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Global Climate Change/Global Warming

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Title: Global Climate Change/Global Warming


1
Global Climate Change/Global Warming
2
Greenhouse Effect
  • Increase in Temperature on Earth due to gases in
    the atmosphere that trap energy from the sun.
  • What are the Greenhouse gases? Water vapor, CO2,
    nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4).
  • These gases are essential for keeping the earths
    temperature in an ideal range i.e. not too hot
    and too cold.

3
What is global warming?
4
How Global Warming Works
5
Example of the Greenhouse Effect
The Suns energy passes through the cars
windshield.
This energy (heat) is trapped inside the car and
cannot pass back through the windshield, causing
the inside of the car to warm up.
6
  • Whats the difference between global warming
    and climate change?

7
Difference
  • GLOBAL WARMING
  • is the increase of the Earths average surface
    temperature due to a build-up of greenhouse gases
    in the atmosphere.
  • CLIMATE CHANGE
  • is a broader term that refers to long-term
    changes in climate, including average temperature
    and precipitation.

8
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9
Climate Change
  • The earths climate has fluctuated over its
    5-billion year history.
  • Some of these fluctuations have been very
    different than current temperatures. However
    those changes have occurred slowly over thousands
    of years.

10
Climate Change cont
  • Average temperatures have increased by
    approximately 1F in the last 100 years.
  • The 10 hottest years of the last century all
    occurred in the 1990s and 2000s, 2005 being the
    hottest year on record.
  • In 2006 It was the sixth warmest year-to-date
    (NOAA.gov).
  • For 2007, the global land and ocean surface
    temperature was the fifth warmest on record.

11
Climate Change cont
  • Including 2007, seven of the eight warmest years
    on record have occurred since 2001 and the 10
    warmest years have all occurred since 1995. The
    global average surface temperature has risen at a
    rate three times faster than the century-scale
    trend since 1976. (NOAA.gov)

12
Climate Change cont
  • Many of the worlds leading climatologists feel
    that the greenhouse gases humans produce are a
    major cause of global climate change.
  • The last 650,000 years the CO2 level has never
    been higher than 300 ppm. It is presently around
    365 ppm and the temperature has correlated
    extremely close over that time period i.e. when
    CO2 goes up so does the temperature.

13
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14
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15
Possible causes of Global Climate Change/Global
Warming
  • Burning of Fossil fuels produces CO2 and Nitrous
    Oxide (N2O).
  • Trash in land fills produce methane (CH4).
  • Deforestation reduces consumption of CO2 by
    plants.
  • Meat and dairy animals produce methane (CH4).

16
Top Ten CO2 Producing Nations
Rank Country CO2 emissions in thousands of metric tons of total emissions of World Population  
1 China 6,200,103 22.1 20.3  
2 USA 5,849,435 20.7 4.5  
3 Russia 1,524,993 5.3 2.1  
4 India 1,342,962 4.6 17  
5 Japan 1,257,963 4.2 1.9  
6 Germany 808,767 2.8 1.2  
7 Canada 639,403 2.1 0.5  
8 United Kingdom 543,633 1.7 0.92  
9 South Korea 465,643 1.4 0.75  
10 Italy 449,948 1.4 0.88  
17
Possible consequences
  • Melting glaciers could cause sea levels to rise.
  • Heat stress on people could cause medical
    problems.
  • Ecological disruptions could put many species at
    risk of extinction.
  • Droughts could disrupt food supplies.
  • Amount of catastrophic weather events could
    increase.

18
Warming World Altering Thousands of Natural
Systems Analysis shows effects of climate change
onalmost 30,000 biological and physical
phenomena. EMMA MARRIS / Nature 14may2008
  • A comprehensive analysis of trends in tens of
    thousands of biological and physical systems has
    provided more evidence to bolster the
    near-universal view that man-made climate change
    is altering the behavior of plants, animals,
    rivers and more.
  • The study, by an international research team
    featuring many members of the Intergovernmental
    Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is a statistical
    analysis of observations of natural systems over
    time. The data, which stretch back to 1970,
    capture the behavior of 829 physical phenomena,
    such as the timing of river runoff, and around
    28,800 biological species.
  • Researchers led by Cynthia Rosenzweig of NASA's
    Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York
    created a map of the planet with a colour-coded
    grid showing how much different regions have
    warmed or cooled between 1970 and 2004.
  • They then placed each of the thousands of
    datasets on the map and determined whether they
    were consistent with warming or not consistent
    with warming. Trees, for example, might flower
    earlier in regions where the climate has warmed
    significantly.
  • In around 90 of cases where an overall trend was
    observed, it was consistent with the predicted
    effects of climate warming, the researchers
    report in this week's Nature.

19
What are scientists unsure about?
  • How has the increase in greenhouse gas emissions
    by humans affected the temperature in this last
    century?
  • At what rate and amount will warming continue as
    a result of the increases in heat-trapping
    emissions?
  • How does the weather change with increases in
    temperature and precipitation?

20
What are scientists unsure about?
  • How will oceans transport heat?
  • How do the catastrophic weather events such as
    hurricanes affect each other?
  • How do additional factors such as greenhouse
    gases other than carbon dioxide, possible changes
    of the sun and effects from volcanic activity
    affect climate change?

21
Billions of Metric Tons Carbon


Goal Reductions in CO2 Per Year
2007
22
Our Goal
Billions of Metric Tons Carbon

Produce electricity efficiently Use electricity
efficiently Vehicle efficiency Solar and Wind
Power Biofuels Carbon capture and storage

Gigaton Carbon
Reductions in CO2 Per Year
2007
23
Whats being done now to reduce our emissions?
Solar Power
Wind Power
Fuel-Efficiency
24
We can stop global warming!
25
What can you do to help solve the problem?
26
  • Educate yourself.
  • Ignorance is not a good basis for dealing with
    risk. W.H. Berger, PhD Professor of
    Oceanography, UCSD Director, California Space
    Institute on Global Warming.

27
How you can make a difference
  • Purchase products with the Energy Star label on
    it.
  • Lead by example, get informed and make changes
  • Commit and stay committed
  • Use your vote, have a voice
  • Reduce the amount of stuff you use.
  • Reuse as much as possible before throwing things
    away.
  • Recycle everything you can.

28
More Simple Things To Do
  • Turn off your computer or the TV
  • when youre not using it.
  • Take shorter showers. Heating water uses energy.
  • Keep rooms cool by closing the blinds,
    shades, or
  • curtains.
  • Turn off the lights when you leave a room.
  • Use compact fluorescent bulbs.

29
Be Bulb SmartUse CFLs
Whats the difference?
Compact Fluorescent
Incandescent
  • 1,430 lbs. CO2 pollution avoided
  • 30 saved

30
HOMEWORK
  • Google
  • Carbon footprint calculator
  • Calculate your Carbon Footprint.
  • Print it out and bring it in for two stamps.

31
Questions you may have
  • Is Global Warming a theory or a fact?
  • It is a theory based on an overwhelming amount of
    evidence and it is a fact that the Earths
    temperature is increasing. A majority of
    scientists accept that this evidence is the best
    explanation for this observed phenomenon.
    Remember, gravity, relativity and evolution are
    theories as well.

32
  • "The risks of global warming have no borders."
  • "We and the other nations of the world must get
    serious about substantially reducing greenhouse
    gas emissions in the coming years or we will hand
    off a much-diminished world to our
    grandchildren."
  • "It's not just a greenhouse gas issue, it's a
    national security issue."
  • John McCain
  • Republican presidential candidate, May 12th,
    2008

33
Are all of the bad things that Al Gore spoke of
going to happen?
  • We dont know? Based on the evidence and
    computer models that experts have looked at,
    these are the worst case scenarios. Just because
    someone famous says its going to happen doesnt
    mean it will. However many scientists say we are
    observing some these changes on earth.

34
Is it too late to do anything?
  • Absolutely not! Some things may be irreversible,
    but if everyone makes small sacrifices, it could
    have a significant impact and slow down the rate
    at which the temperature is increasing.

35
Whats the worst thing that could happen if we do
something and Global Warming isnt quite as bad?
  • We would have a cleaner planet and a better
    quality of life for future generations (you, your
    kids and grandkids).
  • You would save money.
  • The country would be energy independent.
  • It would create new jobs and the potential to
    make a fortune on the new technology.
  • Increase National Security.
  • Less dependent on foreign oil.
  • Decrease rates of extinction.
  • Possibly decrease catastrophic weather.

36
Works cited
  • http//earthguide.ucsd.edu/globalchange
  • http//www.environmentaldefense.org
  • http//www.ucsusa.org
  • http//epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html
  • http//www.nature.com/news
  • /www.ncdc.noaa.gov
  • CNN.com
  • The Journal Nature, May 2008,
    doi 10.1038/news.2008.823
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