MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 6aa7bb-NzYzN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION

Description:

... characterization of structural and processing of thin film for both ... their optical, and electrical ... Eu doped ZnS light emitting diode ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:58
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 32
Provided by: AhemenI
Learn more at: http://metminmat.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR SOLAR ENERGY APPLICATION


1
MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT FOR SOLAR ENERGY
APPLICATION
By Dr. S.O.O. Olusunle, R.Eng., MASME, FMSN Ag
Director/Chief Executive, Engineering Materials
Development Institute, Akure at a Public Lecture
organized by The Metallurgical, Mining and
Materials Division of the Nigerian Society of
Engineers
21/02/2011
2
OUTLINE
  • Background
  • Introduction
  • Solar Energy
  • Harvesting Solar Energy
  • EMDI Effort on Solar Energy Development
  • Available Facilities _at_ EMDI
  • Conclusion

3
Background
  • About 80 of Africas 1 billion population is
    engulfed in abject poverty and is lacking
    virtually in all areas of human development
  • Access to energy plays a central role in solving
    the poverty debacle
  • Africa is referred to as a dark continent
    because about 70 of the population do not have
    access to electric lighting.
  • Over 1.6 billion people in developing countries
    do not have access to electricity and have no
    hope of being connected to the national grid in
    the near future (World Bank, 1996).

4
Introduction
  • Fossil fuels provide around 66 of the world's
    electrical power, and 95 of the world's total
    energy demands.
  • Global warming (green house effect) and climate
    changes are due to the use of these fossil fuels
    like coal, oil and gas.
  • by-products of fossil fuels such as carbon
    dioxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxide may result in
    acid rain
  • Sourcing for clean, efficient, and sustainable
    energy is therefore a necessity
  • solar energy stands out because the source is
    unlimited and available everywhere

5
Solar Energy
  • Solar energy is the energy directly from the sun
    which is one of the most important
    non-conventional energy sources available for
    mans use.
  • It is clean, renewable and free source of energy
    largely available in sufficient quantity
  • Man can harness the energy for useful purposes by
    means of active and passive devices among which
    are solar cells and photothermal converters.
  • However, the challenges of solar power generation
    are its production cost and storage. The primary
    objective of the worldwide research and
    development is to reduce the cost of generating
    solar energy to a level that will be competitive
    with conventional ways of generating power.

6
History
  • Humans have harnessed the power of the sun for
    millennia.
  • In the fifth century B.C., the Greeks took
    advantage of passive solar energy by designing
    their homes to capture the suns heat during the
    winter.
  • Later, the Romans improved on solar architecture
    by covering south-facing windows with clear
    materials such as mica or glass, preventing the
    escape of solar heat captured during the day
  • In the 1760s, Horace de Saussure built an
    insulated rectangular box with a glass cover that
    became the prototype for solar collectors used to
    heat water. The first commercial solar water
    heaters were sold in the U.S. in the late 1890s
  • In the late 19th century, inventors and
    entrepreneurs in Europe and the U.S. developed
    solar energy technology that would form the basis
    of modern designs

7
Production
  • Sunlight can be converted into heat and
    electricity in a number of ways.
  • A variety of solar technologies are in
    production, and many companies and researchers
    are pursuing efforts to develop devices that
    convert the suns energy more efficiently
  • Energy from the sun is harvested using either
    photothermal conversion system which converts
    solar radiation into heat energy or solar cell
    which convert radiation from the sun directly to
    electricity.

8
Materials for Harvesting Solar Energy
  • Energy from the sun is harvested using either
    photothermal conversion system which converts
    solar radiation into heat energy or solar cell
    which convert radiation from the sun directly to
    electricity.
  • The development of materials for solar energy
    harvesting is based on the use of solar radiation
    and profound understanding of the materials
    properties at the atomic scale levels.
  • Material structure-property relations enable the
    evolution of tailored-made materials for these
    applications. To achieve this objective, it
    requires the combination of experiments (i.e.,
    materials synthesis, characterization of
    structural and processing of thin film for both
    solar cells and photo thermal conversion),
    theoretical analysis which cover modeling of the
    entire system.

9
Development of Photo thermal Converter
  • Photothermal converter is device developed using
    special materials that absorb solar radiation and
    convert it to heat energy.
  • The high efficiency photothermal material implies
    maximum absorption of incident solar radiation
    with a minimum thermal and optical loss.
  • The temperatures ranging from ambient to 1000C
    are achievable in a photothermal converter made
    of good selective materials, such as black
    nickel, black chrome, multi-layer tandem stacks
    and some other composite semiconductor materials
    which are good absorber (low reflection) of solar
    radiation and poor emitter of thermal radiation.
  • The temperatures above ambient are used in
    various applications such as space heating, water
    heating, and distillation and drying.

10
Solar Cell Development
  • A solar cell is a semiconductor device that
    converts sunlight directly into electric current
    using the principle of photovoltaic (PV) effect.
  • The effect is made by partnering p-type and
    n-type semiconductor. The semiconductors are
    selected such that they absorb significant
    portion of the solar spectrum.
  • The absorbed photon gives rise to Electron-Hole
    pairs. These excess carriers are swept across the
    junction by the electric field and are collected
    at the contacts. This gives rise to photocurrent
    and can be made to deliver power to a load.
  • Thus the important steps in solar energy
    conversion are absorption of radiation,
    generation of carriers, diffusion of majority
    carriers, separation of minority carriers by the
    electric field and collection of carriers at the
    contact.
  • Historically, solar cells are used as an
    alternative source for generating electric power,
    such as remote area power systems, handheld
    calculators, and water pumps.
  • However, a major barrier impeding the development
    of large-scale power application of PV systems is
    the high price of commercially available solar
    cell modules.

11
Photovoltaic Energy
12
  • Silicon based photovoltaic cells represent 90 of
    the photovoltaic panels presently sold in the
    world.
  • More than one third of the cost is due to the
    silicon itself. Indeed, its purification,
    crystallization and the wafer fabrication have an
    important energetic and economical cost.
  • The photovoltaic research community is looking
    for solar cell structure based on thinner silicon
    layers.
  • However, the thinner the material, the lower its
    light absorption, especially at long wavelengths
    (near infrared).

13
  • So the primary objective of solar cell research
    and development is to reduce the cost of
    production to a level that will be competitive
    with conventional ways of generating power. One
    way to achieve this is to significantly increase
    the conversion efficiency of solar cell materials
    and devices.
  • Basically, there are two approaches to
    increasing the efficiency of solar cells
  • (1) Selecting the semiconductor materials with
    appropriate energy gaps to match the solar
    spectrum (i.e., between 1.1 1.8eV) and the
    optimizing their optical, and electrical
    properties
  • (2) Innovative device engineering, which enables
    more effective charge collection as well as
    better utilization of the solar spectrum through
    the use of the emerging advance materials.

14
Advancement in solar cell materials development
  • Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cell
  • These are solar cell made by depositing one or
    more thin film layers of polycrystalline
    semiconductor materials on the substrate.
    Polycrystalline thin film solar cells are
    important because of their low cost of
    fabrication, large areas, and the possibility of
    convenient integration with other solar energy
    conversion devices.
  • Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell
  • Dye-sensitized solar cells are next-generation
    solar cells based on innovative tech. Unlike
    conventional silicon-based solar cells,
    dye-sensitized solar cells consist primarily of
    photosensitive dye and other substances.
    Dye-sensitized solar cells are able to generate
    electricity by converting energy from light
    absorbed by the dye.
  • Polymer Solar Cell
  • Polymer solar cell is an organic photovoltaic
    cell that produces electricity from sunlight
    using polymers. Compared to silicon-based
    devices, polymers are lightweight, disposable,
    inexpensive to fabricate, flexible and have lower
    potential for negative environmental impact.
    These plastic solar cells are produced by coating
    or printing polymer and nano-engineered materials
    onto polyethylene substrate in a continuous
    roll-to-roll process similar to photographic
    film.
  • Hybrid solar cell
  • These are solar cells that combine advantages of
    both organic and inorganic semiconductor
    materials.

15
EMDI Focus in the Area of Solar Energy
Development
  • As part of the effort in developing materials for
    efficient solar application in Nigeria, EMDI has
    made significant progress in the following areas
    (in addition to publications on solar cell
    production in reputable international journals)
  • Synthesis, fabrication and characterization of
    ternary compound based solar cell
  • Ternary semiconductors, are compound
    semiconductor which consist of three elements
    with a wide range physical properties. The
    physical Properties which may vary, include band
    gaps, crystal lattice structures, electron and
    Hole mobilities, optical properties, thermal
    conductivity, and so on. By selecting appropriate
    ternary semiconductor materials, it becomes
    possible to realize various devices, which cannot
    be achieved using the main elemental
    semiconductor material, silicon. E.g CuAlS,
    CdPbS, CuSnS
  • A student on PhD research is presently working
    on using the ternary compound for solar cell and
    other optoelectronic devices.
  • Development of micro processor controlled spin
    coater for thin deposition
  • EMDI as been able to develop a micro processor
    controlled spin coater for thin film deposition.
  • NASENI has a 7.5MW solar panel manufacturing
    plant at Karshi, Abuja through a joint venture
    project with a foreign partner.
  • The ultimate aim is to develop the technology for
    solar cell production in EMDI that will feed
    Karshi Plant

16
  • preparation and characterization various Nano/
    Thin materials for advance energy research
  • Various nano materials are being investigated
    for their possible application in energy
    research. materials such as Dilute magnetic
    semiconductor Materials (Mn SnO2), Mn PbO and
    Fe2O3, Dielectric Material and Piezoelectric
    material
  • Preparation and characterization of conducting
    polymer blend for solar cell application and
    other optoelectronic devices
  • Development of stamping methods for pattern
    transfer and cold welding for polymer solar cell
  • Research embarked upon by one of our
    collaborator from Princeton university, USA
  • Synthesis, fabrication and characterization of
    nanostructures Eu doped ZnS light emitting diode
  • in collaboration with a Researcher from
    university of Agriculture, Makurdi

17
Solar Paint
  • New 'solar paint' could generate electricity from
    the roofs and walls of EVERY home without the
    need for bulky panels
  • 'Nanocrystals' used to generate power
  • Can be painted or printed onto walls or windows
  • So tiny you could fit 250,000,000,000 on head of
    a pin (The nanocrystals are
  • about 4 nanometers in size)
  • Thin enough to be painted or printed onto walls

18
  • SOME OF THE FACILITIES AVAILABLE _at_ EMDI FOR
    SOLAR-RELATED RESEARCH WORK

19
THE GLOVE BOX
Glove Box is a chamber constantly supplied with
nitrogen or argon to create the needed inert
atmosphere needed for work in an electronic
fabrication lab.
20
THE SPIN COATER
21
EMDI MicroCONTROLLER Spin Coater
GF-BB-UBmcsc01
22
EMDI MicroCONTROLLER Spin Coater
GF-BB-UBmcsc01
Won 2 awards _at_ the 5th University of Lagos
Research Conference and Fair held between 21st
and 23rd October, 2009. First, as the Best
Exhibited Project outside the University and the
Second-Best of all exhibited projects
23
THE LESKER NANO-38 THERMAL DEPOSITION UNIT
24
(No Transcript)
25
Microelectronic Grade Vacuum Oven
26
NanoSpec Film Thickness Measurement System
27
UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETER
28
X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETER
29
MICROPROCESSOR CONTROLLED OPTICAL MICROSCOPES
30
Keithley 4-POINT PROBE SYSTEM
31
Conclusion
  • With the level of human capacity and facilities
    available at EMDI, the institute is poised to
    contribute to the rapid development of solar
    energy generation in Nigeria through impartation
    of research based knowledge, engineering
    principles and practices of developing materials
    for solar energy application which is the one of
    modern technologies in solving the present energy
    challenges.
About PowerShow.com