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Introduction to Animal Behavior

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Title: Introduction to Animal Behavior


1
Introduction to Animal Behavior
  • Why do they do that?

2
Warm Up
  • Personification Putting human characteristics
    onto animals to explain behavior
  • Youtube http//www.youtube.com/watch?vf-Kt_kuYVt
    U

3
Unit Map Follow Along in your packet
  • WHAT ARE YOU LEARNING?
  • Explain factors that serve to stimulate or
    discourage various types of animal behavior.
  • Recognize the normality curve of animal behavior.

4
Know Understand Do!
  • Understand
  • Stimuli influence on behavior
  • How ethology has evolved
  • Know
  • Types of Behavior
  • History of studying animal behavior
  • Do
  • Observe and interpret animal behaviors
  • Evaluate animal studies

5
Key Learning Animal Behavior
  • Unit EQ How does animal behavior influence
    animal husbandry?

Concept Influence Lesson EQ What can alter
behavior ? Vocab Agnostic
Concept History Lesson EQ How are animals
studied for behavior? Vocab FAP, Skinner Box
Concept Types Lesson EQ What are categories
of behavior? Vocab Stimuli, Behavior, Ethology
6
What is Animal Behavior? The study of how and
why animals interact with each other (both within
and among species) and their environment.
Proximate questions - how mechanisms responsible
for interactions Ultimate questions - why how
these interactions influence an individual's
survival and reproduction.
7
Some examples
Intraspecific interactions
mate choice
male competition
alarm calls
parental care
8
Some examples
Interspecific interactions
predation
parasitism
mutualism
competition
9
Some examples
Interactions with the environment
foraging
nest site selection
signal modification
10
Why study behavior?
Possible first science Our survival dependent on
knowledge of other animals (prey/competitors/preda
tors).
Control/management of species Food and game
species, agricultural pests, invasive species,
endangered species.
Understanding/modification of our own behavior?
Studies of how birds learn and develop songs
provide unique insights into the development and
neural control of speech in humans.
11
Curiosity. Science for sciences sake. Achieve
a better understanding of the species we share
the Earth with. Almost any behavior performed by
any animal may be interesting to study.
12
History of the study of animal behavior
Paleolithic art from 40,000 years ago provide
indirect evidence that primitive humans observed
the behavior of animals. Cave paintings portray
herding animals in groups, animal migration,
certain predators hunting in packs, and solitary
animals alone.
13
Blurton-Jones (1976) documented Kalahari
bushmens (!Kung) knowledge of animal
behavior Hunter-gatherer society, similar to
most of humans history.
- Discriminated data from theory - Developed
hypotheses - Used reasoned skepticism
14
Introduction
  • Why do animals do what they do?
  • Why do birds sing?
  • How do sea turtles navigate the ocean to lay
    their eggs on the same beach where they were
    hatched?
  • How do honeybees know when the hive needs more
    food?

Image from http//www.nps.gov
Image from http//www.scottcamazine.com
15
Introduction
  • Animal behavior asks what, why, and how.
  • Animal behavior is also referred to as ethology.
  • Scientists who study animal behavior are called
    ethologists.

Image from http//www.arcamax.com
16
Introduction
  • Animal behavior is centered around the ability to
    move.
  • Animals seek food, water, shelter.
  • Animals play with each other.
  • Animals seek mates.

Image from http//www.e-magine.education.tas.gov.a
u
17
Introduction
  • In order for an animal to move, it uses muscles.
  • So, in a way, we can think of animal behavior as
    being dependent on muscle movement.

Image from http//www.wildaboutcats.org
18
Introduction
  • Behavior results as a reaction to a stimulus.
  • A stimulus is a detectable change in the animals
    internal or external environment.
  • Hunger.
  • Sound.
  • Pain.
  • Visual cues.
  • Hormonal changes.

Image from http//www3.nau.edu/biology/
19
What is really happening
  • Lets watch!
  • As we watch, when the video pauses explain WHAT
    the animal is doing and WHY you think the animal
    is doing this
  • youtube. http//www.youtube.com/watch?vLU8DDYz68
    kM

20
Introduction
  • Ethologists do not attempt to describe WHY an
    animal does a behavior before describing WHAT the
    animal is doing.
  • This removes as much bias as possible good
    scientists dont want to just see what they
    want to see.
  • Need to make objective observations of animal
    behaviors, analyze the data statistically, then
    come to conclusions about WHY an animal behaves a
    certain way.

21
Introduction
  • For example, you see two gophers interacting with
    each other, rolling and hopping around, running
    to and from each other.
  • As a behavioral ecologist, you would first state
    the behavior you are observing.
  • Once you made the observations about WHAT was
    happening, you could begin to determine WHY they
    are behaving that way.

22
Introduction
  • The behavior you observed could have been many
    different things.
  • Play.
  • Mating rituals.
  • Aggression, defending territory.

23
Movie Break!
  • Please get a piece of paper and copy the
    following
  • ANSWER FOR EACH ANIMAL PRESENTED
  • 1. What animal?
  • 2. Where is it commonly found?
  • 3. What is the smart behavior?
  • 4. Is this behavior (in your opinion)
    instinctual, learned, or other?
  • AT THE END OF THE VIDEO
  • What animal do YOU believe is the smartest and
    why? (10 sentences)

24
Video Worlds Smartest Animals
25
Types of behaviors defined
26
Pet Activity Warm Up On a separate sheet of
paper
  • 1. Write the name of one of your pets. Is it a
    bird, dog, or cat? Other?
  • 2. What behaviors do you think about when you
    think of your pet? Give a list of behaviors.
    Indicate if the behavior was genetic innate or
    learned.

27
Behavioral Ecology
  • Behavioral ecology emphasizes evolutionary
    hypothesis science as a process
  • Based on expectation that animals behave in ways
    that will increase their Darwinian fitness
    (reproductive success)

28
Stimuli Review
  • Certain stimuli trigger innate behaviors called
    fixed action patterns
  • A fixed action pattern (FAP) is a highly
    stereotypical, innate behavior that continues to
    completion after initiation by an external
    stimulus

29
Learning
  • Learning is experience based modification of
    behavior
  • Some learning is due mostly to inherent
    maturation
  • Habituation is learning involving loss of
    sensitivity to unimportant stimuli
  • Associative learning involves linking one
    stimulus with another

30
Classical conditioning (Pavlov)
31
Operant conditioning (Skinner)
32
Operant Conditioning ?? Animal learns to behave
in a certain way through repeated practice ??
Trial error learning animal tests conditions
for desired response e.g. Skinner box ?? Animal
learns that a behavior gets a certain response ??
e.g. rat presses lever, gets food
33
Rhythmic Behaviors
  • Rhythmic behaviors synchronize an animals
    activities with daily and seasonal changes in the
    environment
  • Governed by endogenous clocks, which in turn
    require exogenous cues to keep the behavior
    properly timed with the external environment

34
Foraging Behavior
  • Ecologists are using cost/benefit analysis to
    study foraging behavior
  • Species may be generalists or specialists as
    foragers
  • Animals modify behavior to favor a high ratio of
    energy intake to expenditure

35
Social Behavior
  • Sociobiology places social behavior in
    evolutionary context

36
Competitive Social Behaviors
  • Agonistic behavior competitor gains advantage by
    getting a limited resource like food or a mate
  • Natural selection survival of the fittest
  • Pecking order dominance hierarchies with
    differently ranked individuals permitted options
    according to their status

37
How natural selections leads to behavioral traits
  • Variation exists fraction of the species T.
    elegans (garter snakes) had ability to recognize
    slugs by chemoreception
  • Increased fitness That variation has higher
    chance to survive and reproduce (genes passed on)
  • Led to changes in the population over time

38
Mating Behavior
  • Promiscuity having many random mates
  • Monogamy having only one mate
  • Polygamy having a few, selected mates

39
Mating behavior
Promiscuous
Strong bonds
Monogamous (sex morphology similar)
Polygamous
Polyandry (dimorphic Larger, Showy males)
Polygyny (dimorphic Larger, Showy females)
  • Factors influencing evolution of mating systems
  • Need of young
  • Paternity certainty
  • certainty increases with external fertilization

40
Sexual selection
  • Sexual selection (selective pressure) ? evolution
    of male behavior and anatomy
  • Stalked-eyed flies
  • Females more likely to mate with males with
    longer eyestalks
  • Why? Correlation between genetic disorders and
    inability to develop long eyestalks

41
Social Interactions
  • Social interactions depend on diverse modes of
    communication
  • Some animals communicate with smells
  • Honeybees communicate through dancing

42
Social learning
  • Experience involves observing others
  • Culture information transfer through social
    learning
  • Vervet monkey alarm calls
  • Memes (Richard Dawkins)

43
Altruistic Behavior
  • Inclusive fitness accounts for most altruistic
    behavior
  • Best explained by a kin theory, animals try to
    maintain the survival of others who share their
    genes

44
Altruism
  • Cost/benefit of selfish vs. unselfish behavior?
  • Altruism reduces individual fitness but increases
    fitness of others

45
Reciprocal altruism
  • Some animals behave altruistically toward others
    who are not relatives. A wolf may offer food to
    another wolf even though they share no kinship.
  • Such behavior can be adaptive if the aided
    individual returns the favor in the future.
  • This sort of exchange of aid is called reciprocal
    altruism.
  • Commonly used to explain altruism in humans.

46
Agonistic behavior
  • Ritualized
  • Winner gains access to resources
  • Physical and behavioral characteristics involved
  • Usually harm is not done

47
Reasoning
  • Analyze problem devise solution using past
    experiences
  • Most Dogs?
  • E.g. No, cant unwind leash from tree
  • Most Horses?
  • No
  • Primates?
  • YES!

48
Sociobiology
  • Human sociobiology connects biology to the
    humanities and social sciences

49
Sociobiology (E.O. Wilson)
  • Connects human culture to evolutionary theory
  • Social behaviors exist because they are
    perpetuated by natural selection
  • Does not mean all social behaviors are hardwired
    (nature vs. nurture)

50
Self-quiz
  • Bees can see colors we cannot see and detect
    minute amounts of chemicals we cannot smell. But
    unlike many insects, bees cannot hear very well.
    Which of the following statements best fits into
    the perspective of behavioral ecology?

51
Possible answers
  • A. Bees are too small to have functional ears.
  • B. Hearing must not contribute much to a bees
    fitness.
  • C. If a bee could hear, its tiny brain would be
    swamped with information.

52
Possible answers
  • D. This is an example of a fixed action pattern
  • E. If bees could hear, the noise of the hive
    would distract the bees from their work

53
Challenge question
  • Starting with the very first time a bee leaves
    the hive, it always flies in a circle around the
    hive before heading out on a foraging trip.
  • If it is prevented from seeing the hive when it
    leaves or if the hive is moved while the bee is
    gone, the bee is not able to locate the hive when
    it returns.

54
Challenge Question
  • For this reason, beekeepers know that a hive
    should only be moved .when? Why?
  • What part of the bees orientation flight
    behavior appears to be innate?
  • What component shows learning?

55
Temple Grandin
  • Who is she?
  • What is her disability?
  • What was her major break through at her Aunts
    cattle farm?
  • How does this break through help Temple through
    college?
  • What problems arise at college with her break
    through?
  • How does she over come these problems?
  • What does Temple realize when she first visits
    the feed lot?
  • How does she go about her research?
  • Why is her job at the newspaper critical for
    Temple?
  • What does Temple design for the gentleman who
    comes to the paper?
  • What happens the 1st time they use her design?
  • Why does this happen?
  • How does Temple plan on fixing the industry?
  • What break through does Temple have at the
    funeral?
  • What break through does Temple have at the
    grocery store? How does this play a role in her
    slaughter house design?
  • What does Temple do at the conference?
  • How does her disability help her see?

56
Behavioral biologists study the actions of
animals in their natural environments
  • Behavioral biology is the study of what animals
    do when interacting with their environment
  • Behavior can be interpreted in terms of proximate
    causes (immediate interaction with the
    environment) or ultimate causes (evolutionary
    differences)

57
  • Early insights into the nature of behavior came
    from studies by Nobel laureates Karl von Frisch,
    Konrad Lorenz, and Niko Tinbergen
  • They were among the first experimentalists in
    behavioral biology
  • Tinbergen and Lorenz performed experimental
    studies of innate behavior and simple forms of
    learning

58
  • Behavioral ecologists are especially interested
    in the ultimate causes of behavior, which are
    evolutionary ? Natural selection preserves
    behaviors that enhance fitness

59
Niko Tinbergen
  • Niko Tibergen was a pioneer in the field of
    animal behavior.
  • He observed animals in their natural conditions,
    then manipulated, or varied the conditions to see
    how the animals responded.

Image from http//nobelprize.org/
60
  • A classic Tinbergen experiment deals with the
    nesting behavior of the digger wasp
  • The female wasp often excavates and cares for
    four or five separate nests
  • Tinbergen used this experiment to test his
    prediction that digger wasps use landmarks to
    keep track of the location of their nests

61
Niko Tinbergen
  • Tinbergen observed how a wasp called the beewolf
    finds its nest among other beewolf nests.
  • He observed that the beewolf would circle its
    nest in an ever-widening circle before flying
    away to hunt.
  • This behavior was an action pattern it was
    performed exactly the same way each time.

Image from http//www.sciencenews.org
62
Niko Tinbergen
  • After the beewolf flew off, Tinbergen would move
    certain landmarks around the nests.
  • When the beewolf returned, it was disoriented.
  • So, by manipulating the beewolfs environment,
    Tinbergen came to the conclusion that the beewolf
    commits landmarks to memory to be able to find
    its nest when it comes back from hunting!

Image from http//www.earthlife.org
63
  • In the experiment, Tinbergen placed a circle of
    pinecones around a nest opening

Nest
1
Figure 37.1, Part 1
64
  • After the female flew away, Tinbergen moved the
    pinecones a few feet to one side of the nest
    opening
  • When the female wasp returned, she flew to the
    middle of the circle of pinecones rather than to
    the actual nest opening

No Nest
Nest
2
Figure 37.1, Part 2
65
  • Tinbergen next arranged the pinecones in a
    triangle around the nest and made a circle of
    small stones off to one side of the nest opening
  • This time the wasp flew to the stones

Nest
No Nest
3
Figure 37.1, Part 3
66
  • The wasp cued in on the arrangement of the
    landmarks rather than the landmarks themselves
  • This experiment demonstrated that the wasp did
    use landmarks and that she could learn new ones
    to keep track of her nest

67
Niko Tinbergen
  • Tinbergen had to describe and investigate WHAT
    the organism was doing before attempting to
    explain WHY.

68
Spatial learning and cognitive maps
  • Spatial learning (Tinbergen) experience consists
    of spatial structures of the environment
  • Use of landmarks. Reliable?
  • Cognitive maps Internal representation of
    spatial relationships

69
Recap
  • What?
  • What was the experiment?
  • Where?
  • Where did it take place?
  • When?
  • When was the behavior altered?
  • Why
  • Why was this a break through in the study of
    animal behavior?
  • How?
  • How would this discovery impact (for example) a
    bee keeper?

70
Guidelines For Studying Animal Behavior
  • Ask clear, specific questions.
  • Keep the question simple. Are you sure it is a
    question that can be easily answered?
  • Put the question into the, What is the effect of
    _______ on ________? model.
  • Formulate a complete hypothesis.
  • Decide on the type of data you need to collect
    and how you will gather the data.
  • Leave time to run statistical analyses on the
    data, and form conclusions based on your results.

71
Check your understanding
  • Draw a cartoon of the Niko Wasp Experiment

72
Animal Behavior
  • Influences and Actions

73
37.2 Behavior results from both genes and
environmental factors
  • Animal behavior often involves a combination of
    genetic programming (innate behavior) and
    environmental experiences (learning)
  • ?both genes and the environment influence the
    development of behavioral phenotypes- just like
    any other traits

74
What influences behavior?
  • Environmental pressures.
  • Internal influences such as hormones.
  • Learning.
  • Genetic predisposition (sometimes referred to as
    instinct).
  • There isnt a definite combination of these
    influences that affects all behavior.

75
Proximate vs. Ultimate Causes
  • The question of WHY can have different answers.
  • Proximate causes are related to internal changes
    in the animal.
  • Hormones.
  • Messages from the nervous system.
  • Proximate means close.
  • Ultimate causes are related to the survival and
    reproductive success of the animal.
  • Ultimate means furthest, or utmost.

76
  • The gathering of nest materials by lovebirds has
    genetic and environmental components

Single long strip carried in beak(Fischers
lovebird)
Several short strips tucked under
feathers(peach-faced lovebird)
Tuckingfailure
Strip inbeak
Hybrid behavior
Figure 37.2
77
Proximate vs. Ultimate Causes
  • An example incorporating both proximate and
    ultimate causes Beldings ground squirrels.
  • When males reach about two months old, they leave
    the burrow where they were born.
  • It is an increase in testosterone, or a hormonal
    change that triggers this behavior.
  • So, the proximate cause of the nest-leaving
    behavior involves the increase in testosterone
    levels in the squirrel.

78
Proximate vs. Ultimate Causes
  • There is more to the story than just hormones!
  • When males leave the nest, they avoid inbreeding
    with sisters or cousins, etc.
  • Their offspring are therefore healthier.
  • The male offspring inherit the same genetic
    information that induces them to leave their
    nests at a young age.
  • So, this behavior is passed on genetically, and
    it makes for a healthier population of squirrels.
  • Avoiding inbreeding is therefore the ultimate
    cause of this early nest-leaving behavior.

79
How to determine WHY action patterns.
  • Action patterns are complex behaviors that are
    always repeated the same way by a species of
    animal.
  • We say that action patterns are stereotyped,
    since they occur the same way each time, and
    through to completion.
  • After repeatedly observing action patterns, an
    ethologist can analyze the data statistically.
  • Only then do we attempt to determine WHY a
    behavior is being done.

80
37.3 Innate behavior often appears as fixed
action patterns
  • Sign stimuli (often a simple cue in an animals
    environment) trigger innate, essentially
    unchangeable fixed action patterns (FAPs)
  • The genetic programming underlying FAPs ensures
    that such activities are performed correctly
    without practice

81
Fixed action pattern (FAP)
  • Sequence of unlearned behaviors
  • Nearly unchangeable
  • Carried out to completion
  • Sign stimulus (releaser) ? behavior
  • Example of an innate behavior

82
More on Action Patterns
  • The egg-rolling behavior of the greylag goose is
    a good example of an action pattern.
  • Niko Tibergen and another pioneer in ethology,
    Konrad Lorentz, originally observed this behavior.

Image from http//www.grayimages.co.uk
83
More on Action Patterns
  • The goose will roll an egg that is outside the
    nest back into the nest in the same manner every
    time.
  • Interestingly, the goose will do this with any
    round object placed outside the nest!
  • Every time this action pattern is initiated, it
    is carried through to completion.

84
  • The graylag goose always retrieves an egg that
    has been bumped out of her nest in the same manner
  • This is a fixed action pattern
  • She carries this sequence to completion, even if
    the egg slips away during the process

Figure 37.3A
85
  • Several key events in the life cycle of the
    European cuckoo are determined by fixed action
    patterns
  • Egg-laying behavior

1
2
3
Figure 37.3B
86
  • The behavior of the cuckoo hatchling ejecting the
    host eggs from the nest
  • The feeding behavior of a foster mother to the
    cuckoo chick

Figure 37.3B
87
Learning ranges from simple behavioral changes to
complex problem solving
  • Learning is a change in behavior resulting from
    experience
  • Habituation is one of the simplest forms of
    learning
  • An animal learns not to respond to a repeated
    stimulus that conveys little or no information
  • For example, birds eventually become habituated
    to scarecrows and no longer avoid nearby fruit
    trees

88
Table 37.4
89
Imprinting is learning that involves both innate
behavior and experience
  • Imprinting is irreversible learning limited to a
    sensitive period in an animal's life it enhances
    fitness by enabling rapid learning
  • Example Lorenz used the graylag goose to
    demonstrate imprinting. He took over the
    maternal role for a group of goslings

90
  • Not all examples of imprinting involve
    parent-offspring bonding
  • Although newly hatched salmon do not receive any
    parental care, they imprint on the complex
    mixture of odors unique to the freshwater stream
    where they hatch
  • This allows salmon to find their way back to the
    stream to spawn after spending a year or more at
    sea

91
  • Imprinting plays an important role in song
    development for many kinds of birds

Figure 37.5B
92
Many animals learn by association and imitation
  • Associative learning is learning that a
    particular stimulus or response is linked to a
    reward or punishment
  • These ducks have learned to associate humans
    with food handouts
  • They congregate rapidly whenever a person
    approaches the shoreline

Figure 37.6A
93
  • Trial-and-error learning is a common form of
    associative learning
  • An animal learns to associate one of its own
    behavioral acts with a positive or negative effect

Figure 37.6B
94
  • Imitation is learning by observing and mimicking
    the behavior of others
  • This form of learning is not limited to a
    sensitive period
  • Many predators, including cats and coyotes, seem
    to learn some of their basic hunting tactics by
    observing and imitating their mother

95
Animal cognition includes problem-solving behavior
  • Some animals exhibit problem-solving behavior
  • Examples chimpanzees and ravens

Figure 37.7A, B
96
Animal Behavior
  • ECOLOGICAL ROLES OF BEHAVIOR

97
37.8 An animal's behavior reflects its evolution
  • Behavior is an evolutionary adaptation that
    enhances survival and reproductive success
  • Behavior evolves as natural selection fine-tunes
    an animal to its environment
  • The hunting and reproduction behaviors of jaguars
  • Nest location by digger wasps
  • Imprinting of goslings

98
37.9 Biological rhythms synchronize behavior
with the environment
  • Animals exhibit a great variety of rhythmic
    behavior patterns
  • Circadian rhythms are patterns that are repeated
    daily
  • Sleep/wake cycles in animals and plants
  • Circadian rhythms appear to be timed by an
    internal biological clock

99
  • In the absence of environmental cues, these
    rhythms continue
  • But they become out of phase with the environment

Constant darkness
1212 (natural)
Figure 37.9A
100
37.10 Animal movement may be oriented to stimuli
or landmarks
  • Movement in a directed way enables animals to
  • avoid predators
  • migrate to a more favorable environment
  • obtain food
  • find mates and nest sites

101
TYPES of ANIMAL MOVEMENT
  • kinesis- simplest type of animal movement -
    random movement in response to a stimulus
  • taxis- another simple type
  • A more or less automatic movement directed toward
    or away from some stimulus
  • Examples include rheotaxis (current) chemotaxis,
    and phototaxis
  • Some animals use landmarks to find their way
    within an area

102
Directed movements
  • Strong genetic influence
  • Kinesis versus taxis
  • Migration
  • Migrating blackcaps kept in captivity exhibited
    behaviors of migratory restlessness at night
  • Migratory and nonmigratory blackcaps mated and
    subjected to both environments
  • 40 of offspring exhibited migratory
    restlessness

103
37.11 Movement from place to place often depends
on internal maps
  • Many animals formulate cognitive maps
  • Internal representations of spatial relationships
    among objects in their surroundings (wasp
    example)
  • Some animals undertake long-range migrations
  • Examples whales, sea turtles, birds, monarch
    butterflies
  • Animals navigate using the sun, stars,
    temperature gradients, landmarks, or Earth's
    magnetism

104
  • Migrating gray whales use coastal landmarks to
    stay on course

Arctic Ocean
FEEDINGGROUNDS
Siberia
Alaska
NORTHAMERICA
PacificOcean
AtlanticOcean
Baja California
BREEDING GROUNDS
Figure 37.11A
105
  • The indigo bunting learns a star map and
    navigates by fixing on the North Star

Paper
Funnel-shapedcage
Ink pad
Figure 37.11B
106
Lets Read More About It
  • Read the article on Indigo Buntings
  • Answer the questions that follow
  • Put the experiment into the, What is the effect
    of _______ on ________? model.
  • Formulate a complete hypothesis in the IF/THAN
    format
  • What is the type of data collected?
  • How is the data gathered?
  • What is the timing for the experiment ? (How long
    did they run?)
  • What are the results?
  • How can this influence studies of other migratory
    birds?
  • How can human behavior alter this natural
    behavior in birds?

107
Bird Migration Video
  • For each bird
  • What is the species?
  • How far does it travel?
  • Try to get an idea of where 2 birds mentioned in
    the video are from.
  • Afterwards we will try to locate possible modes
    of remembrance during migration.
  • Landmarks? Stars? Earths Magnetism? Other?

108
37.12 Behavioral ecologists use cost/benefit
analysis in studying feeding behavior
  • Animals are generally selective and efficient in
    their food choices
  • Some animals, such as gulls, are feeding
    generalists
  • Other animals, such as koalas, are feeding
    specialists

Figure 37.12A, B
109
  • The mechanism that enables an animal to find
    particular foods efficiently is called a search
    image
  • Natural selection seems to have shaped feeding
    behavior to maximize energy gain and minimize the
    expenditure of time and energy
  • This is the theory of optimal foraging

110
Foraging behavior
  • Optimal foraging theory behaviors exist as a
    compromise between benefits of nutrition and cost
    of obtaining food
  • Predation must be a factor

111
  • Whenever an animal has food choices, there are a
    number of tradeoffs
  • A bass can get more usable energy from minnows,
    but crayfish are easier to catch
  • However, it may take more time to eat a crayfish
    because of its tough exoskeleton

Figure 37.12C
112
  • The kangaroo rat selects high-energy foods
    (seeds) in a manner that reduces time spent above
    the ground, where it is exposed to predators

Figure 37.12E
113
Read more about it!
  • Read the Indigo Bunting and answer the following
  • Put the experiment into the, What is the effect
    of _______ on ________? model.
  • Formulate a complete hypothesis in the IF/THAN
    format
  • What is the type of data collected?
  • How is the data gathered?
  • What is the timing for the experiment ? (How long
    did they run?)
  • How many trials were needed?
  • What are the results?
  • How can this influence the feed industry for
    cattle?

114
Animal Behavior
  • SOCIAL BEHAVIOR AND SOCIOBIOLOGY

115
37.13 Sociobiology places social behavior in an
evolutionary context
  • Social behavior is defined as the interaction
    among members of a population
  • The discipline of sociobiology studies social
    behavior in the context of evolution

116
37.14 Rituals involving agonistic behavior often
resolve confrontations between competitors
  • Agonistic behavior is social behavior consisting
    of threats and combat that settles disputes
    between individuals in a population
  • Agonistic behavior can directly affect an
    individual's evolutionary fitness
  • The victor often gains first or exclusive access
    to mates

Figure 37.14
117
37.15 Dominance hierarchies are maintained by
agonistic behavior
  • Many animals live in social groups maintained by
    agonistic behaviors
  • Dominance hierarchy is the ranking of individuals
    based on social interactions

118
  • Chickens establish a peck order
  • Resources are often partitioned based upon the
    dominance hierarchy

Figure 37.15
119
37.17 Territorial behavior parcels space and
resources
  • Humans tend to space themselves out when they are
    close to others
  • They establish what we might call personal
    territories

Figure 37.17A
120
  • Many animals exhibit territorial behavior
  • It is a form of social behavior that partitions
    resources

121
  • A territory is an area that individuals defend
    and from which other members of the same species
    are usually excluded
  • The size of the territory varies with species,
    the function, and the available resources
  • Territories are typically used for feeding,
    mating, and/or rearing young

122
  • Territoriality is often maintained by agonistic
    behavior
  • These New Zealand gannets maintain their
    individual nesting territories by calling and
    pecking at each other

Figure 37.17B
123
  • Territoriality can enhance fitness if the
    benefits of possessing a territory outweigh the
    energy costs of defending one

124
  • Territorial rights are proclaimed continually in
    a variety of ways
  • Bird songs
  • Noises, such as the bellowing of sea lions and
    the chattering of squirrels
  • Defecation in open areas
  • Scent markers, such as urine

Figure 37.17C
125
Signals and communication
  • Signal causes change in another organisms
    behavior
  • Difference between communication and language
  • Pheromones (reproductive and nonreproductive
    behaviors)

126
Auditory communication
  • Songs of birds are partly learned
  • Critical period
  • Some insects, such as male Drosophila, produce a
    song even when reared in isolation
  • Very little variation, why?

127
Zebra Danio Experiment
  • Read the Article and Answer the following
  • Put the experiment into the, What is the effect
    of _______ on ________? model.
  • Formulate a complete hypothesis in the IF/THAN
    format
  • What is the type of data collected?
  • How is the data gathered?
  • What is the timing for the experiment ? (How long
    did they run?)
  • How many trials were needed?
  • What are the results?
  • How could this influence the sale of multiple
    Danio fish to someone in a pet store?

128
Animal Behavior REVIEW
  • Define ethology, animal behavior, stimulus,
    action pattern, proximate cause (give example),
    ultimate cause (give example), FAP (give
    example), agnostic behavior, rhythmic behavior,
    Circadian Rhythm
  • Answer in complete sentences
  • What influences behavior?
  • Know the types of behavior and be able to
    explain/give examples of each!
  • What are the 5 types of learning?
  • Explain Nikos experiment (you can use drawings
    for support) What did this tell us about animal
    behavior?
  • Explain the indigo bunting experiment. What did
    this tell us about animal behavior?
  • What was the Skinner box? What type of behavior
    does this illustrate?
  • What was Pavlovs experiment and what type of
    behavior does this illustrate? Why was this an
    important gain in animal behavior?
  • Give the theory of optimal foraging in a
    mathematical equation using words instead of
    numbers
  • What are the types of movement and how are they
    influenced?
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