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ANCIENT GREECE

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ANCIENT GREECE World History Unit II, Part I TWO MAJOR PERIODS in GREEK HISTORY: HELLENIC (CLASSICAL) Five centuries preceding Alexander the Great -750-336 BC Height ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANCIENT GREECE


1
ANCIENT GREECE
  • World History
  • Unit II, Part I

2
EARLY HISTORYAEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS (See Map)
  • Minoan (Cretan) Civilization (3000-1400 BC)
  • Island of Crete / City of Knossos

3
An idea of Knossos
4
From the Palace of Knossos The famous "bull
leaping" fresco from the East wing of the palace
5
EARLY HISTORYAEGEAN CIVILIZATIONS (See Map)
  • Mycenaean Civilization (2000-1100 BC)
  • Northern Greece Mainland
  • Indo-European Descent
  • Intermarried with Hellenes (indigenous Greeks)
  • Will become the early Greeks . . .

6
Mycenaean Warriors
7
EARLY HISTORY
  • Homeric Age (Until 750 BC)
  • Homer epic poet
  • Illiad Odyssey / Trojan War
  • Belief in Greek Gods / Mythology

8
Homer
9
Troy
10
Achilles
11
The death mask of King Agamemnon Mycenae
12
GEOGRAPHY
  • Geographic Influences (see map/location)
  • Deep harbors, trade/merchant fleets
  • Rugged, rocky, semi-arid
  • Not much arable land
  • Colonies established on shores
  • Independent City-States located in small,
    isolated fertile valleys
  • City-State Greek polis

13
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14
Landscape
15
Greek Countryside
16
GREEK CITY-STATES
  • Major Rival City-States
  • Athens, Sparta, Corinth

17
Greek cities and colonies, 750-650 B.C.
18
GREEK CITY-STATES
  • Athens Democratic City-State
  • Progression of Athenian Government
  • Monarchy (Kings)
  • Aristocracy (Nobles)
  • Tyranny (Tyrants)
  • Direct Democracy (Constitution/Citizens)

19
GREEK CITY-STATES
  • Important Democratic Reformers
  • Draco 621 BC
  • Solon 594 BC
  • Cleistenenes 508 BC
  • Then the most important
  • PERICLES (461 429 BC)
  • Golden Age of Athens/Pericles
  • Great and popular leader of Athens/Democracy (see
    video)

20
GREEK CITY-STATES
  • Athenian Philosophy/Lifestyle
  • Liberal, free-thinking
  • Artistic, creative, educated
  • Built beautiful public buildings/temple on the
    Acropolis (see pictures/video)
  • See comparison chart of democracy on Athens/USA

21
Pericles of Athens
22
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23
The Acropolis of Athens
24
GREEK CITY-STATES
  • Sparta
  • Military City-State
  • Aristocracy / autocratic / totalitarian
  • Lifestyle Agrarian / Militaristic
  • Philosophy The individual exists to serve the
    State
  • Conservative / Status Quo
  • Considered an armed camp with great warriors
  • Extremely competitive with Athens (mutual)

25
GREEK CITY-STATES
  • Athens and Sparta were extreme opposites.
  • But, there were four major things that
    united/unified the Greeks
  • Language
  • Religion (mythology)
  • The Olympic Games
  • Fear of the Persian Empire

26
MAJOR HISTORICAL EVENTS
  • Two Major Wars
  • Persian Wars (500-479 BC)
  • External war/common enemy (unified the Greeks)
  • Darius Persian King
  • Important Battles Marathon, Salamis,
    Thermopylae (300) (see videos)
  • Following the Greek victories The growth of
    Athens and Sparta which led to the Golden Age
    of Athens (Pericles)

27

Themistocles
28
Greek Fighting Ship TRIREME
29
Persian Empire
30
Leonidas
31
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32
Hoplite phalanx classical Greece
33
MAJOR HISTORICAL EVENTS
  • Then following the Golden Age of Pericles War,
    decline, disaster . . .
  • Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC)
  • Civil war between two great rivals
  • Athens vs. Sparta for control of Greece
  • Protracted, destructive war
  • Sparta won but at too high a price
  • The Spartans were hated and resented by Athenians
    and the other Greeks
  • No loyalty to the Spartans
  • This war led to the decline of Greek culture and
    civilization . . . Chaotic conditions until
    mid-300s

34
TWO MAJOR PERIODS in GREEK HISTORY
  • HELLENIC (CLASSICAL)
  • Five centuries preceding Alexander the Great
  • -750-336 BC
  • Height reached during age of Pericles
  • (461-429 BC)
  • Primarily ATHENIAN

35
  • HELLENISTIC (Hellenism)
  • Culture spread by Alexander the Great
  • Fused Western Greek culture with Egyptian,
    Persian, and Oriental (Eastern)

36
Philip and Alexander
  • Philip of Macedon (King Philip II)
  • Invades and conquers Greece by force
  • (359-338 BC)
  • Murdered in presence of his son ALEXANDER
  • Alexander was only 20 when he took control of
    Philips Kingdom (Macedonia and Greece)

37
ALEXANDERS- MAJOR BATTLES(all -vs- the Persian
Empire)
  • 1. GRANICUS
  • 2. ISSUS
  • 3. GAUGAMELA
  • Outnumbered by the Persians in all three battles
    either 31/41!!!
  • None of the outcomes were even close
  • Total annihilation of the enemy!

38
CONQUESTS of ALEXANDER the GREAT
  • 336-323 BC -Largest Empire in World History (up
    to that time-see maps/videos)
  • From Greece to the Indus River!
  • Marched 22,000 miles and never lost a battle!

39
  • Dies at age 33 in Babylon, body taken back to
    Alexandria, Egypt
  • His Empire soon falls apart and is divided into
    three Kingdoms-among his Generals

40
ALEXANDERS LEGACY
  • 1. Spread of Greek (Hellenistic) Culture
  • 2. Establishment of Greek cultural centers
  • - Many Greek cities built
  • - ALL named ALEXANDRIA
  • Cultural diffusion between East/West
  • Period of peace/prosperity would be the model for
    the Pax Romana (Roman Peace)
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