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SOCIOLOGY INTRODUCTION

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SOCIOLOGY INTRODUCTION Section 2 of Chapter 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOCIOLOGY INTRODUCTION


1
SOCIOLOGY INTRODUCTION
  • Section 2 of Chapter 1

2
Review Slide (Sect 1- Slide 1)What Sociology IS
  • Sociology Social Science of human society and
    social behavior
  • (Study of
    Society groups)
  • Social Science Disciplines that study human
    social behavior,

  • functions, and institutions in a scientific way
  • Social Interaction How people relate and
    influence each other
  • Social Phenomena Observable facts and events in
    society
  • Sociological Perspectives Look beyond commonly
    held beliefs to the hidden meanings behind human
    actions
  • Sociological Imagination Connecting the larger
    world to
  • (C. Wright Mills)
    your personal life

3
Review Slide (Sect 1 Slide 2)What Sociology is
NOT
  • All of the below Social Sciences are the study of
    the material listed beside themStudy of
  • Anthropology comparing past -vs- present
    cultures
  • Psychology Behaviors and mental processes
  • Economics Choices people make to meet their
  • needs and wants
  • Political Science Organization and Operation
  • of governments
  • History Past events

4
Then and Now
  • Industrial Revolution ?
  • Rapid Social and
  • Political Changes
  • Result Housing Shortages
  • Pollution ?
  • Crime ?
  • Unemployment
  • BIG IDEA They could no
  • longer deny the
  • effects of society
  • on its people and
  • began studying
  • Sociology

5
The Early Years
  • Auguste Comte (French)
  • Founder of Sociology as a subject coined the
    term sociology
  • Social Statics Unchanging society
  • structures that
    hold it
  • together
  • Social Dynamics Changes in society
  • that allow it
    to
  • develop

6
The Early Years
  • Herbert Spencer (English)
  • Used Darwins ideas of Evolution to describe
    society ? Social Darwinism
  • 1 - Society is constantly working
  • towards perfection
  • 2 - Survival of the Fittest would
  • eventually lead to a better world

7
The Early Years
  • Karl Marx (German)
  • Structure of Society is directly related to the
    structure of its economy
  • Society has two classes
  • 1 Bourgeoisie (Owners)
  • 2 Proletariat (Workers)
  • He believed the differences
  • between the two would lead to
  • conflict ending only when
  • workers had power

8
The Early Years
  • Emile Durkheim (French)
  • Society is made up of interdependent parts in
    terms of their functions
  • Function is a part that makes up society
  • Ex ? Religion
  • Said we should only study things that are
    directly observable

9
The Early Years
  • Max Weber (German)
  • Beyond observation to uncover feelings/thoughts
    of groups/indiv.
  • Verstehen Attempt to understand
  • the meanings others
  • attach to their actions
  • Being able to put yourself in other
  • peoples shoes
  • Ideal Type Description made up of
  • essential
    characteristics
  • of a feature of society
  • Ex ? General description of public
    Schools

10
Current Perspectives
  • Current Perspectives (Terms)
  • Theory Explanation for relationships
  • between particular phenomena
  • Theoretical Perspectives General set of
    assumptions

  • about the nature of things
  • Most sociologists use one of the following
    perspectives to
  • attempt to explain the behaviors of groups
    within a society

11
Current Perspectives
  • Functionalist Perspective
  • From Comte, Spencer and Durkheim
  • Society is a set of related parts that work
    together for success
  • Works through consensus
  • Certain elements can be dysfunctional
  • Having a negative consequence on the
    stability of society
  • Ex ? Crime
  • Manifest Function Intended and Recognized
    consequence
  • Latent Function Unintended and Unrecognized
    consequence
  • Ex. The function of a car

12
Current Perspectives
  • Conflict Perspective
  • From Marx
  • Society is the result of competition and change
  • (How those with power control those w/o
    power)
  • Competition over scarce resources ?
    conflict
  • Conflict ? Social Change so those without
    the scarce
  • resources can get them

13
Current Perspectives
  • Interactionist Perspective
  • From Weber
  • Focus on how individuals interact with one
    another in society
  • Examine the roles of symbols in our daily lives
  • A symbol is anything that represents
    something else
  • Symbolic Interaction The use of symbols
    when interacting
  • Ex. American flag, bald eagle, 4th of July are
    symbols for the USA
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