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Essentials of Fire Fighting,

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Summarize methods used to catch and route water from fire ... with hose stream and ... dictate one supply line left in place Fire Safety ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essentials of Fire Fighting,


1
  • Essentials of Fire Fighting,
  • 5th Edition

Chapter 17 Loss Control Firefighter I
2
Chapter 17 Lesson Goal
  • After completing this lesson, the student shall
    be able to perform loss control operations
    following the policies and procedures set forth
    by the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ).

3
Specific Objectives
  • 1. Explain the philosophy of loss control.
  • 2. Discuss planning and procedures for salvage
    operations.
  • 3. Describe salvage covers, salvage cover
    maintenance, and equipment used in salvage
    operations.

(Continued)
4
Specific Objectives
  • 4. Summarize basic principles of salvage cover
    deployment.
  • 5. Summarize methods used to catch and route
    water from fire fighting operations and cover
    openings using salvage.
  • 6. Discuss overhaul operations.

(Continued)
5
Specific Objectives
  • 7. Describe tools and equipment used in
    overhaul.
  • 8. Discuss fire safety during overhaul.
  • 9. Discuss locating hidden fires.
  • 10. Summarize the overhaul process.

(Continued)
6
Specific Objectives
  • 11. Clean, inspect, and repair a salvage cover.
    (Skill Sheet 17-I-1)
  • 12. Roll a salvage cover for a one-firefighter
    spread. (Skill Sheet 17-I-2)
  • 13. Spread a rolled salvage cover
    One-firefighter method. (Skill Sheet 17-I-3)

(Continued)
7
Specific Objectives
  • 14. Fold a salvage cover for a one-firefighter
    spread. (Skill Sheet 17-I-4)
  • 15. Spread a folded salvage cover
    One-firefighter method. (Skill Sheet 17-I-5)
  • 16. Fold a salvage cover for a two-firefighter
    spread. (Skill Sheet 17-I-6)

(Continued)
8
Specific Objectives
  • 17. Spread a folded salvage cover
    Two-firefighter balloon throw. (Skill Sheet
    17-I-7)
  • 18. Construct a water chute without pike poles.
    (Skill Sheet 17-I-8)
  • 19. Construct a water chute with pike poles.
    (Skill Sheet 17-I-9)

9
Specific Objectives
  • 20. Construct a catchall. (Skill Sheet 17-I-10)
  • 21. Locate and extinguish hidden fires. (Skill
    Sheet 17-I-11)

10
Philosophy of Loss Control
  • Minimize damage and provide customer service
    through effective mitigation and recovery efforts
  • Builds goodwill

(Continued)
11
Salvage and Overhaul
  • Most effective means of loss control
  • Restoration of the property

12
Salvage
  • Operations that aid in reducing primary and
    secondary damage during fire fighting
  • Primary damage is caused by the fire
  • Secondary damage is caused by fire suppression
    activities

(Continued)
13
Salvage
  • Both primary and secondary damage can be
    minimized through salvage
  • Some damages cannot be avoided
  • Starts as soon as adequate personnel are
    available
  • May be done simultaneously with fire attack

14
Overhaul
  • Consists of operations involved in searching for
    and extinguishing hidden or remaining fires
  • Protecting the scene and preserving evidence are
    components of overhaul

(Continued)
15
Overhaul
  • If possible, do not start overhaul operations
    until
  • Fire is under control
  • Fire cause has been determined
  • Evidence has been identified and protected

16
Salvage
  • Methods and operating procedures by which
    firefighters attempt to save property and reduce
    further damage
  • Removing property
  • Covering property
  • Other means

(Continued)
17
Salvage
  • Proper salvage operations
  • Early planning
  • Knowing the procedures
  • Being familiar with tools and equipment

18
Planning for Salvage Operations
  • Efficient operations require planning and
    training
  • SOPs should be developed

(Continued)
19
Planning for Salvage Operations
  • Preincident plans
  • High-value contents
  • Residential occupancies
  • Commercial occupancies
  • Work with loss-control representatives

20
Salvage Procedures
  • Operations can be started at same time as fire
    attack
  • Group building contents into compact piles

(Continued)
21
Salvage Procedures
  • Group household furnishings in center of the room
  • Raise furniture off wet floors

(Continued)
22
Salvage Procedures
  • Commercial occupancies present special challenges

(Continued)
23
Salvage Procedures
  • Large quantities of water can be removed by a
    variety of methods
  • Water may ruin finishes wipe off surfaces

24
Salvage Covers
  • Made of waterproof canvas materials
  • Manufactured in various sizes
  • Have reinforced corners and edge hems

(Continued)
25
Salvage Covers
  • Synthetic covers
  • Lightweight
  • Easy to handle
  • Economical
  • Indoor and outdoor use
  • Some covers may be disposable

26
Salvage Cover Maintenance
  • Proper cleaning, drying, and repairing increases
    service life

(Continued)
27
Salvage Cover Maintenance
  • Canvas salvage covers
  • Wetting or rinsing with hose stream and scrubbing
    with a broom
  • Detergent solution if needed
  • Dont let dry when dirty
  • Should be completely dry before being folded and
    placed in service

(Continued)
28
Salvage Cover Maintenance
  • Synthetic salvage covers
  • Do not require as much maintenance as canvas
  • May be folded wet
  • Usually better to let dry first
  • After salvage covers are dry, examine for damage

(Continued)
29
Salvage Cover Maintenance
  • Look up at the underside to locate holes
  • Mark holes with chalk or marking pen
  • Repair holes

30
Salvage Equipment
  • Should be located in a readily accessible area on
    apparatus
  • SOPs dictate where equipment is carried and who
    performs operations

(Continued)
31
Salvage Equipment
  • Keep smaller tools/equipment in a salvage toolbox
  • Plastic tub may be used for supplies

32
Typical Salvage Equipment
  • Electricians pliers
  • Sidecutters
  • Various chisels
  • Tin snips
  • Tin roof cutter
  • Adjustable wrenches
  • Pipe wrenches
  • Hammer(s)
  • Sledgehammer
  • Hacksaw
  • Crosscut handsaw
  • Heavy-duty stapler and staples
  • Linoleum knife
  • Wrecking bar

(Continued)
33
Typical Salvage Equipment
  • Padlock and hasp
  • Hinges
  • Screwdriver(s)
  • Battery-operated power tools
  • Hydraulic jack
  • Assortment of nails
  • Assortment of screws
  • Plastic sheeting
  • Wooden laths
  • Wooden wedges
  • Soft wood plugs
  • Sawdust

(Continued)
34
Typical Salvage Equipment
  • Mops
  • Squeegees
  • Scoop shovels
  • Brooms
  • Mop buckets with wringers
  • Automatic sprinkler kit
  • Water vacuum
  • Submersible pump and discharge hose
  • Sponges
  • Chamois
  • Paper towels
  • Assortment of rags

(Continued)
35
Typical Salvage Equipment
  • 100-foot (30 m) length of electrical cable
  • Pigtail ground adapters
  • Approved ground fault interruption device
  • Salvage covers
  • J-Hooks
  • S-hooks
  • Floor runners
  • Duct tape
  • Plastic bags
  • Cardboard boxes
  • Styrofoam blocks
  • Rope
  • Bungee cords

36
Equipment Descriptions
  • Automatic sprinkler kit
  • Needed for buildings protected by automatic
    sprinkler systems
  • Used to stop flow of water from an open sprinkler

(Continued)
37
Equipment Descriptions
  • Carryalls Used to carry debris, catch falling
    debris, and provide a water basin for immersing
    small burning objects

(Continued)
38
Equipment Descriptions
  • Floor runners Protect floor coverings
    lightweight, tough, heat and water resistant,
    easy to maintain

(Continued)
39
Equipment Descriptions
  • Dewatering devices
  • Used to remove water from basements, elevator
    shafts, and sumps
  • Should not use fire department pumpers
  • Trash-type pumps are best for salvage
  • Use a jet-siphon device or submersible pump for
    removal of excess water

(Continued)
40
Equipment Descriptions
  • Water vacuum Used to dewater floors, carpets,
    other areas where water is not deep enough to be
    picked up by submersible pump or siphon ejector

(Continued)
41
Equipment Descriptions
  • J-hooks Driven into walls or wooden framing to
    provide a strong point from which to hang things

42
Equipment Descriptions
  • S-hooks Used for the same purpose as J-hooks
    but cannot be driven into walls or framing must
    have a horizontal ledge

43
One-Firefighter Spread with a Rolled Salvage Cover
  • One person can quickly unroll a cover
  • May be carried on the shoulder or under the arm

44
One-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover
  • Two firefighters are needed to make fold
  • May be carried in any manner

45
Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover
  • Large salvage covers cannot be easily handled by
    a single firefighter
  • Carry this fold on the shoulder with open edges
    next to neck

(Continued)
46
Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover
  • Position cover so carrier can grab lower pair of
    corners and second firefighter can grab uppermost
    pair

(Continued)
47
Two-Firefighter Spread with a Folded Salvage Cover
  • Balloon throw is most common method for deployment

(Continued)
48
Using Chutes Removing Water
  • Practical way to remove water that comes through
    the ceiling from upper floor
  • May be constructed on floor below fire fighting
    operations

(Continued)
49
Using Chutes Removing Water
  • Prepared chutes are approximately 10 feet (3 m)
    long
  • Chutes can be constructed from plastic sheeting,
    a heavy-duty stapler, and duct tape

50
Using Chutes Constructing a Catchall
  • Constructed from a salvage cover placed on the
    floor to hold small amounts of water

(Continued)
51
Using Chutes Constructing a Catchall
  • Temporarily control large amounts of water
  • Place into position as soon as possible
  • Usually requires two people

52
Splicing Covers
  • Used when
  • Objects/groupings are large
  • Long chutes or catchalls need to be made
  • Splice covers with watertight joints

(Continued)
53
Splicing a Chute to a Catchall
  • Method of removing accumulated water should be
    prepared
  • Submersible pumps may be used
  • Water chute spliced to the catchall

54
Covering Openings
  • One of final parts of salvage operations
  • Prevents damage by weather

(Continued)
55
Covering Openings
  • Cover doors/windows
  • Cover openings in roofs

56
Overhaul
  • Operations conducted once main body of fire has
    been extinguished
  • Searching for and extinguishing hidden or
    remaining fire
  • Placing building and contents in safe condition

(Continued)
57
Overhaul
  • Operations conducted once main body of fire has
    been extinguished
  • Determining fire cause
  • Recognizing and preserving evidence of arson

58
Safety During Overhaul
  • Steps required
  • Inspecting premises
  • Developing operational plan
  • Providing tools and equipment
  • Eliminating or mitigating hazards

(Continued)
59
Safety During Overhaul
  • Toxic gases
  • Common and dangerous threat during overhaul
  • Wear appropriate PPE, including respiratory
    protection

(Continued)
60
Safety During Overhaul
  • Other hazards are present, such as fire-weakened
    floors
  • Mark or barricade hazardous areas
  • Use gloves and eye protection

(Continued)
61
Safety During Overhaul
  • Physical conditioning and correct lifting are
    necessary
  • Fatigue is preventable cause of injury

62
Overhaul Tools and Equipment
  • Pike poles and plaster hooks
  • Axes
  • Prying tools
  • Power saws, drills, and screwdrivers

(Continued)
63
Overhaul Tools and Equipment
  • Carryall, buckets, and tubs
  • Shovels, bale hooks, and pitchforks
  • Thermal imaging camera

64
Supervision of Overhaul
  • By a supervisor/officer not directly engaged in
    overhaul tasks
  • Fire investigator should be involved

65
Fire Safety During Overhaul
  • Size of charged hoselines in overhaul may not be
    the same
  • Disconnecting fire apparatus from hydrants
  • Departmental SOPs may dictate one supply line
    left in place

(Continued)
66
Fire Safety During Overhaul
  • Attack lines used for overhaul are typically 1½
    inch (38 mm) or 1¾ inch (45 mm)
  • Water fire extinguishers or booster hoses may be
    used for small fires
  • One attack line should be available

(Continued)
67
Fire Safety During Overhaul
  • Place nozzle so it will not cause additional
    damage
  • Do not allow water damage from leaking hoselines
  • Use a 100-foot (30 m) hoseline as the first
    section on attack lines

68
Overhaul Safety Considerations
  • Maintain situational awareness
  • Work in teams of two or more
  • Maintain awareness of exit routes
  • Maintain a RIC

(Continued)
69
Overhaul Safety Considerations
  • Monitor personnel for rehab
  • Beware of hidden gas or electrical utilities
  • Continue using accountability system

70
Locating Hidden Fires
  • Before starting a search, evaluate the condition
    of the area
  • Factors that affect condition of the building
  • Intensity of the fire
  • Amount of water used for control

71
Indicators of Loss of Structural Integrity
  • Weakened floors
  • Concrete that has spalled
  • Weakened steel roof members
  • Walls offset
  • Weakened roof trusses
  • Mortar in wall joints opened

(Continued)
72
Indicators of Loss of Structural Integrity
  • Wall ties holding veneer/curtain walls melted
  • Heavy storage on mezzanines or upper floors
  • Water pooled on upper floors
  • Large quantities of wet insulation

73
Detecting Hidden Fires
  • Sight
  • Touch
  • Sound
  • Electronic sensors

74
Overhaul Procedures
  • Begins in the area of most severe fire
    involvement
  • Looking for fire extension should begin as soon
    as possible after fire is declared under control
  • Systematically carried out

(Continued)
75
Overhaul Procedures
  • If fire extended to other areas, path must be
    determined
  • When floor beams are burned at ends or where they
    enter a party wall, flush the voids in the wall
    with water

(Continued)
76
Overhaul Procedures
  • Check far side of the wall to see if fire or
    water has come through.
  • Thoroughly check insulation materials

77
Understanding Basic Building Construction
  • Assists firefighters in searching for hidden
    fires
  • Windows or doors
  • Fire may remain within frames or casings
  • Open these areas to ensure complete
    extinguishment

(Continued)
78
Building Construction and Overhaul
  • When fire has burned around combustible roof or
    cornice, open cornice and inspect for hidden
    fires
  • Balloon construction Check the attic and
    basement for fire extension

(Continued)
79
Building Construction and Overhaul
  • Opening concealed spaces
  • Move the furnishings of the room to locations
    where they will not be damaged
  • Consider electrical wiring, gas piping, or
    plumbing
  • Make neat, planned openings to ensure
    extinguishment and facilitate restoration

(Continued)
80
Building Construction and Overhaul
  • Ceilings may be opened from below using a pike
    pole or other tool
  • The plaster must first be broken on some ceilings
  • When pulling a ceiling, do not stand directly
    under area to be opened

(Continued)
81
Building Construction and Overhaul
  • Always position body between area being pulled
    and doorway to keep exit route from being blocked
  • Always wear full protective clothing, including
    eye and respiratory protection

(Continued)
82
Building Construction and Overhaul
  • Small burning objects
  • Submerge entire objects in containers of water
  • Bathtubs, sinks, lavatories, wash tubs
  • Remove larger furnishings to the outside

(Continued)
83
Building Construction and Overhaul
  • Scorched or partially burned articles may prove
    helpful to an investigator
  • Use of wetting agents such as Class A foam is
    valuable
  • Cotton, upholstery, and baled goods
  • Must break bales of rags, cotton, hay apart

84
Summary
  • Customer service is the core of everything that
    fire departments do. Loss control is an important
    component of fire department service delivery and
    is but one aspect of customer-service
    opportunities.

(Continued)
85
Summary
  • Salvage and overhaul operations are two of the
    most effective means of loss control.
  • Planning, procedures, and equipment are essential
    for effective loss-control operations.

86
Review Questions
  • 1. What is the difference between salvage and
    overhaul?
  • 2. List five items used in salvage operations.
  • 3. How can water be removed from fire fighting
    operations using salvage covers?

(Continued)
87
Review Questions
  • 4. When should overhaul start?
  • 5. List three indicators of possible loss of
    structural integrity.
  • 6. What are visual indicators of hidden fires.

(Continued)
88
Review Questions
  • 7. What sounds may indicate a hidden fire?
  • 8. Where does overhaul typically begin?
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