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Adoption of Green Technology and Safety of Wireless Network

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Title: Adoption of Green Technology and Safety of Wireless Network


1
Adoption of Green Technology and Safety of
Wireless Network
  • Milan Jain
  • Sr. Research Officer (Converged Network))
  • Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

2
Environment Vs Development
sustainable
The interdependent and mutually reinforcing
pillars of sustainable development are economic
development, social development, and
environmental protection. United Nations,
World Summit Outcome Document, 2005
3
Mobile Industry Growth Potential
  • In the past two decades, the mobile industry
    has grown rapidly, today providing network
    coverage to more than 90 of the worlds
    population and connecting more than 4 billion
    people, the majority for the first time.
  • The mobile industry is forecast to invest
    800 billion during the next five years 550
    billion of this is earmarked for mobile
    broadband, potentially connecting 2.4 billion
    people to the Internet.
  • If mobile broadband were to fuel a similar
    productivity revolution to that generated by
    mobile voice services, it could boost global
    GDP by 3-4.
  • Globally, the ICT sector contributed 16 of GDP
    growth from 2002 to 2007 and the sector itself
    has increased its share of GDP worldwide from 5.8
    to 7.3. The ICT sectors share of the economy is
    predicted to jump further to 8.7 of GDP growth
    worldwide from 2007 to 2020.

4
ICT Sector Vs Climate Change
  • Climate change is fundamentally altering the
    planet the earth has warmed by 0.7 degrees C
    since around 1900 and will warm more in coming
    decades due to past emissions. Climate change
    will likely have a devastating impact on
    ecosystems and economies, especially in the
    poorest parts of the world.
  • Impact of more extreme weather events on the
    reliability of telecommunications networks
  • Increasing cost and scarcity of energy to power
    ICT equipment
  • Increasing the energy efficiency of
    telecommunications networks
  • Manufacturing more energy-efficient ICT products
  • Dematerialization and the provision of ICT
    services that have the potential to reduce the
    climate change impact of customers
  • Increasing efficiencies regarding data and
    energy passing over networks through digitization

5
ICT Carbon Emission
  • Telecommunication networks are increasingly
    expanding into rural and suburban areas where
    there is no or poor availability of grid power.
  • Globally 1.6 billion people lack access to grid
    electricity (they are off grid) and an
    additional 1 billion have unreliable access (bad
    grid).
  • The global ICT industry producing an estimated 2
    of worlds CO2 emissions.
  • ICT in India accounts for 1.5 of India's total
    energy bill. This is expected to go upto 2.7 by
    2020.

6
ICT Sources of GHG Emission
  • Energy consumed by the network in operation
  • Embedded emissions of the network equipment,
    for example, emissions associated with the
    manufacturing and deployment of network equipment
  • Energy consumed by mobile handsets and
    other devices, when they are manufactured,
    distributed and used, as well as their embedded
    emissions
  • Emissions associated with buildings run by mobile
    operators, and emissions from transport of mobile
    industry employees

7
ICT Energy Vs Opex
  • Telecom service providers operating costs have
    grown as more sophisticated cooling systems are
    needed and more electricity is consumed thereby
    leading to high energy costs.
  • The energy expenses in a developing country may
    range from 15 to 30 of all operational
    expenses.
  • Telecom towers, with all their equipment, account
    for 30 of the operational expenses for telecom
    operators.
  • While the Opex of renewable energy is low, its
    Capex is very high. For example, solar voltaic
    panels cost as much as Rs 350,000(US7777) per
    kilowatt.

8
ICT India Energy Vs Opex
  • There are about 300,000 towers in India which
    consume an estimated 2 billion litres of diesel
    annually which results in 5360 tonnes of CO2
    emission.
  • Each tower consumes 3-5 kW for equipment, air
    conditioning and generators with BTS alone
    consuming 1.3 to 2.5 kW. If grid power is
    erratic, the cost multiplies four times or more
    as Diesel power on an average costs Rs 17 (US
    0.38) to Rs 21(US0.47) per kW.
  • In rural areas energy expenses increase to 70 of
    total opex compared to 15-30 in urban areas.
    Expansion in rural areas increase consumption of
    fuel as these areas are not connected to the grid
    or have long hours of electrical outages.
    According to estimates by Ernst and Young, for a
    village site in Maharashtra the diesel costs is
    Rs 19,000(US 422) per month whereas in Mumbai it
    would cost Rs2000 (US 45) in Mumbai.

9
BTS site Power Consumption
Mobile base stations use as much as 80 of the
total energy consumed by the phone networks and
almost 50 of which is used for cooling.
10
Alternate Energy Sources
  • Solar Power
  • Wind Power
  • Bio Gas
  • Less Polluting fuel like CNG etc.

11
Alternate Energy Sources Vs Opex
  • The move from diesel to solar energy sources
    could result in savings of 1.4 billion in
    operating expense for tower companies.
  • Some equipment vendors have launched wind-powered
    radio base stations which do not require feeders
    and cooling systems, resulting in upto 40 lower
    power consumption.
  • An outdoor BTS can perform in extreme climatic
    conditions in places where diesel and electricity
    supply is inadequate. Using an outdoor BTS
    reduces Capex by about 15 of the site cost and
    Opex by 25 as it lowers power consumption and
    eliminates the need for a shelter.
  • Operators are also using CNG generators instead
    of diesel. The fuel opex can be reduced 25 using
    fuel cells and 14 through CNG generators.

12
Direct Emission of Mobile Industry
13
GHG Emission from Mobile Industry
14
GHG Emission from Mobile Industry
  • Irbaris estimates that mobile industry emissions
    were 90 mega-tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent
    (Mt CO2e) in 2002 rising to 245 Mt CO2e by 2009.
    During this period, the industry grew from 1.1
    billion to 4.6 billion connections, whilst
    GSM network coverage increased to over 90
    of the worlds population in 2009 from 50 in
    2002 and a new generation of mobile broadband
    networks, 3G HSPA, began to be built out.
    Emissions per connection actually fell by 30
    from 2002 to 2009.
  • The mobile industry forecasts that business
    and technology innovations by mobile
    operators and vendors will ensure that
    emissions remain at the 2009 level in
    2020, even as the industrys total
    connections rise to 8 billion

15
Annual Carbon Emission per Subscriber
16
Telecom Industry Initiatives
  • Mobile operators and vendors are working on
    a number of initiatives to develop energy
    efficient networks and ensure that their
    customers use energy-efficient handsets.
  • Designing low energy base station sites
  • Deploying base-stations powered by renewable
    energy
  • Implementing infrastructure optimisation and
    sharing
  • Reducing mobile device life cycle emissions
    through design and recycling

17
Telecom Industry Initiatives
  • Considerable improvements in energy efficiency of
    base stations have been realised in recent years.
    For example, Ericsson has reduced the annual
    direct CO2e emissions per subscriber in
    the mobile broadband base stations it supplies
    from 31 kg in 2001 to 17 kg in 2005 and to 8 kg
    in 2007. Nokia Siemens Networks announced in
    2009 a new SM/WCDMA cabinet-based BTS with
    a power consumption of 790 W, versus 4,100 W
    for the equivalent model from
    2005.Alcatel-Lucent also developed innovative
    techniques such as the Dynamic Power Save feature
    on their GSM/EDGE mobile networking portfolio,
    which reduces power consumption when the
    traffic drops with no impact on service
    quality. This enhancement reduces average
    power consumption by 25-to-30, and can be
    installed on all Alcatel-Lucent base stations
    deployed since 1999.

18
EMF Radiation India
  • In India, there are more than 3,00,000 telecom
    towers. Monitoring the EMF radiation level of
    these telecom towers is a challenge.
  • Presently, operator has to submit the self
    certification declaring the EMF radiation
    exposure by BTS within prescribed limit.
  • Department of Telecommunications (DoT) has
    instructed service providers for confirming to
    limits for Base station emissions for general
    public exposure as prescribed by International
    Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation
    Protection(ICNIRP). 

19
Safe Radiation Limit India
Frequency Range E-field strength Volt/Meter) H-Field Strength (Amp/Meter) Power Density (Watt/ Sq Meter)
400 to 2000 MHz 1.375 f 1/2 0.003f1/2 f/200
20 GHz to 300 GHz 61 0.16 10
20
EMF Radiation International Practice
  • Internationally, agencies like International
    Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection
    (ICNIRP) and Institute of Electrical and
    Electronics Engineers (IEEE), have published
    their reports giving acceptable safe limits of
    electromagnetic radiations from telecom towers.
  • Majority of Countries including India follow the
    radiation limit prescribed by ICNIRP like UK,
    Australia, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea,
    France, Sweden, Norway, Philippines, Ireland and
    Finland. However, some countries like US, Russia,
    Turkey has prescribed their own radiation limit
    which is generally lower than the ICNIRP limit.

21
EMF Radiation Monitoring International Practice
  • In US, FCC has measurement instrumentation for
    evaluating RF levels. FCC does not perform RF
    exposure investigations unless there is a
    reasonable expectation that the RF exposure
    limits may be exceeded.
  • In UK Ofcom is conducting the audit of base
    station by evenly sampling across the UK and
    results are made available on their website.
  • In Australia, radiation level is measured based
    on randomly selecting towers. Penalties are
    imposed, in case of non compliance.
  • In Brazil, on site inspection to verify
    compliance is scheduled.
  • In Ireland, Communication Regulator arranges for
    NIR surveys on sample basis of nationwide
    licensed transmitter sites.
  • In some countries, field survey is carried out to
    measure the radiation power in worst condition
    through agencies like INCIRP, ARPANSA, WHO etc.

22
E-waste Handset
  • A 2008 survey of 6,500 people in 13 countries
    reported that 44 kept their old phone, 25 gave
    it to friends or family, 16 sold their used
    phone (especially in emerging markets), 3 are
    recycled and 4 are thrown into landfill.
    About 16 (by weight) of a typical mobile phone
    is considered high value materials. For
    example, 1 tonne of electronic circuit boards
    yields about the same amount of gold as 110
    tonnes of gold ore.
  • A pilot recycling project was run by Vodafone
    in Kenya in 2007/08 and collected, on average,
    half a kilogram of waste per week from each
    repairer. Nearly a quarter of the waste collected
    was phone casings, 22 batteries and 20
    chargers.
  • Handset vendors are also working on a variety of
    green handsets, with features ranging from
    simple reminders to unplug the phone when it
    is fully charged to using solar energy for
    charging. Some new models are made from recycled
    materials or from biodegradable plastics.

23
Green Telecom Forecast Future
  • Mobile technologies are already being used to
    reduce greenhouse gas emissions and costs across
    a wide range of sectors of the economy,
    using SIM cards and radio modules embedded
    in machines and devices to deliver smart,
    intelligent solutions. By 2020 we estimate
    that mobile technologies could lower emissions
    in other sectors by the equivalent of taking one
    of every three cars off the road3.
  • Mobile communications can also make it
    straightforward for individuals to monitor
    their own carbon footprint, while being an
    effective channel for advice and suggestions to
    consumers on how to change their behaviour to cut
    their emissions.
  • The mobile industry could enable greenhouse gas
    emissions reductions of 1,150 Mt CO2e - twice
    the emissions of the United Kingdom in 2020.
    These emission reductions would originate in
    sectors such as power (350 MtCO2e), buildings
    (350 Mt CO2e), transportation and logistics
    (270 Mt CO2e), and dematerialisation (160 Mt
    CO2e).

24
Green Telecom Forecast Future
  • The mobile industry forecasts that it will
    reduce its total global greenhouse gas
    emissions per Connection1 by 40 by 2020
    compared to 2009.
  • The number of mobile connections is set to rise
    by 70 to 8 billion by 2020. Despite this growth,
    the mobile industry forecasts that its total
    emissions will remain constant at 245 mega-tonnes
    of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2e) -
    equivalent to 0.5 of total global emissions in
    2020, or the greenhouse gas emissions of the
    Netherlands.
  • Mobile operators plan to work with handset
    vendors to ensure that the energy consumed by
    a typical handset is reduced by 40 in standby
    and in use by 2020.
  • Mobile operators will also work with equipment
    vendors to ensure that the life cycle
    emissions of network equipment components are
    reduced by 40 in the same timeframe.

25
Regulatory Initiative Green Telecom
  • Assessment of the problem
  • Encouragement for use of Non conventional energy
    sources.
  • Future roadmap for implementing green energy
    sources in telecom industry.
  • Incentive in lieu of carbon credit.
  • Monitoring ground situation.

26
Regulatory Initiative EMF Radiation
  • Define the standards for EMF Radiation.
  • Evolve the monitoring mechanism for EMF
    radiation.
  • Define the reporting mechanism i.e. Self
    certifying / automatic measuring and reporting.
  • Provision of penalty for violation.
  • Consumer awareness program.

27
Green Telecom Conclusion
  • ICTs are part of the solution, not part of the
    problem, and there are enormous gains to be made
    through the smart use of ICTs in virtually every
    single sector.
  • The importance of ICTs now needs to be recognized
    globally and the vital role of ICTs as we move
    forward in dealing with climate change issues be
    further promoted.

28
Thank you
  • Milan Jain
  • Sr. Research Officer (Converged Network)
  • Telecom Regulatory Authority of India
  • J.L. Nehru Marg, New Delhi 110002
  • Ph. 91-11- 23212032 (O)
  • 91-11- 23211998 (Fax)
  • E-mail milanastro_at_gmail.com
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