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Teacher Toolkit for Reading Instruction

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Title: Teacher Toolkit for Reading Instruction


1
Teacher Toolkit for Reading Instruction
1
2
A Tool for Teaching Reading Comprehension in
English
2
3
ELL Best Practices Making Meaning Design
  • Read-alouds (often repeated)
  • Different genres and styles
  • Multicultural Literature
  • Vocabulary
  • Group Work
  • Building Background
  • Questioning and Discussion
  • Comprehension Strategies

3
4
Reading IS
http//www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/Readingis.
.AnchorChartfromJennifer.JPG
4
5
Making Meaning
  • Read-aloud Books
  • and Independent Reading Books

5
6
Strategies in Making Meaning
  • Retelling
  • Using Schema/Making Connections
  • Visualizing
  • Wondering/Questioning
  • Making Inferences
  • Determining Important Ideas
  • Understanding Text Structure
  • Summarizing
  • Synthesizing

6
7
Whats Important
7
8
Fiction
  • Sample Text Boundless Grace
  • by Mary Hoffman and Caroline Binch

8
9
Narrative Text Structure
  • Boundless Grace is fiction.
  • It has Narrative Text Structure.
  • Look for
  • --Character
  • --Setting
  • --Plot

9
10
Prior Knowledge
  • Readers comprehend text by linking their prior
    knowledge and new information in a text.
  • Students connect their experiences to the text
    before, during, and after read-alouds and
    independent daily reading stories.

10
11
Practice Help Students Connect
  • Today I am going to read a story called Boundless
    Grace. It is about a girl who goes to visit her
    father who lives far away in Africa.
  • Explore connections
  • --Have you ever gone to visit someone who
  • lives far away? What do you know about
  • Africa?

11
12
Visualizing
  • Create mental images while reading
  • --sights
  • --sounds
  • --smells
  • --tastes
  • --sensations
  • --emotions

12
13
In the Classroom
  • Share a picture book read aloud without showing
    pictures. This encourages readers to see the
    story in their minds.
  • Invite students to describe their mental pictures
    to a partner or the class.
  • In Independent Reading, have students use sticky
    notes to mark places where they visualize what is
    happening.
  • Encourage students to read non-illustrated books,
    too, and imagine or picture what the words mean.
    Allow students to draw their mental pictures as
    well.

13
14
Practice Visualize
  • What pictures do you see in your mind when I read
    this part of the book Boundless Grace?
  • Then they went to a stall that was like
    stepping inside a rainbow. There was cloth with
    crocodiles and elephants on it and cloth with
    patterns made from pebbles and shells. And so
    many colors!

14
15
Inference
  • Point out that sometimes writers give readers
    information directly. Other times, they give the
    reader clues to figure out what something means.
    This is sometimes called reading between the
    lines or inferring.
  • Show students how to look for clues the writer
    gives to readers.

15
16
Practice Infer
  • A girl tells about her feelings in Boundless
    Grace I feel like gum, stretched out all thin
    in a bubble, she told Nana. As if there isnt
    enough of me to go around.
  • How do you think the girl is feeling? What clues
    does the writer give about her feelings?

16
17
Character
  • Help students to understand a character based on
  • --what the character does
  • --what the character says
  • --what the character thinks
  • --how others respond to the character

17
18
Making Inferences about Characters
  • Have students create a character web.
  • Have students discuss their ideas about the
    character.

18
19
Character Change
  • What is the character like at the beginning of
    the story?
  • What is the character like at the end of the
    story?
  • Does the character change as a result of facing
    or solving a problem?

19
20
Practice Trace the Change
  • Ask How are Graces feelings about her family in
    the beginning of the story different from her
    feelings at the end of the story? Explain your
    thinking.
  • Hint look for meaningful quotations.
  • Our familys not right, she told Nana. We
    need a father and a brother and a dog.
  • Well, at least youve stopped thinking its
    your family thats wrong. said Nana. Now, until
    we get back home and find some books about
    families like yours, youll just have to make up
    a new story of your own.

20
21
Practice Important Ideas
  • What do you think the author wants readers to
    learn from Boundless Grace?
  • What happens in the story that makes you think
    that?
  • During independent reading ask students to mark a
    place in the story where something important is
    happening. Have them write about these events.

21
22
Nonfiction
  • Sample Text Reptiles by Melissa Stewart

22
23
Expository Text
  • Looks different from other text that tells
    stories.
  • Usually focuses on one topic.
  • Reptiles is expository text.
  • It has expository text features.
  • Look for
  • --pictures with captions
  • --a table of contents
  • --headings and subheadings
  • --lists of additional books to read
  • --names of organizations and online sites

23
24
Practice Connect
  • What do you think you know about reptiles?
  • Tell about any reptiles you have seen.
  • Name some places where reptiles live.

24
25
Practice Visualize
  • What do you see in your mind when I read these
    sentences from Reptiles?
  • The scales of most snakes feel smooth, but
    most lizards have rough, spiky scales. The scales
    of a crocodile are hardened with bone. A turtles
    scales cover a hard, bony shell.

25
26
Practice Infer
  • What can you infer about the cobras
  • from this sentence?
  • Only a few kinds of snakes take care of their
    eggs. Male and female cobras take turns guarding
    their nests
  • --Reptiles, p. 29

26
27
Practice Find Expository Text Features
  • Tell about the expository text features you see
    in Reptiles.
  • Find another book, magazine, or newspaper that
    has expository text features. Show it to your
    class. Or, make a list of expository texts you
    read inside or outside of school.

27
28
The Importance of Wondering
  • Encourage students to
  • Form I Wonder questions.
  • Share their thinking.
  • Ask clarifying questions.
  • Determine if their I wonder questions are
    answered in the text.

28
29
Practice I Wonder
  • I wonder where reptiles live.
  • p. 10 Most reptiles live in warm parts of the
    world.
  • I wonder why reptiles have scales.
  • p. 6 A reptiles scales protect it from
    enemies and help keep its insides moist.
  • I wonder if reptiles lay eggs.
  • p. 6 Most young reptiles hatch from tough,
    leathery eggs laid on land and look like smaller
    versions of their parents.

29
30
Stop and Ask Questions
  • Tell students the number of times you will stop.
  • At each stop have students record their
    questions.

30
31
Practice Stop and Ask Questions
  • Please read pages 5-7 in Reptiles.
  • Write questions you have about your reading.
  • Examples
  • Are reptiles backbones the same as
  • peoples backbones?
  • Why do reptiles slow down at night?

31
32
A Tool for Teaching Reading Comprehension in
Spanish
32
33
La Lectura
33
34
  • Students explore the difference between explicit
    (clear and specific) and implicit (implied)
    meanings in text.
  • Students continue to use questioning and
    understanding text structure (the way text is
    organized) to make sense of text.

34
35
USING LECTURA RESOURCE
  • CELEBREMOS LAS TRADICIONES
  • DE CERCA CUENTOS FOLKLORICOS
  • Patricia Polacco
  • La colcha de los recuerdos
  • The Keeping Quilt

35
36
A REVIEW OF UNDERSTANDING QUESTIONING
36
37
QARs QUESTION-ANSWER RELATIONSHIPS
Answer is a combination of what you know and what
author is telling you.
Answer is in the book.
Answer is in book, but you need to get it from a
few places and make sense of it.
Answer is NOT in book need to use your own
experiences and knowledge.
37
38
Answer is in the book
RIGHT THERE QUESTIO N
  • What is the name of the Grandmother?
  • These are often called LITERAL questions.
  • When my Great-Gramma Anna came to America, she
    wore the same thick overcoat and big boots she
    had worn for farm work.

38
39
Answer is what you know and what the author is
telling you.
IN MY HEAD AUTHOR AND YOU.
  • Why do you think Annas parents never learned to
    speak English?
  • Often, these are also referred to as INFERENTIAL
    QUESTIONS.
  • ISAT QUESTIONS
  • Student takes information from book ( most of
    their neighbors were just like them Russian).
  • Student uses own background of neighborhoods or
    parents speaking own language.

39
40
Answer is in book, but it is in several places
and you need to make sense of it.
THINK AND SEARCH
  • What clues does the author give that Anna is not
    from America?
  • Often, these are FACT BASED and found in
    NON-FICTION.
  • Author states they came from Russia AND Anna
    wears different clothes from her country AND she
    doesnt understand English.

40
41
Answer is NOT in book you have to use your own
experiences and background.
ON MY OWN
  • What are the people doing in this illustration?
  • These questions require PLENTY of BACKGROUND
    KNOWLEDGE.

The two older women look like they are arguing
with the younger woman.
41
42
QAR Suggested Teaching Strategy Focus
Inference
Retelling Text Structure
Summarizing
.
Background Knowledge
42
43
Now Lets Get Started
43
44
The Keeping Quilt, Patricia Polacco
IN MY HEAD AUTHOR ME
  • Show the cover of Patricia Polacco La colcha de
    los recuerdos.
  • ASK
  • What do you already know about this story?
  • What do you think the
  • story is about?
  • What makes you say or think that?

44
45
Look for Narrative Text Structures
  • Character
  • Setting
  • Plot
  • Look for ways that characters change!

45
46
Literal Questions
  • Who is telling the story?
  • What is the name of the great-grandmother?
  • What kind of work did the rest of the family do
    while the father was hauling things in a wagon?

RIGHT THERE
46
47
Inference Question
  • Why does the author say that everyone is in a
    hurry?
  • When does this story take place? (Use
    illustration to help inference).
  • Do you think Annas family was rich or poor? How
    do you know?

THINK SEARCH
IN MY HEAD AUTHOR ME
ON MY OWN
Can you tell what type of questions these are?
47
48
Background Knowledge Questions
  • What does the author mean by saying to Anna,
    English sounds like cuando se tiran guijarros en
    una charca?
  • Why do you think Annas parents never learned to
    speak English?
  • What clues does the author give that Anna is not
    from America?

ON MY OWN
THINK SEARCH
IN MY HEAD AUTHOR ME
Can you tell what type of questions these are?
48
49
Characterization Questions
  • What do you know
  • about Anna so far?
  • How does Anna feel when she goes to school? How
    do you know?
  • How does Anna feel when she is dancing? How do
    you know?
  • Is Anna still remembering Russia? How do you know?

THINK SEARCH
IN MY HEAD AUTHOR ME
ON MY OWN
Can you tell what type of questions these are?
49
50
Character Change
  • Make students aware of how the characters change.
  • Point out how characters are different at the end
    of the story than they were at the beginning.

50
51
Always.
  • Probe student answers
  • HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT?
  • WHY DO YOU SAY THAT?
  • CAN YOU POINT TO WHERE IT SAYS THAT IN THE BOOK?

51
52
Remember
Visualize
Infer
Predict
Connect
Character
52
53
Multiple Choice ISAT Questions
  • Commonly Asked Questions

53
54
Authors Purpose
  • What was the authors purpose for
  • writing this story?
  • To inform.
  • To entertain.
  • To persuade.
  • To complain.

54
55
Type of Genre
  • What is the genre of The Keeping
  • Quilt?
  • a) story
  • b) fable
  • c) fairy tale
  • d) nonfiction

55
56
Character Motivation
  • Why did Annas mother decide to make
  • a quilt?
  • a) To make a wedding present.
  • b) To remember her homeland.
  • c) To help the neighborhood ladies.
  • d) To find a use for old clothes.

56
57
Inference
  • Which best explains why the quilt is so
  • important to the family?
  • a) It reminds them of their history.
  • b) It has a beautiful design of animals.
  • c) It is worth a lot of money.
  • d) It has an old-fashioned design.

57
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Tools for Teaching Academic Vocabulary
58
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Pearson SuccessNet
59
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Teaching Vocabulary Comprehension Skills to
English Language Learners
  • Social Proficiency
  • Language used in daily interactions
  • Variety of clues to facilitate comprehension
  • Environment
  • Gestures
  • Facial expressions
  • Academic Proficiency
  • Language used in textbooks
  • More abstract
  • Higher order skills required

60
61
Teaching Vocabulary Comprehension Skills to
English Language Learners
  • Issues
  • Limited vocabulary
  • Different background knowledge
  • Solutions
  • Explicit teaching of vocabulary
  • Preview unfamiliar concepts/ideas before reading
  • Create connections to familiar concepts

61
62
Teaching Vocabulary Comprehension Skills to
English Language Learners
  • Vocabulary Knowledge
  • Builds background knowledge
  • A conceptual framework, or context into which
    students can fit new ideas
  • Assists with comprehension of text
  • Breadth and depth
  • The number of words students know
  • The depth to which students understand how these
    words are used

62
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Teaching Academic Vocabulary
  • Focus lesson on key words
  • Use context to teach words with multiple meanings
  • Teach vocabulary intentionally
  • Explicit definitions
  • Use cognates when possible
  • Use student-friendly definitions
  • Writing activities
  • Classroom discussions

63
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Pearson SuccessNet
  • Leveled Reader Database
  • Spanish and English
  • Inquiry-rich content

64
65
Pearson SuccessNet
  • Spanish and English

Also available in Spanish (Dermatoesqueleto)
66
Pearson SuccessNet
  • Scaffolded Inquiry activities
  • Cross-curricular connections
  • Links reading and science skills

66
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Pearson SuccessNet
  • Includes picture support and concepts.
  • Illustrations and text features in Spanish and
    English.
  • http//www.pearsonsuccessnet.com/snpapp/login/logi
    n.jsp

67
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Marzanos Six Step Academic Vocabulary
69
Marzanos Academic Vocabulary Six Step Process
Review
  • Steps 1-3 ensure that the term is introduced and
    that the students have developed an initial
    understanding of it
  • Step 1 Provide a description, explanation, or
    example of the new term
  • Step 2 Students restate the description,
    explanation, or example in their own words (help
    students own the words)
  • Step 3 Students construct a picture, symbol, or
    graphic representation of the term

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  • Steps 4-6 ensure that the student has multiple
    exposures and experiences with the terms over
    time in order to deepen their understanding
  • Step 4 Periodically students engage in
    activities that help them add to their knowledge
    of the terms
  • Compare, Classify, Solve Analogies, Create
    Metaphors
  • Step 5 Periodically students discuss the terms
    with each other to add to their knowledge of the
    terms
  • Turn and Talk, Think- Pair- Share/Whole Group
  • Step 6 Periodically students are involved in
    games that allow them to play with the terms

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Activities to Deepen Students Understanding of
the Terms
  • Free Association
  • Classifying Terms in Categories
  • Concept Circles
  • Semantic Mapping
  • Create and Solve Analogies
  • Metaphors
  • Understanding Roots and Affixes
  • Comparing Terms
  • Venn Diagram
  • Sentence Stems

72
Classifying Terms in Categories
  • Science Culture

amphibian
people
camouflage
safety
democracy
governor
mammal
reptile
73
Classifying Terms in Categories
  • Science Culture

amphibian
democracy
safety
camouflage
people
mammal
governor
reptile
74
Technology Resources
  • Graphic Organizers in English and Spanish
  • http//www.region15.org/curriculum/graphicorg.html
  • U-46 teachers, Greg Anthony Rich Levine
  • Bingo game with roots and affixes found here as
    is the Millionaire game (8th grade English).
  • http//www.u46teachers.org/vocabulary20instructio
    n/VocabularyInstruction.htm

75
Share this Toolkit for Reading Instruction with
Your Students
  • Thank you!

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Source Materials
  • Reptiles by Melissa Stewart.
  • The Keeping Quilt by Patricia Polaccho.
  • Boundless Grace by Mary Hoffman and Caroline
    Binch.
  • Pearson Successnet http//www.pearsonsuccessnet.co
    m/
  • Reading Is chart on slide 4 taken from
    http//www.readinglady.com/mosaic/tools/Readingis.
    .AnchorChartfromJennifer.JPG
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