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Zoology Review

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ZOOLOGY REVIEW Final Exam 2010 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Zoology Review


1
Zoology Review
  • Final Exam 2010

2
Characteristics of Living Things

3
Body Symmetry
  • Radial goes in a circle ex. Octopus, squid,
    cuttlefish, starfish
  • Bilateral has a right and left, top and bottom,
    front and back ex. All mammals, all lizards,
    all birds, etc.
  • Asymmetry doesnt have any symmetry ex. Sponge

4
Evolutionary Relatedness
  • This is a Cladogram. It shows evolutionary traits
    on the bottom, and relatedness among animals on
    the top, both with respect to time.

5
Levels of Organization
  • Cells
  • A single cardiac cell
  • Tissues
  • Cardiac tissue
  • Organs
  • Heart
  • Organ Systems
  • Circulatory System pumps blood that carries
    oxygen to organs and carbon dioxide away.
  • Organism
  • A human being
  • GIZMO!!!!

6
Diffusion Osmosis
  • Diffusion particles moving from a high
    concentration to a low concentration requires NO
    energy
  • Osmosis diffusion of water requires NO energy
  • Hypotonic the cell has more solute than the
    surrounding solution
  • Hypertonic the cell has less solute than the
    surrounding solution
  • Isotonic the cell has an equal amount of solute
    as the surrounding solution
  • Active Transport moving from an area of low
    concentration to a high concentration requires
    ATP

7
Animal Behavior
  • Characteristics
  • Reaction to a stimulus a stimulus is anything
    that causes you to react in some way
  • Imprinting ducks following their mother, or the
    first animal they see after birth
  • Define and maintain their territory, usually
    through aggressive behavior
  • Cyclic Behavior any behavior done at roughly
    the same time every year migrating, hibernating,
    etc.

8
Kingdom Animalia
  • Characteristics
  • Heterotrophic
  • Multicellular
  • Have specialized tissues for doing specific jobs
  • Motile, meaning they can move
  • Do NOT have a cell wall, only plants have a cell
    wall

9
Kingdom Protista, Phylum Protozoa
  • Characteristic
  • Motile, meaning they can move
  • Microscopic in size
  • Usually unicellular, meaning that their whole
    body is just one cell

10
Kingdom Protista
Phylum Locomotion Feeding Examples
Mastigophora Flagella Autotrophic, Heterotrophic, Decomposers, or Parasitic Euglena (autotrophic), Trypanosoma (Parasitic, causes African Sleeping Sickness)
Sarcodina Pseudopodia Heterotrophic Amoeba
Ciliophora Cilia Heterotrophic Paramecium, Stentor
Apicomplexa None Parasitic Plasmodium (causes Malaria), Cryptosporidium
11
Acoelomates, Pseudocoelomates, Coelomates
  • Acoelomates triploblasts with no body cavity,
    flatworms.
  • Pseudocoelomates triploblasts with a body
    cavity that is NOT connected to their mesoderm,
    roundworms. Pseudo means false.
  • Coelomates triploblasts with a body cavity that
    IS connected to their mesoderm, most animals.

12
Advantages of Having a Body Cavity
  • 1. A storage place for waste products
  • 2. Space for development and differentiation of
    systems.
  • 3. A simple means of circulation or for the
    distribution of materials.

13
Phylum Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) - -Life Cycle
of a Typical Fluke
14
Life Cycle of a Fluke
  • 1. An egg hatches in freshwater and a ciliated
    larval form called a miracidium swims out.
  • 2. The miracidium swims until it finds a good
    intermediate host, usually a snail. Once inside
    the snail, it develops into its next larval form,
    a sporocyst. This is where asexual reproduction
    occurs.
  • 3. The asexual stage results in the next larval
    form, the cercaria. A cercaria has a digestive
    tract, suckers, and a tail. Cercaria leave the
    snail and swim freely until they find the second
    host. This host could be an invertebrate, a
    vertebrate, or even a plant.
  • 4. The final host eats the invertebrate,
    vertebrate, or plant infested with the cercaria.
    Once inside the final host, usually a vertebrate,
    the cercaria develops into a juvenile.
  • 5. The juveniles mature into adults inside the
    final host. As adults, they are able to engage
    in sexual reproduction and produce lots of
    fertilized eggs. The eggs then get pooped out by
    the host and end up in the water supply ready to
    begin the cycle again.

15
How Do I Know If I Have a Tapeworm or other
Infectious Worm?
  • If you live in North America or Eastern Europe,
    you probably dont have an infectious or
    parasitic worm. Why not?
  • We wear shoes when we go outside.
  • Our meat supply is raised under stringent
    standards and inspected before it reaches our
    table, AND we COOK our meat, which kills any
    unnoticed eggs.
  • Our pets are usually not raised on a farm with
    access to infected vegetation, AND are usually
    medicated and/or vaccinated for worms. (One
    exception-- newborn animals.)
  • During winter months, parasitic and infectious
    worms cannot survive here outside of a host, its
    just too cold.

16
Phylum Cnidaria, Class Anthozoa - Coral
  • Coral reefs are the most complex, species-rich,
  • and productive marine ecosystems in the world.
  • Source of building materials.
  • They provide protection to coastlines from storm
    damage, erosion, and flooding by reducing wave
    action.
  • Serve as protection to many fish and other
    aquatic species.
  • Boost the economy in coastal areas due to
    increased tourism.
  • Within the past thirty years, the number of coral
    worldwide has massively declined due to human
    actions such as pollution, harvesting for money,
    and coastal development. The biggest threat to
    coral is global warming because the waters are
    becoming too hot for the coral to survive and
    they end up bleached.

17
Phylum Mollusca
  • Characteristics
  • Hinged two-part shell
  • Open circulatory system, meaning they have no
    veins or arteries
  • Exclusively water dwelling, meaning that they
    only live in water
  • Motile, meaning that they can move
  • Have a tongue-like organ, called a radula, used
    for feeding.

18
Phyum Cephalopoda
  • Cephalopod means "head-foot." The foot of the
    cephalopod is a cluster of tentacles that
    connects directly to the head.
  • The nervous system, eyes, and the other sensory
    organs are well-developed, more than any other
    mollusc.

19
Phylum Annelida Segmented Worms
  • Earthworm Characteristics
  • A combination of the nerve cord and stimulation
    of each segment triggers contractions.
  • Leech Characteristics
  • They are medicinally useful because they secrete
    a substance that prevents blood clotting.

20
Phylum Arthopoda Horseshoe Crabs
  • The closest relative of the horseshoe crab is the
    spider.

21
Evolution
  • Def. a change in the DNA of a population over
    time
  • All organisms on Earth have descended from a
    single common ancestor millions of years ago.
  • Natural Selection the genes of those organisms
    who live the longest and have the most offspring
    will spread through the population.

22
Phylum Echinodermata Sea Stars
  • Characteristics
  • Top consumers in their ecosystem
  • Have a water vascular system responsible for
  • Excretion
  • Respiration
  • Locomotion

23
Phylum Chordata
  • Characteristics
  • Notochord that functions as support for muscles
    (backbone)
  • Spinal cord
  • Tail
  • Presence of gills (pharyngeal slits)
  • First appeared 510 mya

24
Phylum Agnatha Lamprey and Hagfish
  • Hagfish is considered to be the most primitive of
    all fish.
  • Characteristics
  • Lack jaws
  • Lack paired appendages
  • Support system made of cartilage.

25
Phylum Amphibia Salamanders, Frogs, Toads
  • Unlike frogs and toads, salamanders do NOT have a
    larval stage. They undergo direct development,
    meaning that they hatch from as egg as a
    miniature version of its adult form.
  • All amphibians are ectotherms, cold blooded. This
    means that they rely on the environment for there
    source of heat.
  • Mating between frogs is called amplexus.

26
Phylum Reptilia Turtles, Lizards, Snakes,
Dinosaurs, Crocs, Alligators, etc.
  • Characteristics
  • Just like birds, reptiles are OVIPAROUS, meaning
    that they lay AMNIOTIC eggs
  • Turtles are in the Order Testudines

27
Phylum Aves - Birds
  • Dinosaurs evolved into birds.
  • The missing link between birds and dinosaurs is
    called archaeoptryx, which was a glider rather
    than a flapper.
  • Archaeopteryx had characteristics of both
    reptiles and birds. Its reptilian characteristics
    included a long tail, claws on the tips of its
    fingers, and teeth. Its birdlike characteristics
    were feathers and the presence of a wishbone.
  • Discovery of these fossils have helped us develop
    the hypothesis for the theory of the evolution of
    flight WAIR, Wing Assisted Incline Running

28
Birds Continued
  • Characteristics
  • Have a crop and gizzard because they lack teeth
    with which to chew.
  • Have adapted for flight by
  • Having feathers
  • Having bones with numerous air spaces
  • Being endothermic, thus having a high metabolism

29
Phylum Mammalia
  • Began about 70 million
  • years ago during the Tertiary
  • Period, just as the dinosaurs
  • were going extinct.
  • Mammals are endotherms,
  • also called homeotherms.

30
Types of Mammals
  • Marsupials carry babies in a pouch
  • Monotremes lay eggs
  • Placental Mammals carry babies in a uterus
  • Cetaceans nearly hairless, with thick layers of
    blubber and streamlined bodies
  • Artiodactlya mammals with hooves

31
Embryology BCR
  • Explain why reptiles, birds, and mammals have so
    many similarities at the embryonic stage. In your
    answer, be sure to
  • Describe the similarities in the characteristics
    of developing vertebrate embryos and their
    importance to the vertebrate.
  • Explain how knowledge of development contributes
    to an understanding of evolution from a common
    ancestor.

32
Embryology BCR Answer
  • Vertebrate embryos, for example, reptiles, birds,
    mammals, have many similarities at the
    embryonic stage. They all have a notochord that
    will eventually become the backbone. A dorsal
    nerve cord will become the spinal cord, brain,
    and nerves. They all have gill pouches that
    permit breathing. Every vertebrate embryo has a
    heart with left and right sides that pump blood.
    All have a tail, which remains in some but not in
    others.
  • This evidence demonstrates that they have evolved
    from a common ancestor and share the same kinds
    of genes. It also shows that natural selection
    builds on what has come before, rather than
    starting from scratch.

33
Kingdom Animalia VS. Kingdom Protista BCR
  • List and compare the major features of Kingdom
    Animalia and the major features of Kingdom
    Protista. In your answer, be sure to
  • Identify three characteristics that are similar
    in both kingdoms.
  • Identify three characteristics that are different
    in both kingdoms.
  • Explain why there is limited fossil evidence
    relating these two kingdoms.

34
Kingdom Animalia VS. Kingdom Protista BCR Answer
  • Similarities
  • Eukaryotic
  • Motile
  • Have specialized organelles/organs.
  • Differences
  • Protists are unicellular or colonial, while
    animals are all multicellular.
  • Some protists are autotrophic, while all animals
    are heterotrophic.
  • There is very little in the fossil record.
    Protists are very tiny and have mostly soft
    bodies, therefore they just get smushed, rather
    than making a good fossil. The only really good
    protist fossils we have found have some kind of
    hard outer shell to them, like diatoms, but these
    are very few.

35
Adaptation of Fish BCR
  • There are many important distinguishing
    characteristics between the different
    classifications of fish. Explain the
    characteristics used to group fish into different
    Classes. In your response, be sure to
  • Identify and compare several criteria use by
    taxonomists to classify fish.
  • Describe the composition and function of scales
    in both Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes.
  • Give an example of how each type of scale is
    advantageous in its own environment (niche).

36
Adaptation of Fish BCR Answer
  • Identify and compare several criteria use by
    taxonomists to classify fish.
  • Some of the characteristics that are used to
    classify fish include
  • Number of gills
  • Location of gills
  • Type of snout/bill/mouth/chin
  • Location of eyes
  • Location of fins
  • Types of fins
  • Compare Venn Diagram

37
Adaptation of Fish BCR Answer
  • Describe the composition and function of scales
    in both Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes.
  • Osteichthyes most have ctenoid scales. These
    overlapping scales grow larger as the fish grows.
    The overlapping gives the fish a large range of
    movement as it swims.
  • Chondrichthyes have placoid scales also known
    as dermal denticles. These scales do not overlap
    nor do they grow with the fish. Instead, as the
    fish grows, more placoid scales are added.

38
Adaptation of Fish BCR Answer
  • Give an example of how each type of scale is
    advantageous in its own environment
    (niche). Placoid scale advantages
  • Counter shading of scales color
  • Well-developed sensory system embedded in scales.
  • Allow for deep dives and movement in shallow
    water
  • Reduces drag or friction in water
  • Ctenoid advantages
  • Scales hold lateral line that allows for tubular
    canal bearing sensory organs-they are sensitive
    to pressure and temp changes in water currents.
  • Mucus on scales also makes capture more difficult
  • Light, thin and flexible, which increase mobility
    and speed.
  • Help to increase feeding efficiency or predatory
    avoidance

39
Nature VS. Nurture BCR
  • The idea that behavior must either be innate or
    learned is called the nature vs. nurture
    controversy. However, many animal behaviorists
    believe that a strict dichotomy between the two
    does not exist.
  • Differentiate between innate and learned
    behaviors. In your response, be sure to
  • Define both types of behaviors.
  • Identify two reasons for believing that such a
    strict dichotomy does not exist.
  • Explain the evolutionary advantages for animals
    to exhibit both types of behaviors.

40
Nature VS. Nurture BCR Answer
  • Innate behavior is behavior that is inherited or
    preprogrammed. These behavior patterns are
    believed to develop in the same way regardless of
    environment they are instinctive. The other
    aspect of behavior is learning, which is a
    modification of behavior through experience.
  • Many behavioral scientists believe that behaviors
    cannot develop without experience and that all
    forms of behavior depend on an interaction of the
    organism and environment. Other behavioral
    scientists believe that many complex sequences of
    behavior are not learned and appear to be
    programmed. This nature vs. nurture debate is
    exemplified in the tiger. Its a tigers instinct
    to eat, growl, run, and play. However, if it
    didnt learn how to hunt properly from its
    mother, it would never eat. If it didnt learn
    how to run fast during play, it would never be
    able to escape predators. Therefore, the
    combination of nature and nurture aids in the
    survival of the tiger.
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