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Digital Camera Concepts

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Digital Camera Concepts Multimedia Mr. Wilhelmi Concepts The underlying principles that apply regardless of the camera you are using. Includes such things as how ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Digital Camera Concepts


1
Digital Camera Concepts
  • Multimedia
  • Mr. Wilhelmi

2
Concepts
  • The underlying principles that apply regardless
    of the camera you are using.
  • Includes such things as how sharpness and
    exposure affect your images and the way they are
    perceived by viewers.
  • Understanding concepts answers the "why" kinds of
    questions you might have about photography.

3
Procedures
  • Those things specific to one kind of camera, and
    explain step-by-step how you set your cameras
    controls to capture an image just the way you
    want to.
  • Understanding procedures gives you the answers to
    the "how" kinds of questions you might have.

4
Digital Cameras
  • All digital cameras capture light reflected from
    objects and records it digitally on tape, disk,
    or microchips.
  • The scene your camera sees will always be
    rendered to a finite number of individual picture
    elements (pixels).
  • Various objects or subjects in your photo will
    occupy a given set of pixels.

5
Composing a Shot
  • Think about the subject and how important it is
    to the environment in which it appears.
  • If youre taking a shot of your pet the
    background is not important. Move in closer.
  • If your goal is to portray your pet in an action
    scene, the background becomes very important and
    needs to be included.

6
Rule of Thirds
  • Mentally superimpose a tic-tac-toe box over the
    image in the viewfinder.
  • Move the camera until one of the image's
    important parts line up at one of the four points
    where the lines cross.
  • Creates a visual sense of visual motion.

7
Rule of Thirds
8
Rule of Thirds
  • The subjects eyes should be in the middle third
    horizontally.
  • Vertically you should place their eyes in the top
    third.

9
Nose Room
  • Leave enough room between a person's face and the
    edge of the frame when they are looking to one
    side or the other.
  • Also applies to objects - a car, truck or
    anything that has a definable front and back,
    make sure its "nose" is not slammed tight against
    the frame.

10
Nose Room
11
Camera Angle
  • High Angle Shot
  • Adds Interest
  • Audience is superior in perspective

12
Camera Angle
  • Low Angle Shot
  • Adds Interest
  • Audience is inferior in perspective

13
Camera Angle
  • Chest High Shot
  • Good for Interviews
  • Neutral perspective

14
Sharpness
  • Extremely sharp photographs reveal a richness of
    detail.
  • The sharpness of different parts of an image
    helps direct the viewer who tends to look first
    at the most sharply focused part of the picture.
  • Sharpness itself can be part of the message of
    the photograph.

15
  • Holding the camera correctly, bracing it, and
    breathing correctly can also reduce camera
    motion.
  • Use the optical viewfinder to take photos because
    you can brace the camera against your face
    instead of holding it out at shaky arms length.
  • Just before taking a shot, inhale deeply, then
    exhale and hold your breath while smoothly
    depressing the shutter-release button.
  • When holding the camera for both horizontal and
    vertical photographs use your right finger to
    press the shutter-release button and your left
    hand to support the camera.

16
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17
  • Most digital cameras have a two-stage
    shutter-release button. When you press it down
    halfway, it sets focus, exposure and white
    balance.
  • Focus determines which parts of the picture will
    be sharpest.
  • Exposure is the amount of light in a scene.
  • White balance is what makes white objects in the
    scene look white in the photo.

18
Panning
  • Moving the camera in the same direction as a
    moving subject produces an image where the
    subject is relatively sharp against a blurred
    background.
  • Your movement should be smooth and controlled to
    get a good pan, so begin to pan the camera before
    the subject enters your viewfinder.
  • Smoothly depress the shutter release as you
    follow the motion of the subject, keeping it in
    the same position in the viewfinder.
  • Follow through as you would in golf or tennis

19
Color
  • Your viewer's attention is drawn to the most
    colorful areas of the scene.
  • Bright and/or colorful objects have a dramatic
    effect on the composition of your shots.
  • They have additional "visual weight" compared to
    the darker areas of your image.

20
Color Balance and Time of Day
  • A color of light called "daylight" occurs between
    10 A.M. and 2 P.M.
  • Colors appear clear, bright, and accurately
    rendered in the photo.
  • Before and after midday the light has a more
    reddish cast than at midday.
  • This reddish cast is a wonderful light to
    photograph in.

21
Daylight
22
Sunsets and Sunrises
  • The colors in the sky are often richest in the
    half hour before the sun rises and the half hour
    after it sets.
  • If you want the sun in the photo, its best if it
    is softened and partly obscured by a mist or haze.

23
Sunrise
24
Sunset
25
  • Instead of shooting into the sun at sunrise or
    sunset, shoot with it behind you to capture rich,
    warm colors of scenes bathed in the suns light.

26
The Moon
  • When full, adds a lot to an image.
  • The best time to capture the moon is when its
    near the horizon. Because it is close to
    foreground objects at that time, it looks much
    larger than when its higher in the sky.

27
Moon
28
Weather
  • Rain, snow, fog, and mist can add interest to
    your pictures.

29
Snow
30
Sea Fog
31
Night
  • Light sources (street lights, automobile lights,
    neon signs, or fires) or brightly lit areas
    (illuminated buildings or areas under street
    lights) will dominate pictures at night because
    they stand out strongly against darker
    backgrounds.
  • Plan to use these bright areas as the dominant
    part of your picture.

32
Night
33
Night
34
Light Its Direction
  • The direction that light is coming from relative
    to your cameras position is important because it
    affects the shadows that will be visible in your
    picture.
  • Four main types of lighting are
  • front-lighting side-lighting
  • backlighting top-lighting

35
Front-lighting
  • Light that falls on the subject more or less from
    the cameras position.
  • Decreases visible shadows and so minimizes
    surface details such as skin texture.
  • Tends to minimize the apparent roundness or
    volume of the subject.

36
Front-lighting
37
Side-lighting
  • Light that falls mainly on one side of the
    subject.
  • Increases the sense of texture and volume because
    such cross-lighting casts shadows visible from
    the cameras position that emphasize surface
    details.

38
Side-lighting
39
Backlighting
  • Light that comes from behind the subject.
  • Puts the side of the subject that is facing the
    camera in shade.

40
Back-lighting
41
Top-lighting
  • Light that comes from more or less overhead.
  • Can occur outdoors at noon or indoors in public
    buildings or other places where ceiling lights
    predominate.
  • Tends to cast shadows in eye-sockets and
    illuminate the top of the nose brightly.

42
Top-lighting
43
Illusion of Depth
  • We see the world in three dimensions -- height,
    width and depth.
  • Film and video can only record and and reproduce
    height and width.
  • Shooting from an angle so you see at least two
    sides in your viewfinder.
  • Fool your viewer into thinking the flat image
    they are seeing has depth -- that it resembles
    three dimensional reality.

44
Depth
45
Compression
  • To make large image files smaller and more
    manageable, digital cameras store images in the
    various source formats.
  • A trade-off between compression and image quality.

46
  • Less compression, sometimes called Fine mode,
    gives you better images so you can make larger
    prints, but you can't store as many images.
  • More compression, in modes such as Normal or
    Basic, lets you store more images and makes the
    images better for making smaller prints, posting
    on a Web page, or sending as e-mail attachments.
    The only problem is that your prints won't be
    quite as good.

47
Source Formats
Photos are stored on the cameras storage device
in one of three formats
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) allows
    you to vary the amount of compression.
  • TIFF (Tag Image File Format) popular for desktop
    publishing applications.
  • CCD RAW contains everything captured by the
    camera.

48
Working Formats
  • Photoshop (.PSD) is Photoshop own native format
    (layers, etc.).
  • PICT is the Macintosh standard format.
  • BMP is a Windows bitmap format.

49
Other Formats
  • PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is supported by
    both Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape
    Navigator.
  • EPS (Encapsulated PostScript) developed by Adobe
    for PostScript printers.
  • GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) used mostly for
    line art and not for photographic images.

50
When Photographing
  • Change angles
  • Change distance or zoom
  • Change perspective
  • Take your time
  • Watch as the light and conditions change

51
Sources
  • Butte College Radio-TV/File Program
  • http//www.bctv.net/telcom/tel40text/1camerascopm.
    html
  • A Short Course in Using Your Digital Camera
  • http//www.shortcourses.com/using/index.htm
  • A Short Course on Editing Digital Photographs
  • http//www.shortcourses.com/editing/edit-04.htm
  • The Art of Video Production
  • http//ab019.k12.sd.us/TTLA/ttla.htm
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