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Personality

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Traits are useful for describing people, ... Personality is something a person carries with him- or herself over time and from one situation to the next. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Personality


1
Personality
  • Introductory Issues

2
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

3
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

4
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

5
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

6
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influence his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

7
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

8
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

9
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

10
Personality Defined
  • Personality is the set of psychological traits
    and mechanisms within the individual that is
    organized and relatively enduring and that
    influences his or her interactions with, and
    adaptations to, the environment (including the
    intrapsychic, physical, and social environment).

11
3 Levels of Personality Analysis
Every human being is
  • like all others Human nature level
  • like some others Individual/Group Differences
  • like no others Individual Uniqueness Level

12
Human Nature Level
  • The traits and mechanisms of personality that are
    typical of our species and are possessed by
    everyone or nearly everyone

13
Individual and Group Differences Level
  • Ways in which each person is like
  • some other people

Risk takers
Worriers
14
Individual Uniqueness Level
  • Every individual has personal and unique
    qualities not shared by any other person in the
    world

15
Current Issues in Personality
16
Current Issues in Personality
  • Grand Theories of Personality
  • vs.
  • Contemporary Research in Personality

17
Current Issues in Personality
  • Appropriate Units of Personality
  • Traits
  • Motives
  • Cognitions
  • Which traits, motives, cognitions, etc.

18
Current Issues in Personality
  • Nomothetic scientific, analytic, common units
  • vs.
  • Idiographic individual level, study individual
    lives in depth

19
Current Issues in Personality
  • Are people consistent over situations?
  • Are people stable over time?

20
Bridging the Fissure The Notion of Domains of
Knowledge
  • One way to make sense of the vast amount of
    research in many different areas of personality
    is to appreciate that this research occurs along
    several key domains of knowledge

21
Six Domains of Knowledge
  • Intrapsychic
  • Dispositional
  • Cognitive-Experiential
  • Social and Cultural
  • Biological
  • Adjustment

22
Intrapsychic Domain
  • Deals with mental mechanisms of personality, many
    of which operate outside conscious awareness
  • Classic and modern versions of Freuds theory of
    psychoanalysis, including work on repression,
    denial, projection, and motives for power,
    achievement, and affiliation

23
Dispositional Domain
  • Deals with ways in which individuals differ from
    one another and, therefore, cuts across all other
    domains
  • Focus on number and nature of fundamental
    dispositions

24
Cognitive-Experiential Domain
  • Focuses on cognition and subjective experience,
    such as conscious thoughts, feelings, beliefs,
    and desires about oneself and others
  • Self and self-concept
  • Goals we set and strive to meet
  • Emotional experiences, in general and over time

25
Social and Cultural Domain
  • Assumption that personality affects, and is
    affected by, cultural and social contexts
  • Much work on cultural differences between groups
    (e.g., in social acceptability of aggression)

26
Biological Domain
  • Core assumption of biological approaches to
    personality is that humans are collections of
    biological systems, and these systems provide
    building blocks for behavior, thought, and
    emotion
  • Behavioral genetics of personality
  • Psychophysiology of personality
  • Evolutionary personality psychology

27
Adjustment Domain
  • Personality plays key role in how we cope, adapt,
    and adjust to events in daily life
  • Personality linked with important health outcomes
    and problems in coping and adjustment

28
Summary
  • Theories serve as a guide for researchers
  • Theories organize known findings
  • Theories allow us to make predictions
  • Theories are more than just beliefs
  • Theory and research are bound together
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