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Problems of Urbanization


Problems of Urbanization The New Immigrants I. Through the GOLDEN DOOR many immigrants came to the US because they were lured to the promise of a better life. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Problems of Urbanization

Problems of Urbanization
The New Immigrants
  • I. Through the GOLDEN DOOR many immigrants came
    to the US because they were lured to the promise
    of a better life. Some of these immigrants
    sought to escape difficult conditions poverty,
    famine, religious or political persecution.
    Other immigrants were birds of passage short
    term stay for

Immigrants from Europe
  • Between 1870 1920, 20 million Europeans
    migrated to the US (mostly from GB, Ireland
    Germany). However, in the late 1890s many began
    to come from South Eastern Europe (Austria and
    Russia) They arrived through what they deemed as
    the Golden Door.
  • Jews left Russia as refugees they were being
    driven out by pogroms anti-Semitic campaign
    that led to the massacre of Jews
  • Other Reasons Europeans left Homelands
  • Overcrowding population of Europe doubled to
    432 million
  • Jobs were plentiful in the US
  • Spirit of Reform and Revolt in Europe
  • Generally all Europeans came in through Ellis
    Island New York

Immigrants from China Japan
  • Between 1851 1883 200,000 Chinese immigrated to
    the US
  • Reasons for immigration GOLD/ Plentiful Jobs
    especially with the Railroad helped build
    transcontinental RR
  • US will restrict Chinese Immigration in 1882
    (Chinese Exclusion Act)
  • Japanese government allowed Hawaiians to recruit
    Japanese workers, eventually the US will annex
    the Hawaiian islands in 1898 word spread about
    high American wages causes Japanese immigration

Immigrants from the West Indies Mexico
  • Mainly these people came in search of JOBS
  • 200,000 migrated to the US between 1890 1920
  • Some Mexicans became US citizens without leaving
    their home (Texas Annexation/ Mexican Cession/
  • Other Mexicans came because of governmental
    policy National Reclamations of Land Act
    irrigation of arid lands (JOBS)

II. Life in the New Land
  • Journey across the Atlantic was by steamship and
    lasted approximately 1 week. Many immigrants
    traveled in steerage or in cargo decks below the
    ships waterline. Generally the air was stale,
    they slept in lice infested bunks and shared
    bathing and bath facilities with several other
    daring soles.

  • E.I. was the immigration station in New York
    Harbor for countries across the Atlantic
  • Statistics
  • - 20 of immigrants that reached E I were
  • - 2 of those that were detained were deported
  • Processing immigrants
  • - pass a physical examination doctor
  • - Report to a government inspector check to
    see if they had legal requirements to enter US
  • 1. literacy tests
  • 2. prove they were able to work
  • 3. have at least 25
  • Between 1905 1907 it is estimated that 11,000
    immigrants entered Ellis Island each day

Angel Island
  • Immigration Station on the west coast primarily
    Asians entered the US at this location. Coming
    through Angel Island was quite different than
    entrance at Ellis Island. Immigrants were
    shackled and chained for days while questioned of
    their intention

Culture Shock
  • Culture Shock is confusion and anxiety resulting
    from being placed in a culture and a society that
    one doe not understand
  • Problems
  • Finding a place to live
  • Getting a job
  • Having few friends to help
  • many dealt with this situation by forming
    Burroughs same culture neighborhoods that
    shared common beliefs, customs, values, and
  • these neighborhood formations gave rise to the
    idea of being a Hyphenated American
  • (Salad Bowl vs Melting Pot Theory)

Lower East Side Immigrant Family
A Struggling Immigrant Family
Another Struggling Immigrant Family
Reaction to Immigration
  • Strong Anti-immigrant feeling grew in the US
  • Nativism
  • Anti-Asian Sentiment
  • Led to
  • Chinese Exclusion Act
  • Gentlemens Agreement

I. Urban Opportunities
  • The main reason that people moved to urban areas
    in because of opportunity. People saw these
    industrial areas as places of work and an escape
    from poverty. (Urbanization)
  • A. Immigrants settle in Cities - most of the
    immigrants who came to the US became city
    dwellers cheapest way to live
  • 1. cities provided unskilled laborers jobs and
    provided Social support of other immigrant
    families (lived in boroughs)
  • Could practice their own language
  • Could practice their own customs and beliefs
  • Practiced their own religion

  • 2. By 1910 immigrant families made up more than
    half the total population of 18 major US cities
  • 3. Soon overcrowding becomes a problem
  • B. Migration from country to city Farming
    technology improved drastically during the second
    half of the 19c with such inventions as the steel
    plow, McCormick reaper, Cord binder this meant
    that fewer laborers were needed --- causing many
    rural people to move to cities because of loss of

  • Cities also offered different cultural
    experiences and a faster paced lifestyle
  • - NY CITY 1st moving pictures, YANKEES
  • - Chicago Buffalo Bills Wild West Show or
    Columbian Exposition
  • - Boston - Redsox

II. Urban Problems
  • A. Housing When the industrial revolution began
    there was not much housing opportunity for middle
    class workers
  • 1. Housing on the Outskirts if Town
  • 2. Rent rooms in boarding houses
  • Row Houses attached single dwellings that
    shared side walls
  • Dumbbell Tenements long, narrow, 5 or 6 story
    buildings that were shaped like barbells

Jacob Riis' How the Other Half Lives (1890)
Mulberry Street Bend, 1889
5-Cent Lodgings
Mens Lodgings
Womens Lodgings
Immigrant Family Lodgings
Dumbbell Tenement Plan
Tenement House Act of 1879, NYC
Blind Beggar, 1888
Italian Rag-Picker
1890s Morgue Basement Saloon
Black Tan Saloon
  • B. Transportation traveling about the cities
    safely and efficiently was difficult. Before
    Industrialization people went on foot or on horse
    drawn carriage, but innovations in mass transit
    made transportation much easier.
  • 1. Cable Cars 1st used in San Francisco
  • 2. Street Cars developed in Richmond Virginia
  • 3. Electric Subways 1897 Boston
  • Linked your city with suburbs

  • C. Water Cities also faced the problem of
    providing water that was safe to drink. As the
    urban population grew cities began to develop
    public water works. (first ones in NYC and
    Cleveland) The necessity for safe and clean water
    was important in order to reduce the spread of
    such diseases as cholera and typhoid. Therefore
    Chlorination was introduced in 1893 and
    filtration in 1908. Still by the early 20th
    century many people did not have plumbing.

  • D. Sanitation Most cities had serious
    sanitation problems
  • 1. Horse manure piled up in the streets
  • 2. Sewage flowed through open gutters
  • 3. Factories produced fowl smoke
  • 4. No dependable system of garbage clean up
  • By 1900 most city governments will develop a
    sanitation department to combat this ongoing

  • E. Fire
  • 1. Limited water supply in cities caused another
    disturbing problem - the spread of fire
  • 2. Most major cities experienced a fire between
    the 1870s and 1880s
  • 3. Another serious problem was that most cities
    were packed with wooden dwellings. These
    dwellings acted like kindling for fires.
  • 4. People used kerosene and candles inside as a
    source of heat and light.
  • Solutions
  • 1. Firefighters were originally volunteers -
    Cincinnati will develop the first Fire Department
  • 2. Development of Automatic Sprinklers for
  • 3. Buildings will be made of brick and concrete

  • F. Crime
  • Murders Alley Robbers Roosts

Bandits Roost
Mullens Alley Gang
The Street Was Their Playground
Emergence of Political Machines
  • I. Political Machines Run Cities
  • Late 19c cities were in trouble
  • Social Darwinism opened the way for a new
    political structure
  • Political Machines were an organized group that
    controlled activities of a political party in a
    city and offered services to voters and business
    to merchants in return for votes
  • Structure Pyramid Base
  • Main purpose of individuals was to get candidate

  • B. Role of the Political Boss controlled
    thousands of municipal jobs, including those in
    police, fire and sanitation departments
  • By solving city problems they could reinforce
    voter loyalty
  • C. Immigrants Political machines
  • - Received sympathetic understanding from
    political machines and in turn became loyal
  • - Political base for machines were 1st and 2nd
    generation immigrants raised in poverty/
    generally did not have more than a grammar school
  • - Provided solutions for immigrants
  • Helped them to become naturalized in return for

II. Municipal Graft and Scandal
  • Many political bosses fell victim to greed and
    corruption as their power and influence grew
  • A. Election fraud and graft since power of
    political machines was not always enough many
    bosses resorted to voter fraud in order to retain
    their political control
  • Kick Backs illegal payments
  • Grant Favors
  • Accepted Bribes
  • police did nothing to control corruption
    because often times they were hired by the
    political machines and their livelihood depended
    upon the paycheck received from the machine

Tweed Ring Scandal
  • William Marcy Tweed was head of Tamany Hall in
    NYC powerful democratic political machines
  • Tweed Ring group of corrupt politicians that
    pocketed as much as 200 million from the city in
  • Thomas Nast a cartoonist help to publicize the
    corrupt government in NYC
  • Eventually in 1871 the Tweed Ring was broken up
    and Boss Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of
    fraud and extortion. In 1873 he was sentenced to
    12 years in prison served 2 and escaped to
    Spain Captured by Spanish Officials because
    they recognized by using Nasts cartoons.

Politics of the GILDED AGE
  • The GILDED AGE is a period in history when the
    external glitter of wealth concealed the growing
    gap between the very rich and the poor masses
    Charles Dickens

The "Politics of Equilibrium"
1. A Two-Party Stalemate
Two-Party Balance
2. Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two
Major Political Parties
3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs
Democratic Bloc
Republican Bloc
  • White southerners (preservation of white
  • Catholics
  • Recent immigrants (esp. Jews)
  • Urban working poor (pro-labor)
  • Most farmers
  • Northern whites (pro-business)
  • African Americans
  • Northern Protestants
  • Old WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws)
  • Most of the middle class

4. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt.
  • From 1870-1900 ? Govt. did very little
  • Main duties of the federal govt.
  • Deliver the mail.
  • Maintain a national military.
  • Collect taxes tariffs.
  • Conduct a foreign policy.
  • Exception ? administer the annual Civil War
    veterans pension.

5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office
  • Party bosses ruled.
  • Presidents should avoid offending any factions
    within their own party.
  • The President just doled out federal jobs.
  • 1865 ? 53,000 people worked for the federal
  • 1890 ? 166,000

Senator Roscoe Conkling
I. Civil Service Replaces Patronage
  • 1. Desire for Money and power made politics so
    corrupt at the local level of government that it
    effected the national level.
  • 2. Since the beginning of the 19c presidents had
    complained about Patronage (Spoils System)
    theory was that winning candidates deserved
    spoils (started by Andy Jackson) people were
    given the spoils whether they were qualified or
  • 3. Instead of addressing national interests
    presidents had to deal w/ the headache of
    distributing government jobs people who
    received the jobs used them for personal gain
    corruption GRANTISM ANYONE?
  • 4. Reformers began to press for a federal system
    based on a MERIT SYSTEM qualifications --

A. Hayes Launches Reform
  • 1876 election gave the office of Presidency to
    Rutherford B. Hayes. One month after his election
    he wrote in his diary Now for civil service
    reform idea had no legislative support
  • 1. Other measures of the Hayes Administration
  • Named independents to CABINET
  • Fired government officials who had no work to do
    cut government expenditures
  • Set up commissions investigated Custom Houses

B. Garfield Continues Reforms
  • In 1880 Hayes decided not to run for reelection
  • At the 1880 Republican Convention a fight broke
    out between Stalwarts and Reformers
  • Stalwarts Republicans who opposed change in the
    spoils system
  • Reformers republicans who supported the merit
  • Reformers were also divided into two groups
  • Mugwamps republicans who were for reform
  • Halfbreeds favored the merit system but were
    loyal to their party

1880 Presidential Election Republicans
Half Breeds
Sen. James G. Blaine Sen. Roscoe
Conkling (Maine)
(New York)
James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP)
1880 Presidential Election Democrats
Inspecting the Democratic Curiosity Shop
1880 Presidential Election
  • To settle this dispute the Republican
    Presidential ticket would be split
  • James A. Garfield (P) Reformist/ Mugwamp
  • Chester A. Arthur (VP) Stalwart
  • Eventually the Republicans win the election and
    Garfield gives many of his government jobs to
    people who support the Merit System
  • July 2 1881 Garfield walked through the DC
    train station and was shot 2 times by Charles
    Guiteau whom Garfield had turned down for a job
  • Garfield died September 19, 1881

C. Arthur Turns Reformer and Supports Civil
  • 1. His 1st message to Congress was to pass the
    PENDLETON ACT authorized a bipartisan civil
    service commission to make appointments to
    federal positions through the merit system ( By
    1940 40 of all govt jobs were civil service
  • Benefits of this system
  • Government more honest and efficient
  • Stronger ties between government and wealthy

1881 Garfield Assassinated!
Charles Guiteau I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is
President now!
Chester A. Arthur The Fox in the Chicken Coop?
Pendleton Act (1883)
  • Civil Service Act.
  • The Magna Carta of civil service reform.
  • 1883 ? 14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs
    became civil service exam positions.
  • 1900 ? 100,000 out of 200,000 civil service
    federal govt. jobs.

Republican Mugwumps
  • Reformers who wouldnt re-nominate Chester A.
  • Reform to them ? create a disinterested,
    impartial govt. run by an educated elite like
  • Social Darwinists.
  • Laissez faire government to them
  • Favoritism the spoils system seen as govt.
    intervention in society.
  • Their target was political corruption, not
    social or economic reform!

The Mugwumps
Men may come and men may go, but the work of
reform shall go on forever.
  • Will support Cleveland in the 1884 election.

II. Attempts to Regulate Tariffs Fail
  • Protective Tariff tax on imports that attempt
    to protect domestic production
  • A. In 1884 the Democratic Party captures the
    Presidency with GROVER CLEVELAND 1st democratic
    president in 28yrs. (Southerner disliked
    tariffs) Congress was Republican Gridlock
    Therefore Cleveland loses the election of 1888 to
    Benjamin Harrison even though Cleveland won the
    popular vote. Harrison wanted higher tariffs
    helped to Pass the McKinley Tariff increased
    the tariff to the highest level ever 66
  • In 1892 Cleveland was elected again (only
    president to serve 2 nonconsecutive terms he
    supported the Wilson Gorman Bill lowered
    tariffs but called for an income tax he would
    not sign it because of the income tax
  • 1897 McKinley Inaugurated President and raised
    tariffs once more.

1884 Presidential Election
Grover Cleveland James Blaine
A Dirty Campaign
Ma, Mawheres my pa? Hes going to the White
House, ha ha ha!
Little Lost Mugwump
Blaine in 1884
Rum, Romanism Rebellion!
  • Led a delegation of ministers to Blaine in NYC.
  • Reference to the Democratic Party.
  • Blaine was slow to repudiate the remark.
  • Narrow victory for Cleveland he wins NY by only
    1149 votes!.

Dr. Samuel Burchard
1884 Presidential Election
Clevelands First Term
  • The Veto Governor from New York.
  • First Democratic elected since 1856.
  • A public office is a public trust!
  • His laissez-faire presidency
  • Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the
  • Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil
    War veterans!

Bravo, Señor Clevelando!
The Tariff Issue
  • After the Civil War, Congress raised tariffs to
    protect new US industries.
  • Big business wanted to continue this consumers
    did not.
  • 1885 ? tariffs earned the US 100 mil.
    in surplus!
  • Mugwumps opposed it ? WHY???
  • President Clevelands view on tariffs????
  • Tariffs became a major issue in the
    1888 presidential election.

Filing the Rough Edges
Tariff of 1888
1888 Presidential Election
Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison
Coming Out for Harrison
The Smallest Specimen Yet
1888 Presidential Election
Disposing the Surplus
Changing Public Opinion
  • Americans wanted the federal govt. to deal with
    growing soc. eco. problems to curb the power
    of the trusts
  • Interstate Commerce Act 1887
  • Sherman Antitrust Act 1890
  • McKinley Tariff 1890
  • Based on the theory that prosperity flowed
    directly from protectionism.
  • Increased already high rates another 4!
  • Rep. Party suffered big losses in 1890
    (even McKinley lost his House seat!).

1892 Presidential Election
Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again!
1892 Presidential Election
Cleveland Loses Support Fast!
  • The only President to serve two non- consecutive
  • Blamed for the 1893 Panic.
  • Defended the gold standard.
  • Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike.
  • Refused to sign the Wilson-Gorman Tariff of 1894.
  • Repealed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act.