Biblical Interpretation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Biblical Interpretation

Description:

Biblical Interpretation Brookes Bible College, Spring 2014 ... For example paraklesis is sometimes translated comfort, but other times it is translated exhortation. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:539
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 181
Provided by: jaufre
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Biblical Interpretation


1
Biblical Interpretation
  • Brookes Bible College, Spring 2014
  • Robert Thurman, MA

2
Presuppositions
  • Everyone has presuppositions. Here are the ones
    I am bringing to this course
  • I presuppose that we are here today because of
    our mutual love for Gods Word and that you are
    willing to engage in hard work and study to learn
    how to handle the Scriptures properly.
  • I presuppose we agree that the Scriptures are our
    ultimate authority and that they are uniquely
    sufficient to provide answers to the questions we
    will wrestle with during this course.

3
Presuppositions
  1. I presuppose that you will not always agree with
    my understanding of the Scriptures. You are
    always free to disagree, but if you want to
    debate, I presuppose you will make your case
    using the Scriptures and in a loving and
    respectful spirit.

4
Presuppositions
  1. I presuppose I presuppose that you expect to get
    your moneys worth out of this class, and that
    you expect me to challenge your thinking and to
    stretch you academically.

5
Presuppositions
  1. I presuppose that you will not always understand
    everything in the assigned readings. I expect you
    to read them anyway and get what you can.
  2. I presuppose that you will not always understand
    everything I communicate during lectures. I
    expect you to ask me questions and dont stop
    until Ive made myself clear.

6
Presuppositions
  1. I presuppose that you want to do your best work,
    and that you want me to tell you how you can
    improve the work you submit to me.
  2. I presuppose that you will face many challenges
    as you seek to complete this course. I presuppose
    that you will communicate with me if theres
    something I can do to help.

7
Presuppositions
  • I presuppose that we will grow in Christian love
    and in mutual respect for each other.
  • I presuppose that you are not here for mere
    intellectual stimulation, but to grow in the
    grace and knowledge of our Savior.

8
Presuppositions
  1. I presuppose that you will desire and make every
    effort to turn your theology into doxology.

9
Biblical Interpretation
  • Before we talk about the science of Biblical
    interpretation, we need to understand the nature
    of the Bible.
  • When we interpret the Bible, we are not
    interpreting an ordinary work of literature, but
    we are seeking to understand the divinely
    inspired and inerrant testimonies of the Lord.

10
Inspiration of Scripture
  • The doctrine of inspiration
  • God carried along the human writers of the Bible
    so that they composed and recorded without error
    His message to mankind in the words of their
    original writings.

11
Inspiration of Scripture
  • The doctrine of inspiration is not something that
    men have imposed upon the Bible. Rather, it is a
    teaching of the Bible itself.

12
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Lets look at what the Bible says about
    inspiration...

13
Inspiration of Scripture
  • 2 Timothy 316 shows us the extent of
    inspiration
  • All Scripture is inspired.

14
Inspiration of Scripture
  • What is Scripture?
  • The New Testament uses the word Scripture 51
    times.

15
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Sometimes it refers to the entire Old Testament
    (Luke 2445 John 1035).

16
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Sometimes it refers to a particular passage of
    the Old Testament (Luke 421).

17
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Sometimes it refers to a particular passage of
    the New Testament (1 Timothy 518 cf. Luke
    107).

18
Inspiration of Scripture
  • 1 Timothy 518 is significant because it combines
    a New Testament passage with an Old Testament
    passage designating them both as Scripture.

19
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Sometimes it refers to a larger portion of the
    New Testament (2 Peter 316).

20
Inspiration of Scripture
  • 2 Timothy 316 also shows us the means of
    inspiration
  • All Scripture is God-breathed.

21
Inspiration of Scripture
  • 2 Timothy 316 also shows us the purpose of
    inspiration
  • All Scripture is profitable to make us fully
    equipped for every good work.

22
Inspiration of Scripture
  • 2 Peter 121 shows us the process of inspiration
  • God moved and bore the writers along (cf. Acts
    2715).

23
Inspiration of Scripture
  • 2 Peter 121 shows us the source of inspiration
  • The writers did not write from their own wills.

24
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Some argue that only the thoughts or ideas
    expressed by Scripture are inspired.

25
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Some argue that only the thoughts or ideas
    expressed by Scripture are inspired.

26
Inspiration of Scripture
  • 1 Corinthians 213 shows us that the actual words
    (not just the thoughts) of the Bible are
    inspired.

27
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Genres or types of inspired materials in the
    Bible...

28
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Material that came directly from God (Duet. 910
    1 Corinthians 1123)
  • Researched material (Luke 11-4).
  • Letters
  • Songs, poetry, wise sayings

29
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Prophetic material (1/4 of the Bible)
  • Historical Materials
  • Other materials (Gen. 34-5 Titus 112 Rom.
    91-3)

30
Inspiration of Scripture
  • The Bibles inspiration teaches us something
    about how it must be interpreted.
  • The Bibles inspiration tells us that it is a
    human book.

31
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Because the Bible is a human book we assume
  • That it communicates its message according to the
    normal rules of human language and logic.

32
Inspiration of Scripture
  1. That the Bibles meaning is shaped by the
    historical contexts and intents of its human
    authors.
  2. The Bibles meaning is going to be impacted by
    the culture and language of its human authors.

33
Inspiration of Scripture
  • Because the Bible is inspired we also know that
    it is supernatural.
  • Therefore we can assume
  • That humans need divine guidance and power to
    fully understand its meaning
  • That it reveals the nature and character of God
  • That it is inerrant.

34
  • Quiz
  • True or False
  • Zuck defines hermeneutics as the determination
    of the meaning of the biblical text in its
    historical and literary contexts.
  • Zuck says that the work of the Holy Spirit means
    that some interpreters receive meanings different
    from the normal, literal, meaning of the passage.
  • Listing
  • 3-5. According to the text, what are the three
    steps involved in Bible study?
  • Bonus-
  • Name one of the gaps an interpreter of
    the Bible has to overcome.

35
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • The doctrine of Inerrancy states Scripture is
    without error or fault in all its teaching.

36
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Inerrancy applies only to the original
    manuscripts. However, this does not minimize the
    importance of this doctrine.

37
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • There is deductive evidence for the Bibles
    inerrancy.
  • A deduction consists of a major premise, a minor
    premise, and a conclusion.

38
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • God breathed out the words of the Bible (2
    Timothy 315-17).
  • God is true.
  • Therefore, the Bible is true.

39
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • God superintended over the transmission of His
    Word (2 Peter 220-21).
  • God does not fail.
  • Therefore the Bible does not fail to accurately
    transmit His Word to us.

40
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • There is also inductive evidence for the Bibles
    inerrancy.
  • Inductive reasoning bases a conclusion upon the
    examination of evidence.

41
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Jesus accepted the plenary inspiration of the
    Bible (Matthew 44, 11-12).
  • Plenary means complete.

42
Inerrency of the Scriptures
  • Jesus accepted the truth of the propositions of
    the Bible (Matthew 44, 7, 10).

43
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Jesus referred to historical figures and events
    in the Old Testament as factual.
  • For instance...

44
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed that Adam and Eve and Abel were
    actual people (Matthew 193-5 Mark 106-8
    Matthew 2335).

45
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed the Old Testament account of Noah and
    the ark (Matthew 2438-39 Luke 1726-27).

46
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed that Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were
    real people (Matthew 811 John 839).

47
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed the story of Lot and his wife and
    Sodoms destruction (Matthew 1015 Luke
    1728-29).

48
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed Moses and his writings Matthew 84
    John 546).
  • He affirmed that David was a real person (Matthew
    2245).

49
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed the story of Jonah as true (Matthew
    1240).
  • He affirmed that Isaiah was a real person
    (Matthew 1240).

50
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed that Elijah was a real person
    (Matthew 1711-12).
  • He affirmed that Daniel was a real person
    (Matthew 2415).

51
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • He affirmed that Zechariah was a real person
    (Matthew 2335).
  • Jesus promised that all the Old Testament
    promises would be fulfilled (Matthew 517-18).

52
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Jesus promised that Gods Word will not pass
    away.
  • Jesus promised that it will be fulfilled down to
    the jots and tittles.

53
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Jesus based an important teaching on one small
    word of an ordinary passage (John 1031-38 Psalm
    82).

54
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Jesus based an important teaching on the verb
    tense of a Scripture passage (Matthew 2223-33
    Exodus 36).

55
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Jesus based an important teaching on one letter
    of a Scripture verse (Matthew 22441-46 Psalm
    1101).

56
  • Reading Quiz 2
  • True or False-
  • Historically, the Jewish people have had a
    singular, unified approach to interpreting the
    Scriptures.
  • Those who interpret the Bible allegorically do so
    because they want to emphasize the historical
    background of the text.
  • The Antioch school of biblical interpretation
    preferred a more literal understanding of the
    Scriptures.
  • Luther emphasized seeing Christ in every Old
    Testament passage.
  • Tyndale stressed the literal meaning of the
    Bible.
  • Bonus The idea that obscure passages of
    Scripture should be interpreted in light of clear
    ones is called________.

57
Inerrancy of the Scriptures
  • Christians believe in the inerrancy of Scripture
    because God is ultimately the author of the Bible
    and because God is incapable of inspiring
    falsehood or failing.

58
Biblical Interpretation
  • If the Bible is inspired and inerrant, logic
    dictates it must also be understandable.
  • Theologians refer to this doctrine as the
    perspicuity of the Bible.
  • We assume that because God superintended over the
    transmission of the text and guarded its content,
    that God intended to communicate His message with
    clarity.

59
Biblical Interpretation
  • That God demands that His Word be obeyed (with
    nothing added to it or taken away) also tells us
    that the Bible is understandable.
  • This doesnt mean that there will not be
    difficult passages, and it doesnt mean that the
    Bible can be understood without illumination from
    the Holy Spirit.
  • However, the Bible must be understandable for it
    to be obeyed.

60
Biblical Interpretation
  • Definitions-
  • Hermeneutics
  • The study or practice of interpretive
    philosophies or the study or practice of a
    particular set of interpretive principles

61
Biblical Interpretation
  • Definitions-
  • Hermeneutic
  • A set of principles guiding the interpretation of
    a text
  • All of us use a hermeneutic every time we read.

62
Biblical Interpretation
  • Definitions-
  • Exegesis
  • The process of implementing valid interpretive
    principles.
  • Exegesis involves investigation into the history,
    grammar, genre, and literary context of the text.

63
Biblical Interpretation
  • Definitions-
  • Meaning
  • The truth intention of the author.
  • How many truth intentions can an author have in a
    particular text?
  • What is truth?

64
History of Western Thought
Pre-Modern Thought (pre 1700s)
Absolute truth exists and it is objective
Absolute truth comes to us via divine revelation
Absolute truth is authoritative and binding
Dependence on the supernatural

65
History of Western Thought
Pre-Modern Thought (pre 1700s) Modern Thought (Enlightenment until 1989)
Absolute truth exists and it is objective Absolute truth exists and it is objective
Absolute truth comes to us via divine revelation Absolute truth comes to us via human reason/science
Absolute truth is authoritative and binding Absolute truth is authoritative and binding
Dependence on the supernatural Rejection of the supernatural

66
History of Western Thought
Pre-Modern Thought (pre 1700s) Modern Thought (Enlightenment until 1989) Post-Modern Thought (1989-?)
Absolute truth exists and it is objective Absolute truth exists and it is objective Absolute truth does not exist truth is subjective
Absolute truth comes to us via divine revelation Absolute truth comes to us via human reason/science Subjective truth may come from an infinite number of sources
Absolute truth is authoritative and binding Absolute truth is authoritative and binding No truth can be authoritative or binding
Dependence on the supernatural Rejection of the supernatural Open to the supernatural

67
Biblical Interpretation
  • Definitions-
  • Interpretation
  • An understanding of the truth intention of the
    author.
  • How does your worldview (pre-modern, modern,
    post-modern) impact your ability to interpret a
    text?

68
Biblical Interpretation
  • Definitions-
  • Application
  • The use or practice of the authors truth
    intention in the interpreters personal life.
  • The application of a text is distinct from the
    interpretation or the meaning of the text.

69
Biblical Interpretation
  • Definitions-
  • It is extremely important to not confuse or to
    muddle these aspects of the interpretive process.
  • What potential dangers might come from confusing
    exegesis and interpretation, or from confusing
    interpretation with application, or confusing
    meaning and application?

70
  • Quiz
  • Listing
  • From the axiom, The Bible is a divine book
    stem four corollaries. What are they?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • True or False
  • 5. The spiritual meaning of the Bible is always
    more important than the grammatical one.
  • Bonus
  • Give an example of a biblical command that
    was changed later.

71
Biblical Interpretation
  • Some parts of the Bible are easy to understand,
    but much of it is not.
  • There are numerous barriers that every
    interpreter must cross to discover the Bibles
    meaning.

72
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Pre-understandings- all of us read with biases
    and assumptions. We tend to be more subjective
    than objective.
  • It is very difficult for us to approach the
    Scriptures free from prejudices and assumptions,
    but these can prevent us from understanding their
    meaning.

73
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • We must seek to let the Bible speak for itself by
    approaching it impartially and objectively.
  • Some examples of how pre-understandings affect
    our interpretation
  • If I approach the Bible with the
    pre-understanding that the earth is billions of
    years old, how will that impact my interpretation
    of Genesis 1?

74
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • If I approach the Bible with a pre-understanding
    that the church has replaced Israel how would
    that impact my interpretation of Genesis 121-7,
    the Mosaic Law, or Revelation 74?

75
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Time/Historical Context- the oldest books of the
    Bible were written almost 1500 years before
    Christ the newest was written less than 100
    years after Christs birth. We dont always
    immediately know why a book, passage, or verse
    was written. We dont always know what was going
    on historically that prompted the writing. We
    also have to keep in mind the progress of
    revelation.

76
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Does the historical situation of the original
    readers affect how they would have interpreted a
    text?
  • How might we interpret Genesis differently if we
    do so remembering that it was written to people
    who had been enslaved in Egypt for 400 years?

77
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • How might we interpret Isaiah 714-16 differently
    if we know the historical context?
  • How might not understanding the historical
    situation behind the book of Philemon impact our
    ability to arrive at its meaning?

78
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Language- the Bible was written in Hebrew,
    Aramaic, and Greek. All three languages use words
    and employ expressions that are difficult to
    translate or understand.
  • Why does Colossians 115 say Jesus is the
    firstborn of creation and 118 say he is the
    firstborn of the dead?

79
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Culture- the people of the Bible had customs not
    relatable to us. Misunderstanding their customs
    can lead to misinterpreting the text.
  • Why did Ruth spend the night sleeping in a barn
    at the feet of Boaz?
  • Why did Jonah not want to go to Ninevah?

80
Biblical Interpretation
  • What was Elisha asking Elijah for when he
    requested a double portion of Elijahs spirit (1
    Kings 29 cf. Dt. 2117)?
  • Why does Amos call the women of Bethel cows of
    Bashan in Amos 41?
  • Why did Jesus reject the man in Luke 959?

81
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Geography- Very often understanding the setting
    for an event helps us to understand the event
    more clearly.
  • Why did Jesus speak of a man going down from
    Jerusalem to Jericho in Luke 1030 when Jericho
    is north of Jerusalem?

82
Biblical Interpretation
  • What is significant about Jesus calling the
    church in Laodicea lukewarm in Rev. 316?
  • Why did Samuel ask God to send rain as a sign in
    1 Samuel 1217?
  • Why did David not offer a sacrifice for his sins
    involving Bathsheba? (Ps. 51)

83
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Religion- The actions of people in the Bible and
    the way they would have understood the events
    recorded in the Bible would be impacted by their
    religious views.

84
Biblical Interpretation
  • Why did God send the plagues upon Egypt?
  • Why did Elijah challenge the prophets of Baal to
    meet him on Mount Carmel?
  • Why did the Herodians, Saducees, and Scribes ask
    Jesus the questions they did in Mark 1213-28?

85
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barriers to the interpretive process
  • Genre- We know to read a poem differently than we
    read a science textbook. In the Bible, we
    encounter literary genres that may be unfamiliar-
    laments, parallelism, imprecatory psalms,
    prophecy, etc.
  • Literary context- Without understanding how a
    verse or passage fits into the book, it is very
    difficult to be certain youve interpreted
    correctly. The original readers read the entire
    work at once, whereas sometimes we attempt to
    interpret verses isolated from the text around
    them.

86
Biblical Interpretation
  • Crossing these barriers in study is the work of
    exegesis, which must take place before
    interpretation or application.

87
  • Quiz
  • ________ is the total pattern of human behavior,
    thought, speech, action, and artifacts.
  • ________ includes the paragraph and book in which
    verses occur and the historical-cultural
    environment at the time the verse was written.
  • 3 4. ________ and _______ are two aspects of
    culture that impact biblical interpretation.
  • True or False
  • ____ All Scripture should be received as
    normative for every person in all societies of
    all time unless the Bible limits the audience.
  • Bonus Name a specific biblical cultural issue
    discussed in the chapter

88
Biblical Interpretation
  • Hermeneutical Approaches
  • There are four primary hermeneutical approaches
    to Scripture commonly found in Christianity
    today
  • Grammatical-historical-mythological- this idea
    assumes that the meaning of the Bible is obscured
    by the mythologies, culture, oral traditions, and
    prejudices, of the writers and later editors.

89
Biblical Interpretation
  • This is the hermeneutical approach of theological
    liberalism.
  • Those who practice it deny the plenary
    (complete)-verbal inspiration of Scripture.
  • This method assumes that most Bible books either
    evolved over time through the work of various
    editors or that they were written in times later
    than the books seem to purport.

90
Biblical Interpretation
  • This hermeneutic relies on higher criticism and
    involves trying to identify distinct voices
    within the text and then trying to determine the
    source of each voice.
  • The goal of this approach is not about finding
    Gods message, but in learning about what men
    have thought about God at various times in
    history.

91
Biblical Interpretation
  • Examples-
  • The Documentary-Hypothesis theory
  • The Jesus Seminar

92
Biblical Interpretation
  • Grammatical-historical-existential- this approach
    involves reading the Bible for the purpose of
    seeking an existential encounter with Jesus
    Christ.
  • The truth intention of the author is not seen as
    important as the experience of each individual
    reader.

93
Biblical Interpretation
  • This is the approach of Neo-orthodoxy (Barthian).
  • Barth denied the plenary-verbal inspiration of
    Scripture and embraced many of the same attitudes
    toward the Bible as theological liberals.
  • However, unlike liberals, he did not deny that
    the Bible has a supernatural element.

94
Biblical Interpretation
  • Barth distinguished between the words of
    Scripture and the matter of Scripture. He
    described the matter of Scripture as that place
    where the reader encounters Christ.
  • This hermeneutic has become very common among
    evangelicals.

95
Biblical Interpretation
  1. Grammatical-historical-theological method- pays
    attention to the grammar and history of the
    Biblical text, but the interpretation of the text
    is ultimately guided by a set of theological
    pre-understandings.

96
Biblical Interpretation
  • If the literal or normal interpretation of the
    text is contrary to the theological
    pre-understanding of the interpreter, the text is
    interpreted in an allegorical or spiritual
    manner.
  • This approach is used by creedal/confessional
    Christians.

97
Biblical Interpretation
  • If the literal or normal interpretation of the
    text is contrary to the theological
    pre-understanding of the interpreter, the text is
    interpreted in an allegorical or spiritual
    manner.
  • This approach is used by creedal/confessional
    Christians.

98
Biblical Interpretation
  • The most prominent evangelical use of this
    approach is found in Covenant Theology.

99
Biblical Interpretation
  • When studying the Old Testament, especially Old
    Testament prophecies, a covenant theologian does
    not ignore grammar or history, but he does not
    allow them to be the ultimate determining factor
    in his interpretation.1 Instead, he filters the
    results of a grammatical and historical exegesis
    through a set of theological pre-understandings.2
  • 1Duncan, Dispensationalism A Reformed
    Evaluation
  • 2Thomas, 66

100
Biblical Interpretation
  • This theological method assumes that Christ or
    the New Testament Church has brought fulfillment
    to every Old Testament prophecy.1 Therefore,
    the covenant theologian does not see the original
    contextual meaning of the Old Testament author as
    conclusively authoritative. He believes that the
    New Testament often changes the clear contextual
    meaning of Old Testament passages.2
  • 1Duncan, Dispensationalism A Reformed
    Evaluation
  • 2Thomas, 66

101
Biblical Interpretation
  • "In Covenant Theology there is the tendency to
    impute to a passage a meaning which would not be
    gained merely from their historical and
    grammatical associations
  • (Daniel P. Fuller, The Hermeneutics of
    Dispensationalism), 147.

102
Biblical Interpretation
  • In other words, the covenant theologian gives the
    New Testament hermeneutical control over any
    interpretation of the Old Testament.1 Covenant
    theologian, Ligon Duncan, affirms this when he
    states Later revelation, by definition,
    controls the final Systematic Theological
    understanding of earlier revelation.2 
  • 1Duncan, Dispensationalism A Reformed
    Evaluation
  • 2Ibid.

103
Biblical Interpretation
  • Since covenant theologians see all Old Testament
    prophecies as ultimately fulfilled in either
    Christ or the church, their theological
    hermeneutical method frequently forces them to
    spiritualize Old Testament promises to
    Israel.1
  • 1Showers, 24

104
Biblical Interpretation
  • Covenant theologian, Anthony Hoekema, affirms
    this when he states The Old Testament must be
    interpreted in light of the New Testament and
    that a totally and exclusively literal
    interpretation of Old Testament prophecy is not
    justified.1
  • 1Anthony A. Hoekema, An Amillennial Response
    to Dispensational Premillennialism, in The
    Meaning of the Millennium, Four Views, ed. Robert
    G. Clouse (Downers Grove, IL InterVarsity,
    1977), 55

105
Biblical Interpretation
  • Covenant theologian Lorraine Boettner provides an
    excellent example of what it means to
    spiritualize an Old Testament prophecy when he
    gives his commentary on Isaiah 1169.
  • A normal literal-grammatical-historical
    interpretation of this passage would conclude
    that this is a prophecy about the restoration of
    creation to a pre-fall state that will take place
    during the yet future millennial reign of Christ
    on the earth. However, using his theological
    presuppositions to interpret this text, Boettner
    says that it refers to a spiritual
    transformation as in Saul of Tarsus, who was
    changed from a vicious wolf-like persecutor to a
    lamb-like follower of Christ.1
  • 1Lorraine Boettner, The Millennium (Grand
    Rapids, MI Baker Book House, 1958), 90

106
Biblical Interpretation
  • Literal-Grammatical-Historical- seeks to
    interpret the Bible without pre-understandings
    following the normal rules of language and logic.
  • This hermeneutic is the most traditional
    evangelical approach to Scripture, but today is
    usually associated with Dispensational Theology.
  • It assumes plenary-verbal inspiration of the
    Bible.

107
Biblical Interpretation
  • "The aim of grammatico-historical method is to
    determine the sense required by the laws of
    grammar and the facts of history. Thus, the
    grammatical sense is the simple, direct, plain,
    ordinary, and literal sense of the phrases,
    clauses, and sentences.  The historical sense is
    that sense which is demanded by a careful
    consideration of the time and circumstances in
    which the author wrote.  It is the specific
    meaning which an author's words require when the
    historical context and background are taken into
    account"
  • Kaiser, Toward an Exegetical Theology), 88.
  •  

108
Biblical Interpretation
  • A literal-grammatical-historical hermeneutic is
    literal in that it seeks to understand the normal
    or plain sense of each Bible passage.
  • Robert Thomas describes this method when he
    states Take each statement in its plain sense
    if it matches common sense, and do not look for
    another sense.1
  • 1Robert L. Thomans, Evangelical Hermeneutics
    The New Versus the Old (Grand Rapids, MI Kregel,
    2002), 155

109
Biblical Interpretation
  • According to this method every Bible passage,
    regardless of genre, according to the same
    method.
  • The biblical passage is interpreted normally
    according to the normal laws of human language.

110
Biblical Interpretation
  • That the text is approached literally does not
    mean that he ignores symbols, figures of speech,
    or types.

111
Biblical Interpretation
  • Charles Ryrie states Symbols, figures of
    speech, and types are all interpreted plainly in
    this method, and they are in no way contrary to
    literal interpretation. After all, the very
    existence of any meaning for a figure of speech
    depends on the reality of the literal meaning of
    the terms involved. Figures often make the
    meaning plainer, but it is the literal, normal,
    or plain meaning that they convey to the
    reader.1
  • 1 Ryrie, 80-81

112
Biblical Interpretation
  • Roy Zuck concurs when he states Figurative
    language then is not antithetical to literal
    interpretation it is a part of it.  Perhaps it
    is better not to speak of figurative versus
    literal interpretation, but of
    ordinary-literal versus figurative-literal
    interpretation.1
  • 1 Roy B. Zuck, Basic Bible Interpretation, A
    Practical Guide to Discovering Biblical Truth
    (Wheaton, ILVictor, 1991), p. 147

113
Biblical Interpretation
  • The method is grammatical in that it pays close
    attention to the normal rules of grammar and
    communication when interpreting the Bible.
  • Adherents interpret the Bible as one would any
    other form of written communication.

114
Biblical Interpretation
  • This method assumes that Gods revelation follows
    the rules of the human language it employs, and
    he assumes that God communicated his word in a
    way that would be clear and understandable to
    humanity.

115
Biblical Interpretation
  • Charles Ryrie states If God is the originator
    of language and if the chief purpose of
    originating it was to convey His message to
    humanity, then it must follow that He being
    all-wise and all-loving, originated sufficient
    language to convey all that was in His heart to
    tell mankind. Furthermore, it must also follow
    that He would use language and expect people to
    understand it in its literal, normal, and plain
    sense.1
  • 1Ryrie, 81

116
Biblical Interpretation
  • This hermeneutical method is historical in that
    it seeks to understand each Bible passage in its
    historical context.1
  • It seeks to understand each passage as the human
    writer and the original readers would have
    understood it.
  • Using the rules of grammar and the facts of
    history, the dispensationalist looks for a
    singular meaning in each passage that is
    determined by what the human writer intended to
    communicate.2
  • 1Thomans, 242
  • 2 Ibid., 242

117
Biblical Interpretation
  • "The aim of grammatico-historical method is to
    determine the sense required by the laws of
    grammar and the facts of history. Thus, the
    grammatical sense is the simple, direct, plain,
    ordinary, and literal sense of the phrases,
    clauses, and sentences.  The historical sense is
    that sense which is demanded by a careful
    consideration of the time and circumstances in
    which the author wrote.  It is the specific
    meaning which an author's words require when the
    historical context and background are taken into
    account"
  • Kaiser, Toward an Exegetical Theology), 88.
  •  

118
Biblical Interpretation
  • The most fundamental principle in
    grammatico-historical exposition is that words
    and sentences can have only one significance in
    one and the same connection"
  • This does not mean that later revelation cannot
    provide a fuller meaning for earlier passages,
    but it is to say that later revelation does not
    change the original plain meaning of the older
    revelation.
  • Kaiser, Toward an Exegetical Theology), 88  

119
Biblical Interpretation
  • Beginning the Exegetical Process-
  • Before determining what the text means, we must
    first determine what it says.
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • How many times does the word occur in the
    passage?
  • Is the word used in the same way each time (noun,
    verb, etc.)?
  • Is the word modified the same way each time
    (articles, adjectives, adverbs)?
  • Is the word connected to other words the same way
    each time (prepositions)?

120
Biblical Interpretation
  • Example Passages-
  • 1 John 215-17 (look for world)
  • 2 Corinthians 13-7 (look for comfort)
  • John 151-10 (look for remain)
  • Matthew 61-18 (look for Father)

121
Biblical Interpretation
  • Beginning the Exegetical Process-
  • Before determining what the text means, we must
    first determine what it says.
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • Contrasts- Look for items, ideas, and individuals
    that are contrasted with each other.
  • Example Passages
  • Psalm 11-6
  • Proverbs 1431
  • Proverbs 151

122
Biblical Interpretation
  • Romans 623
  • Ephesians 58
  • 1 John 15-7
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • Contrasts-
  • Comparisons- Look for ideas, items, individuals
    compared with each other
  • Example Passages Proverbs 2526 James 33-6
    Isaiah 4031

123
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • Contrasts
  • Comparisons
  • Lists- When you encounter more than two itemized
    things, you can identify them as a list
  • Example Passages- 1 John 216 Galatians 522-23
    519-21

124
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • Contrasts
  • Comparisons
  • Lists
  • Cause and Effect- Look for the effect of each
    cause and the cause of each effect. There may be
    more than one effect from a single cause in the
    text
  • Example Passages- Proverbs 151 Romans 623
    Romans 122 John 316 Psalm 136 Colossians 31

125
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • Contrasts
  • Comparisons
  • Lists
  • Cause and Effect
  • Figures of speech- these are images in which
    words are used in a sense other than the normal,
    literal sense.
  • Example Passages- Psalm 119105 Matthew 2327
    Psalm 182 1 Corinthians 36 Luke 1334

126
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • Contrasts
  • Comparisons
  • Lists
  • Cause and Effect
  • Figures of speech
  • Conjunctions- Look for words like but, therefore,
    for, since, because, etc. and find out what they
    contribute to what the verse says.
  • Example Passages Romans 623 121 Hebrews
    121 2 Timothy 17-8 Genesis 68

127
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Sentence Level- Look for the following
  • Repetition of words
  • Contrasts
  • Comparisons
  • Lists
  • Cause and Effect
  • Figures of speech
  • Conjunctions
  • Verbs
  • Identify what kind of verb is used- past,
    present, future tense?

128
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • Verbs
  • Identify what kind of verb is used- past,
    present, future tense?
  • Is the action expressed ongoing?
  • Is it imperative (Be, Go, etc.)?
  • Example of imperative verb- Ephesians 42-3
  • Is the verb active or passive?
  • Examples of active and passive verbs- Colossians
    31 Ephesians 111 Genesis 123
  • Pronouns- Find the antecedent
  • Examples- Ephesians 13 Philippians 127-30

129
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level- In addition to looking for
    the things we learned to look for in sentences,
    we need to look for the following
  • General and Specific- Sometimes an author will
    introduce an idea with a general statement, and
    then follow this general statement with specifics
    of the idea.
  • Example passages- Galatians 516 (General),
    519-21 (Specific), 522-23 (Specific) Romans
    121 (General), 129-13 (Specific) 1 Corinthians
    1313 (General), 1 Corinthians 131-12 (Specific)

130
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers- Sometimes biblical writers
    ask a question and then answer it.
  • Example passages- Romans 61 (Question), 62
    (Answer) Mark 27 (Question), 210 (Answer)
    216 (Question), 217 (Answer) 218 (Question),
    219 (Answer) 224 (Question), 225, 27
    (Answer) 34 (Question), 36 (Answer)

131
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers- Sometimes biblical writers
    ask a question and then answer it.
  • Dialogue- Note that dialog is taking place. Ask
    the following
  • Who are the participants?
  • What is the setting?
  • Who is speaking to whom?
  • Are other people around?
  • Are they listening?
  • What is the tone of the dialog (friendly,
    argumentative), etc.
  • What is the point of the dialog?

132
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers-
  • Dialog-
  • Example passages- Habakkuk 11-4, 5-11, 12-21,
    22-20
  • Purpose Statements- These are phrases that
    describe the reason, result, or consequence of
    some action. They are frequently introduced by
    conjunctions like that, in order that, so
    that, and to.
  • Example passages- Eph. 210 John 316 John
    1516 Duet. 63 Ps. 11911

133
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers-
  • Dialog-
  • Purpose Statements-
  • Means (by which something is accomplished)- When
    an action, result, or purpose is stated, look for
    the means that brings it about.
  • Example passages- In Romans 813, what is the
    means by which the misdeeds of the body are put
    to death? In Psalm 1199, what is the means by
    which a young man keeps his way pure?

134
  • Quiz- Chapter 8, Basic Bible Interpretation
  • True or False
  • ___ An antitype is the opposite of a type.
  • ___ A type represents something to come, but a
    symbol has no time reference.
  • ___ A person would not normally associate a
    symbol with what it symbolizes.
  • ___ When a prophetic passage clearly uses some
    symbols we should assume that everything in that
    passage should be understood as symbolic.
  • ___ Since many numbers in the Bible have symbolic
    connotations, we know that we should not
    interpret numbers literally.
  • Bonus ___ We should always look for symbolic
    meanings in the names of people in the Bible.

135
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers-
  • Dialog-
  • Purpose Statements-
  • Means (by which something is accomplished)-
  • Conditional Clauses- (usually if then
    statements)- always determine exactly what the
    required conditional action is (the if part) and
    what the result or consequence is (the then
    part).
  • Example passages- 1 John 516 2 Cor. 517 James
    126 Duet. 281

136
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers-
  • Dialog-
  • Purpose Statements-
  • Means (by which something is accomplished)-
  • Conditional Clauses-
  • The Roles/Actions of People the Roles/Actions
    of God- What does God do in this passage? What do
    people do in this passage?
  • Example passage- Ephesians 51-2

137
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers-
  • Dialog-
  • Purpose Statements-
  • Means (by which something is accomplished)-
  • Conditional Clauses-
  • The Roles/Actions of People the Roles/Actions
    of God-
  • Emotional Language- Look for words and phrases
    with emotional overtones like Father, Mother,
    Son, Daughter, Beloved and plead.
  • Example passages- Jer. 319-20 Gal. 412-16

138
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • General and Specific-
  • Questions and Answers-
  • Dialog-
  • Purpose Statements-
  • Means (by which something is accomplished)-
  • Conditional Clauses-
  • The Roles/Actions of People the Roles/Actions
    of God-
  • Emotional Language-
  • Tone- what is the tone of the passage? Angry,
    gentle, loving, sorrowful, hostile, scolding?
  • Example Passages- Col 31-4, Gal. 31-4 Matt.
    2333-35 Lam. 31-6

139
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • The Pericope Level- A pericope is a distinct unit
    of thought longer than a paragraph- a story, an
    episode, a sermon, a chapter. At this level, we
    use all the skills weve learned so far, but we
    add a few more.
  • Connections between Paragraphs and Episodes- look
    for connections between paragraphs, and look for
    connections between episodes in narratives.
  • Example passages- How is Mark 822-26 connected
    to 814-21 and to 827-30? How is Colossians
    11-8 connected to 19-14?
  • Story Shifts (Breaks and Pivots)- A major break
    is a shift in topic, we look for these primarily
    in teaching passages like those found in the NT
    letters. A pivot is an episode that changes the
    direction of a narrative.

140
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • The Pericope Level-
  • Connections between Paragraphs and Episodes- look
    for connections between paragraphs, and look for
    connections between episodes in narratives.
  • Story Shifts (Breaks and Pivots)-
  • Example passages- a major break occurs when Paul
    moves from Colossians 1-3 to chapter 4. A pivot
    in the narrative about the life of David happens
    in 2 Samuel 11-12. Look at Davids life before
    and look at his life afterwards.

141
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • The Pericope Level-
  • Connections between Paragraphs and Episodes- look
    for connections between paragraphs, and look for
    connections between episodes in narratives.
  • Story Shifts (Breaks and Pivots)-
  • Interchange- interchange involves contrasting or
    comparing two stories at the same time as part of
    the overall development of a narrative.
  • Examples- 1 Samuel- Eli and his worthless sons
    are compared to Hannah and her godly son. Why?
    The writer wants us to see how Samuel is
    different than the corrupt leadership he
    replaces. Acts- 1-7 are about Peter, Acts
    758-83 is about Paul, 814-25 is about Peter,
    Acts 9 is about Paul, but Acts 101-111-18 is
    about Peter. Acts 1119-30 is about Paul, but
    Acts 12 is about Peter, the rest of the book is
    primarily about Paul.

142
Biblical Interpretation
  • How to read carefully
  • The Paragraph Level-
  • The Pericope Level-
  • Connections between Paragraphs and Episodes-
  • Story Shifts (Breaks and Pivots)-
  • Interchange-
  • Chiasm- a common feature of Hebrew literature

143
Biblical Interpretation
  • Example- Genesis 111-9
  • the whole world (1)
  • had one language (1)
  • Shinar and settled there (2)
  • Come, lets make bricks (3)
  • Come, let us built (4)
  • a city with a tower (4)
  • but the Lord came down (5)
  • to see the city and the tower (5)
  • that the men were building (5)
  • Come, let us go down and confuse their language
    (7)
  • Babel-because there (9)
  • the Lord confused the language (9)
  • the whole earth (9)

144
Biblical Interpretation
  • Determining Historical/Cultural Context
  • Since God spoke His message in specific
    historical situations (i.e., to people living in
    particular places, speaking particular languages,
    adopting a particular way of life) we should take
    the historical/cultural background of each Bible
    passage seriously.
  • Scripture was Gods Word to other people before
    it was Gods Word to us.
  • For our interpretation of a text to be valid, it
    has to be consistent with the historical-cultural
    context of the text.
  • Historical/cultural context involves the Biblical
    writer, the original audience, and any historical
    or cultural elements that will help you
    understand the text.

145
Biblical Interpretation
  • Determining Historical/Cultural Context
  • The following questions can help you investigate
    the historical cultural context of a Bible book
    or passage
  • Who was the writer? (Read Philippians 3 and 1
    Timothy 116. How does knowing about Pauls
    background add to your understanding of these
    verses?)
  • What was the writers ministry?
  • What is the relationship between the writer and
    the people? (compare Galatians 1 with 1
    Thessalonians 1).
  • Why did the writer write this portion of
    Scripture? (Why did Moses write Genesis? Why did
    Luke write his gospel and Acts?)

146
Biblical Interpretation
  • Determining Historical/Cultural Context
  • Who was the Biblical audience?
  • What were the circumstances of those in the
    audience?
  • How was their relationship to God? (Consider the
    Judeans during the time of Jeremiah, the
    Galatians, etc.)
  • What kind of relationship did they have with each
    other (Consider the division in the Corinthian
    church how were Philemon and Onesimus related?)
  • What was happening at the time the book was
    written?
  • Are there any other historical/cultural factors
    that might shed light on the book?

147
Biblical Interpretation
  • Resources for investigating Historical/Cultural
    Context
  • Bible Handbooks
  • Commentaries
  • Old Testament/New Testament Surveys
  • Bible Atlases
  • Special studies in ancient life and culture
  • Computer software like Logos and BibleWorks
  • Word Studies
  • We must always try to understand as precisely as
    possible what the author meant to convey by his
    use of his words in their context.
  • Common Word Study Mistakes-
  • English Only Mistakes- Because the Bible was not
    originally written in English, it must be
    translated into English from Hebrew, Aramaic, and
    Greek.

148
Biblical Interpretation
  • Common Word Study Mistakes-
  • English Only Mistakes- Because the Bible was not
    originally written in English, it must be
    translated into English from Hebrew, Aramaic, and
    Greek.
  • Therefore, you may not realize that a word in
    Hebrew or Greek may be translated into English
    with a number of different English words. For
    example paraklesis is sometimes translated
    comfort, but other times it is translated
    exhortation. Comfort and Exhortation can mean
    different things in English.
  • You may not realize that several different Hebrew
    or Greek words might be translated into English
    with only one English word. For example there are
    6 Greek words all translated comfort in English.
  • The English Only mistake occurs when you base
    your word study on the definition of the English
    word rather than on the definition of the word in
    the original language.

149
Biblical Interpretation
  • Common Word Study Mistakes-
  • Root Mistake- It is a fallacy that you can always
    determine the meaning of a word by understanding
    its root. This is true even in English. Is a
    butterfly made of butter? Do pineapples grow on
    pine trees? Context is more important than
    etymology.
  • Time-Frame Mistakes- Sometimes word meanings
    change over time. Often we try to take the more
    modern meaning of the word and insert it into the
    text (the reverse is possible, but happens less
    frequently). For instance, how many of you have
    heard that the word translated power in Romans
    118 is the word from which we get our word
    dynamite. Was Paul thinking of dynamite when he
    wrote Romans?
  • Overload Mistake- Most words can have more than
    one meaning depending on their context. Dont try
    to attach all the possible meanings to a word in
    one instance. Context determines meaning.

150
Biblical Interpretation
  • Common Word Study Mistakes-
  • Word Count Mistakes- It is a mistake to think
    that a word must have the same meaning every time
    it occurs. (ex. kosmos). Again, word meanings are
    determined by context in the passage.
  • Word Concept Mistakes- Dont think that because
    youve studied a one word that you have studied
    the entire concept represented by that word. For
    example, studying the Greek word ekklesia will
    not tell you everything you need to know about
    the New Testament church.
  • Selective-Evidence Mistakes- Sometimes you will
    be tempted to dismiss evidence so that you can
    define a word according to what you want it to
    mean. The Scripture should change our views our
    views should not change the Scripture.

151
Biblical Interpretation
  • For help with word studies use, concordances,
    Bible dictionaries, lexicons, and commentaries.
  • You dont need to do a word study on every word
    in a passage. Choose words carefully. Choose only
    those words that have meanings crucial to
    understanding the passage.
  • Never forget that context determines meaning.

152
Biblical Interpretation
  • Meanings or Meanings-
  • A major debate in hermeneutics today is who
    controls the meaning. Is the meaning controlled
    by the author or by the reader?
  • All of us at times reinterpret literature to make
    it mean what we want it to mean.
  • For example
  • We listen to songs at times and the only way we
    can enjoy them is to ignore what the author
    wanted to communicate (I Get by with a Little
    Help from My Friends Let Freedom Ring)
  • We read stories and watch movies and we are often
    ignorant or we ignore what the author intended to
    communicate (Wizard of Oz, Star Wars).
  • We often do this with the Bible, but is this
    right?

153
Biblical Interpretation
  • Those who hold to authorial intent argue that the
    meaning of a text is the truth intention of the
    author. They believe in what we call authorial
    intent.
  • However, others hold to the idea that the reader
    controls the meaning of a text. This idea is
    called reader response.
  • If we are reading something that does not
    communicate an important or authoritative message
    to us, it may be harmless for us to make what we
    are reading mean what we want it to mean.
  • But if we are reading something that contains
    important or authoritative truth, it is dangerous
    not to grasp the meaning.

154
Biblical Interpretation
  • If we fail to understand the meaning of the
    Biblical text, we could be in grave danger. The
    Bible communicates to us what God requires.
  • Therefore, we are saying in this class that the
    only valid meaning of a biblical text is the
    truth intention of the author.
  • Our understanding of the authors meaning is our
    interpretation.
  • What we do with the authors meaning is our
    application.
  • It is vitally important that we not confuse these
    terms.

155
Biblical Interpretation
  • Does the Bible contain levels of meaning?
  • All of us are tempted at times to look for
    different levels of meaning in a biblical text.
    We have all seen this modeled.
  • People try to assign various levels of meaning to
    the Bible through the following means
  • Spiritualizing- those who do this see a dichotomy
    between the literal meaning of a text and its
    spiritual meaning. However, there is no such
    dichotomy, because the spiritual meaning of the
    text cant be different than the literal meaning
  • Examples Luke 158-10
  • What does this passage mean? How many meanings or
    layers of meanings can you devise?

156
Biblical Interpretation
  • Does the Bible contain levels of meaning?
  • We could come up with many spiritual meanings of
    the text. Some of them might be theologically
    true. However, all of them miss the point that
    Jesus was communicating.
  • We need to seek the meaning God intends and not a
    meaning created in our imaginations.
  • Prior to the Reformation spiritualizing the text
    was considered virtuous and proper by many in the
    the church.
  • Spiritualizing the text was seen as a way of
    making every text speak directly of Christ and
    directly to our lives.

157
Biblical Interpretation
  • Does the Bible contain levels of meaning?
  • This fuller meaning is referred to as sensus
    plenior.
  • A few centuries after Christ there was a popular
    four-fold system of biblical interpretation. The
    system saw four levels of meaning in every
    biblical text- literal, allegorical, moral, and
    spiritual.
  • For example, the word Jerusalem could mean 1)
    literal- a city 2) allegorical- the church 3)
    moral- the human soul 4) spiritual- heaven.
  • Hopefully, you can see how dangerous this
    interpretive scheme could be.
  • The Reformers took the Protestant church away
    from this kind of scheme, but there are still
    other ways of missing the authors intent.

158
Biblical Interpretation
  • Does the Bible contain levels of meaning?
  • Spiritualizing
  • Allegorizing- an allegory is a story that uses an
    extensive amount of symbolism.
  • The Bible occasionally uses allegories. For
    example Isaiah 51-7.
  • However, it is dangerous to interpret a
    nonallegorical text as if it were allegorical.
    Doing so takes us away from Gods intended
    meaning.

159
Biblical Interpretation
  • Does the Bible contain levels of meaning?
  • Some examples of allegorizing Exodus 2719
  • The pins, or nails, tent pegs of the
    Tabernacle were made of brass therefore they did
    not rust. As they withstood every desert storm,
    even so Christs holy life withstood every
    onslaught of Satan. How minutely the details of
    the God-given pattern for the Tabernacle in the
    wilderness foreshadow the glories of our
    crucified and risen Lord! Louis Talbot, Christ
    in the Tabernacle (Wheaton, Il. Van Kampen,
    1942) 89

160
Biblical Interpretation
  • Does the Bible contain levels of meaning?
  • We repeat the pins were buried in the ground,
    but also emerged from the ground, and it speaks
    of the death and resurrection, that which is
    buried, and that which is above the ground. The
    part of the pins beneath the ground becomes a
    symbol of the death of the Lord Jesus Christ the
    part above the ground suggests His resurrection.
  • Martin R. Dehaan, The Tabernacle (Grand Rapids
    Zondervan, 1995), 65

161
Biblical Interpretation
  • The Bible does use symbols frequently, but the
    symbols cannot mean something that would have not
    been understood (at least in part) by the
    original audience.
  • We have a tendency, especially with the Old
    Testament to attach New Testament meanings to
    symbols in the Old Testament without paying
    attention to what that symbol would have meant to
    the original audience.
  • This is certainly what weve seen in the
    preceding quotes from Talbot and Dehaan.
  • Heres another example. The four major colors
    found in the Tabernacle were white, purple, and
    blue.

162
Biblical Interpretation
  • Talbot in his book, Christ in the Tabernacle. P.
    38, says that blue speaks to us of our Lords
    deity, for blue is the heavenly color.
  • Note his apparent line of reasoning. Blue is the
    color of the sky. Another term for the sky is the
    heavens. Jesus came from heaven. Blue must refer
    to His heavenly origin.
  • Now this is not far off, but its not on tar
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com