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South Asia Notes


South Asia Notes South Asia Nuclear Proliferation Jammu and Kashmir South Asia Britain controlled India since the mid-1700s made many changes to the Indian way of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: South Asia Notes

South Asia Notes
  • South Asia
  • Nuclear Proliferation
  • Jammu and Kashmir

South Asia
  • Britain controlled India since the mid-1700s
    made many changes to the Indian way of life some
    of those changes were beneficial others were not
  • Mohandas Gandhi used nonviolent methods to help
    India gain independence from Britain

South Asia
  • When India became independent in 1947, it was
    divided into two countries, India and Pakistan
    (Pakistan had two parts West Pakistan and East

South Asia
  • After a civil war in 1971, the eastern part of
    Pakistan became the nation of Bangladesh

South Asia
  • Most Indians live in rural villages where
    traditional ways of life remain
  • Most villages now have electricity and television
    reaches about 75 of all Indians
  • The growth of cities and the rise of a middle
    class are major trends in modern India

South Asia
  • Indian society has been organized into a caste
    system for hundreds of years
  • Today the caste system continues to shape
    peoples lives despite the fact that it has
    become less rigid
  • Indias government is working hard to raise the
    countrys standard of living

South Asia
  • Pakistan
  • Along its Northern and Western borders is one of
    the worlds highest mountain ranges the Hindu
  • Mountains keep cold air from penetrating during
    the winter so temperatures are generally warm or
  • The Indus River is the lifeline of this largely
    dry country

South Asia
  • Afghanistan
  • As a result of invasions and migrations,
    Afghanistan includes many ethnic groups
  • Russia and Britain both tried unsuccessfully to
    conquer Afghanistan
  • When the Soviet Union withdrew from Afghanistan
    in 1989 the Taliban came to power

South Asia
  • Bangladesh
  • The country is an enormous delta formed by three
    powerful rivers
  • The soil is very fertile but flooding occurs
  • Overpopulation is a problem. Bangladesh is the
    ninth most populous country of the world

South Asia
  • Nepal and Bhutan
  • Nepal is about 90 percent Hindu
  • Bhutan is about 75 percent Buddhist
  • Both high mountains and politics kept these
    countries separated from the rest of the world
    until the middle of the 20th century

South Asia
  • Sri Lanka
  • Deforestation may have helped changed Sri Lankas
    weather and caused droughts
  • The Tamils (TAHM uhlz) minority are seeking a
    separate state

South Asia Land and Resources. AIMS Multimedia.
2001.unitedstreaming. 4 May 2007lthttp//www.unit
Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia
Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia
  • India and Pakistan have both refused to sign the
    Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and the
    Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)
  • India detonated a nuclear device in 1974 that it
    said was peaceful

Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia
  • India conducted underground testing on five
    nuclear weapons in May of 1998
  • Seventeen days later Pakistan conducted its own
    tests detonating six devices to equal the number
    of Indian tests

Nuclear Proliferation in South Asia
  • It is estimated that India has about 85 nuclear
    weapons and that Pakistan has about 25 nuclear
  • Both nations have surface to surface missiles
    that could deliver these weapons into any part of
    the other nations territory
  • These countries have been hostile since
    independence in 1947

Jammu and Kashmir
  • Of particular concern is the situation in Jammu
    and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir
  • Under the plan for independence in 1947 Kashmir
    was supposed to be free to join either Pakistan
    or India
  • The ruler of Kashmir decided to join with India
    in return for military aid and a promise of a
  • Pakistan believes that Kashmir should have been
    made part of Pakistan in 1947 because the
    majority of the inhabitants are Muslim

Jammu and Kashmir
  • Neither Pakistan nor India favor independence for
    the region
  • The Line of Control separates Pakistan
    controlled Kashmir from Indian controlled Kashmir
  • China also controls a small part of Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir
  • Rival forces have entrenched themselves on the
    Siachen glacier (more than 6,000 meters high)
  • More die from the harsh conditions of the
    environment than from combat

Jammu and Kashmir
  • Insurgents have been fighting Indian defense
    forces in Indian controlled Kashmir since 1989
  • India claims that these forces are being armed by
  • Pakistan claims that while they support the
    insurgents politically they are not supplying
    them with arms

Jammu and Kashmir
  • The UN deployed a peacekeeping force to the
    region in 1949 to monitor a ceasefire
  • Formal hostilities renewed in 1971 (despite the
    presence of UNMOGIP)