone growth
  • Serious adjustment problems
  • Is reversible
  • if emotionally inadequate environment removed

7
Factors influencing growth
  • Sleep
  • GH is released during sleep
  • Well-rested child better able to play, learn
  • Deep sleep physical growth repair
  • 2-3 yr olds need 12 13 hrs sleep
  • 4-6 yr olds need 10 - 11 hrs sleep
  • Usually stop napping between age 3 4 yr

8
Helping young children sleep
  • 2-yr olds in conflict with parents
  • Want to be independent
  • Want a sense of control (Erikson)
  • Autonomy vs shame doubt
  • Initiative vs guilt
  • But cant do a lot of what they want to
  • Want to do things that exceed their abilities or
    limits set by parents
  • Get frustrated
  • Need structure, routine, help to help them cope

9
Helping young children sleep
  • Based on what you know about young childrens
    needs their issues with conflict control
  • What can adults (parents) do
  • or what conditions can be set up to help young
    children get good sleeps?

10
Helping Young Children Sleep
  • bed time

11
Factors influencing growth
  • Nutrition
  • Appetites decrease between age 2 6 yr
  • Makes parents fret, threaten, cajole
  • Is not usually medical problem unless no gain
  • Major problem is lack of iron, zinc, calcium
  • Too few fruits veggies, too much fat!
  • No more than 30 of diet from fat
  • 1500 1700 cal /day for early childhood
  • Rigid likes dislikes age 2 4 yrs
  • Strong preferences decline after age 3

12
Factors influencing growth
  • Nutrition http//www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/food-guide
    -aliment/res/fg_preschoolers-prescolaire_ga_e.html
    2 at Health Canada
  • Typical servings for preschooler Canada Food
    Guide
  • Grains (5-12 /day)
  • ½ - 1 slice bread 1/4 1/2 bagel, bun, pita, cup
    of pasta, rice
  • Veggies, fruit (5-10 /day)
  • ½ - 1 fruit 1/4 -1/2 cup juice, veggies
  • Milk (2-3 /day)
  • 1 1 ½ oz cheese, ½ cup yogurt, 2 cups milk /day
  • Meat, alternatives (2-3 /day)
  • 11½ oz meat, 1 egg, 1-2 tblsp peanut butter, ¼ -
    ½ cup beans

13
How to introduce new foods
  • What ways can parents caregivers help
    preschoolers accept wider selection of foods?
  • Strategies
  • Psychological-emotional approach

14
How to introduce new foods
  • Help preschoolers accept wider selection foods
    by (Health Canada, 2005)
  • Presenting food in appealing ways.
  • combine colours, textures, shapes of food
  • Encouraging familiarity with different foods
  • offer small quantities of new food beside
    familiar one
  • Regularly introduce new foods
  • Let them help grow, buy, prepare, serve food
  • Respecting individual food preferences.
  • Every child has different likes dislikes.
  • Offer and encourage, but dont force

15
Brain Development
  • Between ages 2 6 yrs
  • brain goes from 70 - 90 of adult weight
  • Continues to undergo dynamic changes
  • Well into young adulthood
  • Grey matter for focal thinking within an area
  • White matter for connections between areas

16
Study of Brain Development
  • 3 magnetic resonance methods Casey et al., 2005
  • Structural mri
  • anatomical views, structural architecture
  • Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) newest
  • Is an index of brain connectivity
  • Analyses diffusion of water in white matter
  • tracts myelinated fibres - regularity
    orientation
  • Functional mri (fmri)
  • Measures changes in blood oxygen in brain
  • Assumed to reflect neural activity

17
Structural/Functional
  • Structural Image whole brain 10-15 mins
  • Functional Images whole brain 2 10 secs

18
Brain Development
  • Brain maturation processes
  • Both regressive progressive processes occur
  • Synaptic pruning of grey matter
  • Number of synapses reduced if unused
  • More elaboratation of stimulated neurons
  • Myelination of white matter
  • Increasing connectedness among brain regions

19
Brain Development
  • Myelination
  • Process - nerves become insulated with myelin
  • But not essential for basic communication.
  • Sensorimotor, visual, auditory cortex earliest
  • Corpus callosum myelinates rapidly
  • Prefrontal cortex myelinates last

20
Brain Development
  • All of brain maturation processes -
  • Follow a sequence
  • parallels cognitive milestones in development
  • First sensorimotor areas mature,
  • Then temporal parietal association areas
  • Then higher-order association areas prefrontal

21
Developmental trends in brain maturation
Reds-Yellowgray Purple-Bluewhite
22
Brain Development
  • Prefrontal cortex
  • Executive area planning analyzing
  • Working Memory
  • Ability to inhibit impulsive behaviours
  • Self-control, self-regulation
  • Myelination starts ages 3 6 years
  • Maturation not complete until adolescence

23
Prefrontal cortex
  • Immature prefrontal cortex
  • Impulsiveness perseveration in young children
  • Eg typical 3-yr old will jump from task to task
  • Unable to sit still for long,
  • Put puzzle together many times, sing same song,
    hear same story,
  • Tantrum as uncontrollable emotional perseveration
  • Normal for a 2-yr old to have a tantrum, not a
    10-yr old
  • development of emotional control reflects both

24
Brain Development
  • Lateralization of function develops
  • Specialization or dominance of functions
  • Left hemisphere
  • controls right side of body for motor activities
  • dedicated to logic, analysis, language, sequences
  • Myelination of Wernickes area is first
  • language understanding
  • Then Brocas area
  • language production
  • Thought to control positive emotions

25
Brain Development
26
Brain Development
  • Lateralization develops
  • Right hemisphere
  • controls left side of body for motor processes
  • Integrator, holistic, big picture, creative
    impulses
  • Important for understanding emotional tone
  • language non-verbal signals
  • Thought to process negative emotions
  • Although dominance is based on 1 hemisphere,
  • all cognitive motor functions use both sides of
    brain

27
Brain Development
  • Handedness
  • Preference ( proficiency) for using one hand for
    skilled motor activities
  • Develops by age 5
  • 90 are right handed, 10 left-handed

28
Brain Development
  • Language lateralization
  • Left hemisphere dominant for language
  • in 96 of right handers 4 bilateral
  • 76 of left-handers 14 bilateral 10 right
  • Females less lateralized than males
  • Language asymmetry develops after age 4
  • If brain injury occurs
  • before age 3, language shifts to other hemisphere
  • from age 4-8, language shifts within same
    hemisphere.

29
Brain Development
  • Brain maturation processes in early childhood
  • Can sit in one place for an hour
  • Scan a page of print, move eyes systematically
  • For complex motor control
  • catch ball, then throw,
  • skip, kick a ball
  • tie shoe laces,
  • balance and control in riding a bike

30
Brain Development
  • Brain maturation processes
  • Allow child to think, react quicker than toddler
  • Listen think before talking or acting
  • Eg, Listen, keep all facts in mind, then respond
  • Scan picture to focus on one thing
  • Remember facts set of instructions
  • Pivotal when several thoughts occur rapid
    sequence
  • Control their emotions

31
Motor Skill Development in Early Childhood
  • Gross Motor Skills
  • Walking, running
  • Catching, throwing, swinging, riding
  • Fine Motor Skills
  • Dressing, eating
  • Drawing

32
Motor Development
  • From 2 6 yrs
  • Preschoolers make huge strides in gross-motor
    skills fine motor skills
  • Eg hopping, skipping, riding a bike, draw
  • What do these skills require?
  • balance, coordination, quick switches

33
Gross Motor Skills
  • Principles of development of motor skills
  • Number of body parts involved
  • increases lead to greater force
  • Range of motion involved
  • Increases lead to greater force
  • Length of limb at contact
  • Full extension, greater force

34
Development Gross Motor Skills
  • Developmental sequence catching a ball
  • 1. No reaction
  • Ball bounces off chest, arms rigid waiting
  • reactions too slow, maybe fear (eyes close,
    cringe, turn head away)
  • 2. Traps ball
  • Contact with arms, not hands, elbows flex to
    trap ball
  • 3. Attempts to catch ball with hands
  • Slight flexion in arms body but timing is poor
    misses often
  • 4. Mature catch
  • Body arms relaxed, ready to absorb force, move
    in any direction
  • Hands held in different positions where ball is

35
Development Gross Motor Skills
  • Developmental sequence throwing a ball
  • 1. Arm action only
  • No step, no body rotation
  • 2. Formative
  • Homolateral step, no body rotation
  • 3. Mature
  • Contralateral step, body rotation, longer
    backswing

36
Motor Development
  • What factors are involved in development of motor
    skills?
  • Myelination sculpting of brain,
  • maturation of prefrontal cortex,
  • growth of muscles,
  • change in body size, proportion
  • slimmer fingers

37
Enhancing Early Childhood Motor Development
  • Mastered through play with peers
  • Formal lessons have little impact
  • Daily routines support motor abilities
  • Provide appropriate play space and equipment
  • Promote fun and positive attitude

38
Fine Motor Control
  • 2-yr-olds - difficulty with fine motor skills
  • pouring juice, cutting food with fork knife,
    drawing with control, tying a bow
  • Have trouble with complex skills
  • two hands
  • Need motor control, patience, judgment
  • practice
  • Why?
  • Short, stubby fingers
  • neurological immaturity

39
Fine Motor Control
  • Pre-schoolers do become more dextrous
  • Develop better control of small muscles
  • ability to make precise, delicate hand finger
    movements
  • Same time as better gross-motor skills

40
Fine Motor Control
  • Can begin to care for themselves
  • Dressing
  • zippers first (2-3), then buttons (3-4)
  • Most 5-yr olds can dress undress themselves
  • Tying shoes mastered at age 6.
  • Most complex skill requiring attention, memory,
    dexterity
  • Can draw pictures
  • Gradually gt skilled at holding crayons/markers

41
The importance of drawing
  • Purpose for children
  • sensory exploration
  • express thoughts/feelings
  • reflect knowledge of world
  • What drawing reveals about children
  • motor co-ordination
  • self-concepts
  • emotions
  • social attitudes

42
Development of Drawing
  • 3 stages
  • Scribbles (12 months )
  • First shapes forms that represent things
  • 2 yrs realize that pictures depict objects
  • 2 - 3 yrs impose meaning on picture
  • 3 - 4 yrs use lines to represent boundaries

43
Development of Drawing
  • More realistic drawings
  • Age 5 - 6 yrs more complex plan picture
  • start to coordinate actions thoughts
  • take care with colour,
  • stand back to see results
  • Age 6 - 7 yrs more realism
  • eg, 3D drawings

44
Early Drawings
3 yr 2 mo
3 yr 7 mo
4 yr
4 yr 2 mo
5 yr 1 mo
From Seifert Hoffnung
11 yr
13 yr
45
Early Drawings
  • Human Figure Drawing
  • a. TADPOLES
  • b. circle for head,
  • no body,
  • pair of vertical lines for legs
  • c. child adds 2nd circle for body
  • another pair of lines for arms

From Cole Cole
46
Early Drawing
  • Childrens maps (Piaget Inhelder, 1948/1956)
  • Drawings of familiar neighbourhoods
  • Preschoolers (3 - 4 yrs)
  • landmarks are fragmented and disorganised
  • Early school (5 - 6 yrs)
  • landmarks organised around familiar routes of
    travel
  • but not mastered relationship of one route to
    another
  • Middle childhood (6 yrs)
  • better overall picture of larger scale space

47
Childhood Injuries
  • Preschoolers eager to explore
  • But lack cognitive skills to know when they are
    in danger.
  • Neurological immaturity means young children
    impulsive, unable to think things through

48
Childhood Injuries
  • Unintentional injuries are leading cause of
    childhood mortality
  • Most common injuries
  • Traffic accidents, drowning, burns, falls, poison
  • Canadian rate 9.7 deaths/100 000 age 1 -14
  • is almost twice Swedish rate (5.2)
  • and much higher than UK rate (6.1)

49
Childhood Injuries
  • Traffic accidents account for 41 of deaths,
  • then drowning 15
  • for every injury-related death there are 40
    hospitalizations and 670 emergency room visits
    to treat injuries (Health Canada, 1999)

50
Childhood Injuries
  • Having an accident implies a random,
    unpredictable, uncontrollable event
  • No one is to blame
  • Injury injury control imply harm can be
    minimized maybe prevented
  • Three levels of injury prevention
  • Primary prevention
  • Secondary prevention
  • Tertiary prevention

51
Childhood Injuries
  • Primary prevention
  • Change background conditions to prevent injury
  • Eg better sidewalks, lights, drivers tests
  • Secondary prevention
  • Actions to prevent immediate harm
  • Eg Stop! School crossing guards, better
    visibility
  • Tertiary prevention
  • Action taken after injury occurs
  • Aimed at reducing harm
  • Eg seek medical treatment

52
Childhood Injuries
  • Injury more likely
  • In boys
  • Temperamentally irritable, inattentive, negative
  • Stressed environment
  • Poverty, crowded family home
  • Parents more likely pay less attention

53
Cognitive Development in Early Childhood
  • Start of material from Chapter 9, 10
  • Assignment 2 preschool books
  • Identify elements in your stories
  • Family ties, fear of separation
  • Social interactions
  • Moral lessons
  • Rhyme, animism, egocentrism, centration, literal

54
Preschool Literature
  • Family ties, fear of separation
  • Young children starting to go out into world
  • Danger vs Autonomy (vs shame/doubt)
  • Stories
  • Hansel/Gretel,
  • Red Riding,
  • Goldilocks

55
Preschool Literature
  • Social interactions
  • Good behaviour/ bad behaviour
  • Social modelling, sociocultural transfer
  • Peter Rabbit in Mr McGregors garden
  • Cat in the Hat making a mess in the house
  • Learning to identify family not family

56
Moral lessons.
  • Eg Aesops fables
  • Ant grasshopper,
  • Gingerbread man fox
  • Tortoise hare

57
Preoperational Cognitive Abilities
  • In stories
  • See rhymes, jokes
  • Repetition, rhythm, rhyme help children
    remember
  • Helps improve memory, recall, attention

58
Preoperational Characteristics
  • Obstacles to logical operations Egocentrism
  • tendency to perceive, understand interpret the
    world in terms of the self
  • child cannot take another's perspective
  • belief everyone sees world as he/she does
  • not a derogatory term, selfishness/arrogance

59
Preoperational Characteristics
  • Examples of egocentric speech
  • child comes home from birthday party says to
    mom He hit her with it!"
  • no explanation of who he, her, or it is,
  • doesn't realize mom doesn't know
  • Nodding yes on telephone

60
Preoperational Characteristics
  • Centration
  • Attends to 1 salient feature, ignores others
  • Eg, Sib 2 cookies, I have 1
  • break cookie in half - child will be satisfied.
  • early on, child fooled by a focus on number
  • Certain rigidity of thought

Cut it into a lot of pieces, Mom. Im really
hungry.
61
Preoperational Characteristics
  • Animism
  • attributing life to inanimate objects
  • Eg sun is sad because it is cloudy, raining
  • especially vehicles (moving) unfamiliar objects

62
Preoperational Characteristics
  • Obstacles to logical operations
  • Concrete approach to language
  • Eg Moms all tied up at work.
  • In stories, we see misunderstandings based on
    literal interpretations

63
Preschool Literature
  • Assignment 2 Discussion of picture books
  • Group discussions 3-4 people
  • Each member read 1/2 -1 min of their story
  • Within group, identify elements in your stories
  • Family ties, fear of separation
  • Social interactions
  • Moral lessons
  • Rhyme, animism, egocentrism, centration, literal
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