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LEARNING DISABILITIES

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LEARNING DISABILITIES KNR 270 Learning Disabilities Individuals with learning disabilities have above average, average, or near average intelligence They experience ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LEARNING DISABILITIES


1
LEARNING DISABILITIES
  • KNR 270

2
Learning Disabilities
  • Individuals with learning disabilities have above
    average, average, or near average intelligence
  • They experience academic and social difficulties
  • Have highly variable characteristics or needs
  • Range from mild to severe

3
What is a Learning Disability?
  • Neurological disorders
  • Interferes with a persons ability to store,
    process, or produce information
  • Creates a gap between ability and performance
  • Tests
  • Difference between ability performance

4
Is this a Disability of Kids?
  • Often first recognized during childhood or school
  • LD is not cured and doesnt go away
  • People learn to compensate
  • Famous people
  • Bruce Jenner
  • Greg Louganis
  • Whoopee
  • Others?

5
Problems
  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking
  • Computing math
  • Coordination
  • Attention
  • Social skills

6
Social Skills
  • Language skills
  • Choose right time to speak, find right words,
    understand what is said
  • Reading non-verbal information
  • Understanding different situations
  • Impulsivity
  • Segregated classes deprive opportunities to learn
    social skills

7
Types of Learning Disabilities
  • Dyslexia
  • Language processing and its impact on reading,
    writing, and spelling
  • Dysgraphia
  • Writing, motor patterns in writing, spelling
  • Dyscalculia
  • Math, memory of math facts, concepts of time,
    money

8
Types of Learning Disabilities
  • Dyspraxia
  • Motor planning, coordination of body movements
  • Auditory discrimination
  • Differences in speech sounds
  • Visual perception
  • Notice details and assign meaning to what was
    seen
  • And many other types

9
Dyslexia
  • Most common learning disability
  • 80 of LD dyslexia
  • 1/5 students have dyslexia
  • May have with other LD
  • Developmental coordination disorder
  • Awkward
  • Clumsy
  • Waugh Sherrill, 2004

10
Learning Disabilities Co-occur with
  • Attention deficits
  • Hyperactivity
  • 12-14

11
Prevalence
  • 2.7 to 30
  • 15 million children, adolescents, adults in US
  • 5-10 of school-age children
  • 2.8 million children served under IDEA
  • 51 of entire identified special education
    population
  • 27-46 of students in college have a learning
    disability

12
Without Help
  • 27-35 do not finish high school
  • 62 were not fully employed 1 year after
    graduating from high school

13
Causes
  • Frequently no apparent cause
  • Heredity
  • Disturbances of central nervous system
  • Problems during pregnancy and childbirth
  • Incidents after birth
  • Head injuries, nutritional deprivation, exposure
    to toxic substances

14
Signs of LD
  • Often spelling the same word differently in a
    single document
  • Reluctance to take on reading or writing tasks
  • Weak memory skills
  • Slow work pace
  • Inattention to details or excessive focus on them
  • Frequent misreading of information
  • Easily confused by instructions

15
Dyslexia ConcernsWaugh Sherrill, 2004
  • Vision reading
  • Confuses letters, numbers, verbal explanations
  • Needs time to process
  • Reads rereads with little comprehension
  • Lacks depth perception peripheral vision

16
Dyslexia ConcernsWaugh Sherrill, 2004
  • Hearing speech
  • Distracted by extraneous sounds
  • Hard time putting thoughts into words
  • Leave sentences incomplete
  • Writing
  • Trouble writing or copying information
  • Handwriting is varied or illegible

17
Dyslexia ConcernsWaugh Sherrill, 2004
  • Motor skills
  • Clumsiness or lack of coordination
  • Difficulty with fine /or gross motor skills
  • Confuses left/right, up/down
  • Math
  • Dependence on finger counting

18
Dyslexia ConcernsWaugh Sherrill, 2004
  • Time management
  • Difficulty telling managing time
  • Difficulty being on time
  • Problems learning in sequence
  • Memory cognition
  • Excellent LTM for experiences, locations faces
  • Thinks with images feelings , not sounds or
    words (little internal dialogue)

19
Dyslexia ConcernsWaugh Sherrill, 2004
  • Behavior, health, personality
  • Keeps items in disorderly manner or compulsively
    orderly
  • Class clown, trouble maker, recluse
  • High or low tolerance for pain
  • Strives for perfection
  • Mistakes increase with time pressure, emotional
    stress, poor health
  • Zones out, day dreams

20
Important to Know
  • Strengths challenges
  • Tests
  • Results
  • Employers schools will need
  • Description of learning disability
  • Accommodations

21
Legislation
  • Children youth IDEA
  • College ADA Rehab Act of 1973
  • Must self-identify and provide documentation of
    disability to receive accommodations
  • Extra time to complete exams
  • Exams read orally, dictated
  • Quiet place to take exam
  • Using a computer
  • Others?
  • ADA

22
Considerations/Accommodations
  • 4 strategies
  • Learning environment
  • Learning style based instruction
  • Visual imagery
  • Self-esteem
  • Waugh Sherrill, 2004

23
Learning Styles
  • Different approaches or ways of learning
  • Everybody has a preferred style
  • Knowing that style can help a person learn more
    effectively
  • Lots of self assessments

24
Learning Styles
  • Visual learners learn through seeing
  • Need to see body language facial expression
  • Prefer to sit in front of class
  • Think in pictures
  • Learn best from visual displays (overheads,
    PowerPoint, videos, etc.)
  • May take detailed notes to help absorb information

25
Learning Styles
  • Auditory learners learn through listening
  • Verbal lectures
  • Discussions
  • Talking things out and hearing what others say
  • Reading text aloud
  • Written information will have little meaning
    until it is heard

26
Learning Styles
  • Tactile/kinesthetic learners learn through
    moving, doing, touching.
  • Hands-on
  • Hard to sit still for long periods
  • May become distracted and need activity or
    exploration

27
Pair Share
  • Identify groups learning styles
  • Lesson plan for your group
  • Teach card game

28
Considerations/Accommodations
  • Provide objectives for learning practice
  • Behavior expectations
  • On poster (visual)
  • Repeat frequently (auditory)
  • Give minutes on task, remind of remaining minutes
  • Allow extra time for reading

29
Considerations/Accommodations
  • Use multisensory approaches
  • Visual
  • Diagrams, handouts, demonstrations, observations
  • Hands on
  • Auditory
  • Clear verbal instructions
  • Tape instructions

30
Reference
  • Lorraine C. Peniston
  • Developing recreation skills in persons with
    learning disabilities
  • Champaign, IL Sagamore Publishing
  • 1998
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