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Theories of Human Development

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CHAPTER 2 Theories of Human Development Theories of Human Development Theory: Ideas proposed to describe/explain certain phenomena Organizes facts/observations Guides ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Theories of Human Development


1
CHAPTER 2
  • Theories of Human Development

2
Theories of Human Development
  • Theory Ideas proposed to describe/explain
    certain phenomena
  • Organizes facts/observations
  • Guides collection of new data
  • Should be internally consistent
  • Falsifiable Hypothesis can be tested
  • Supported by data

3
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4
Freud Psychoanalytic Theory
  • Instincts and unconscious motivation
  • Id, Ego, and Superego formed from psychic energy
    (Libido)
  • Id Instinctual nature of humans
  • Ego Rational and objective
  • Superego Internalized moral standards
  • Dynamic system Regular conflicts within

5
Freuds Psychosexual Development
  • Child moves through five stages
  • Stages result from conflict between Id Superego
  • Conflict creates anxiety
  • Ego defends against anxiety with defense
    mechanisms
  • Early experiences have long-term effects on
    personality

6
Strengths and Weaknesses of Freuds Theory
  • Strengths
  • Awareness of unconscious motivation
  • Emphasized important early experience
  • Weaknesses
  • Ambiguous, inconsistent, not testable
  • Not supported by research

7
Erik Erikson
  • Most influential neo-Freudian
  • Some differences with Freud
  • Less emphasis on sexual urges
  • More emphasis on rational ego
  • More positive, adaptive view of human nature
  • Development continues through adulthood

8
Eriksons Stages
  • Trust vs. Mistrust Importance of responsive
    caregiver
  • Autonomy vs. Shame Doubt Preschool
  • Initiative vs. Guilt Preschool
  • Industry vs. Inferiority School-age children
  • Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation Young adult
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle age
  • Integrity vs. Despair Old Age

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11
Strengths and Weaknesses of Erikson
  • Strengths
  • Focus on identity crisis of adolescence still
    most relevant
  • Emphasis on rational and adaptive nature
  • Interaction of biological social influences
  • Weaknesses
  • Sometimes vague and difficult to test
  • Does not explain how development comes about

12
Learning Theories Classical Conditioning
  • Behaviorism Conclusions should be based on
    observable behavior only
  • Tabula Rasa - Environmental view
  • Association Learning
  • UCS Built-in, unlearned stimulus
  • UCR Automatic, unlearned response
  • CS Stimulus causes learned response
  • CR Learned response

13
  • The three phases of classical conditioning

14
Learning Theories Operant Conditioning
  • Probability of behavior based on environmental
    consequences
  • Reinforcement
  • Pleasant consequence
  • Increases probability
  • Punishment
  • Decreases probability
  • Unpleasant, aversive

15
  • Possible consequences of whining behavior.
  • Moosie comes into the TV room and sees his father
    talking and joking with his sister. Lulu, as the
    two watch a football game. Soon Moosie begins to
    whine, louder and louder, that he wants them to
    turn off the television so he can play Nintendo
    games. If you were Moosies father, how would
    you react? Here are four possible consequences
    of Moosies behavior. Consider both the type of
    consequences whether it is a pleasant or
    aversive stimulus and whether it is
    administered (added to) or withdrawn. Notice
    that reinforcers strengthen whining behavior, or
    make it more likely in the future, whereas
    punishers weaken it.

16
Bandura Social Cognitive Theory
  • Formerly called social learning theory
  • Humans think, anticipate, believe, etc.
  • Cognitive Emphasis Observational learning
  • BoBo doll studies
  • Model praised or punished
  • Child learned to imitate rewarded model
  • Vicarious reinforcement

17
Learning Theory Strengths Weaknesses
  • Strengths
  • Precise and testable theory
  • Carefully controlled experiments
  • Practical applications across lifespan
  • Weaknesses
  • Inadequate account of lifespan changes
  • Ignored genetic and maturational processes

18
Piaget Cognitive Developmental Theory
  • Intelligence Ability to adapt to environment
  • Constructivism Understanding based on experience
  • Interactionist
  • Both biological maturation and experience
    required for developmental progress
  • At each new stage, children think in a
    qualitatively different way

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20
Cognitive Developmental Theory
  • Strengths
  • Well-accepted by developmentalists
  • Well-researched, mostly supported
  • Influenced education and parenting
  • Weaknesses
  • Ignores motivation and emotion
  • Stages not universal especially the last one

21
Contextual/Systems Theories
  • Lev Vygotsky Sociocultural perspective
  • Cognitive development is a social process
  • Problem solving aided by dialogues
  • Gottlieb Evolutionary/Epigenetic Systems
  • Genes, neural activity, behavior, and environment
    mutually influential
  • Normal genes and normal early experiences most
    helpful

22
Gottlieb Developmental Psychobiology
  • Interaction Biological environmental
    influences
  • Individual programmed through evolution
  • Current behavior results from past adaptation
  • Ethology Behavior adaptive to specific
    environments
  • E.g., food scarcity creates nomadic behaviors
  • Species-specific behavior of animals humans

23
Gottlieb Epigenesis
  • Instinctual behavior may or may not occur
  • Depends on early physical and social environments
  • Genes alone dont influence behavior
  • A system of interactions
  • People develop in changing contexts
  • Historical
  • Cultural

24
Strengths and Weaknesses
  • Strengths
  • Stresses the interaction of nature and nurture
  • Weaknesses
  • Only partially formulated and tested
  • No coherent developmental theory

25
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