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Security vs. Efficiency: Assessing Transportation Security Policies


Security vs. Efficiency: Assessing Transportation Security Policies & Trade-Offs September 19,2007 CE 5212 Anna Arciszewska, Jessica Horning, Patrick Phenow, Ryan Wilson – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Security vs. Efficiency: Assessing Transportation Security Policies

Security vs. Efficiency Assessing Transportation
Security Policies Trade-Offs
  • September 19,2007
  • CE 5212
  • Anna Arciszewska, Jessica Horning, Patrick
    Phenow, Ryan Wilson

  • Overview / History
  • Current Issues
  • Case Studies
  • Screening the Screeners
  • The El Al Approach
  • Policies Recommendations
  • Discussion Questions

Source Associated Press
Establishing a balance
Where is the balance point?
  • Regulators ? Regulated
  • Limited Resources
  • Emotional / Political Arguments
  • Different balance points for different modes
  • How to measure good/bad trade-offs

Brief History
  • 1960s - 90s
  • Airline Hijackings
  • Airport security run by airlines and private
  • Screening for weapons
  • Photo ID
  • Who packed your bag and when?
  • Did you receive anything from a stranger?
  • Have you left your bag unattended at any time?

September 11, 2001
Brief History
  • Aviation and Transportation Security Act (Nov.
    19, 2001)
  • Transportation Security Administration (TSA)
  • Secure all modes of transportation in U.S.
  • recruit, assess, hire, train, and deploy Security
    Officers for 450 commercial airports from Guam to
    Alaska in 12 months
  • provide 100 percent screening of all checked
    luggage for explosives by December 31, 2002

Brief History
  • Federal control of screening
  • Reactive carry-on restrictions and increases in
    screening (security theater?)
  • Shoe x-rays
  • Liquid/gel prohibitions (3-1-1 rule)
  • Passenger screening
  • Passenger Name Record
  • Computerized Airline Passenger Screening (CAPS)
  • FaceIt

(No Transcript)
Current Issues
  • Budget Costs
  • 6 billion annually
  • Airline industry lost 13 billion in 2001, 11
    billion in 2002
  • Efficiency improvements reduced losses to 3
    billion in 2005
  • Time Costs
  • Passengers must check in 75 minutes before
    domestic and 2-3 hours before international
  • Avg. waiting time at BWI was 20 min, now 12
  • Privacy / Civil Liberties

Source Johnston 2004
Security / Efficiency Balance
  • Cargo Transportation
  • Containerized freight increases efficiency, but
    introduces an additional security threat
  • Time resources for additional security impact
  • System cost
  • Speed
  • Efficiency
  • Intermodal capabilities
  • Global trade
  • Economies of scale

Risk Management
  • The nature of future risks cannot be fully known,
  • Not all risks can be addressed,
  • New technologies aimed at reducing risk
    inherently create new uncertainty,
  • Risk is reactive thus creating new uncertainties,
  • The complexity of risk management can result in
    unexpected concurrent failures,
  • Risk management measures may restrict freedom,
    invade privacy and discriminate. (Ericson 2006).

Case Study Screening the Screeners
  • Security must be effective to be efficient, but
    effective security is not necessarily efficient
  • Screeners failed to detect 13 of dangerous
    objects in 1978
  • Failure rate increased to 20 in 1987
  • Declining performance noted by the 9/11
  • Newark International failed 20 of 22 tests in
    October, 2006
  • Albany International failed 5 of 7 tests in
    July, 2007

Case Study Screening the Screeners
  • Single point of failure
  • Threat that is undetected at checkpoint is
    unlikely to be detected at all
  • Only recourse to failure at one point is
    evacuation of entire airport
  • Causes time/budget inefficiencies that affect all

Case Study Screening the Screeners
  • Prioritizing risks
  • Attention is a limited resource
  • Screeners removed bottled water, but didnt
    detect bomb in same carry-on

Case Study Screening the Screeners
  • Investing in people vs. technology
  • Remove human error
  • Introduce computer error
  • Expense of technology and training
  • Privacy / data security

Case Study El Als Approach
  • Israels largest airline
  • Worlds most secure airline
  • Emphasis on security counterterrorism since
  • 80 million annual budget

Case Study El Als Approach
  • Multiple levels of security
  • Vehicle checks outside airport
  • Plain-clothes officers in terminal
  • Baggage screening
  • Low-pressure chamber
  • Sky marshals pilots
  • Reinforced cockpit doors
  • Explosion proof cargo bay

Case Study El Als Approach
  • Explosives technology moves faster than security
  • Psychological profiling
  • Passenger interviews
  • Body language
  • Suspicious behavior
  • El Al staff check baggage at overseas airports

Policies Recommendations
  • Non-airline policies
  • Again, primarily reactive
  • Overwhelming focus on commercial passenger air
  • TSA purview - highways, railroads, maritime, and
    non-passenger air travel
  • 1.1 billion of 5.7 billion, fiscal 2006
  • Cargo transportation - efficiency gt security

Policies Recommendations
  • Commercial airline policies
  • MIT Recommendations
  • Reduce carnival booth, flagging must be more
  • Improve object screening through technology
  • Merge passenger x-ray technology and standard
    metal detectors
  • Better train security employees, vary
    questioning, improve screening

Policies Recommendations
  • Commercial airline policies
  • GAO Recommendations
  • Internet/intranet connectivity to improve
    screener training.
  • Internal controls for monitoring and documenting
    completion of required training

Policies Recommendations
  • Commercial airline policies
  • DHS Recommendations
  • Establish a system of procedures for cargo
    screening and inspection
  • Clearly written guidance and training on
    regulations, procedures to improve inspections,
    guidance on security program requirements, a
    quality control program, and sufficient resources
    for cargo inspection program
  • Improve PARIS - better guidance, detailed
    training, and greater funding
  • TSA Interpretation of new law

Discussion Questions
  • Is security the enemy of efficiency?
  • How can we weight security concerns against
    efficiency needs?
  • Are we making good or bad security tradeoffs?
    Efficiency tradeoffs?
  • Is it possible to develop decision and/or
    performance criteria to define, achieve, and
    maintain a balance between security and
  • How much risk is acceptable?

Discussion Questions
  • What are your thoughts on the terms security
    theater and carnival booth? Can security
    theater help increase efficiency tradeoffs? Do
    these terms only add fuel to the fire?
  • Is a life-cycle approach a useful or practical
    way to describe policy?
  • Can systems be truly secure in the presence of
    uncertain risk?
  • To what extent does technology improve security
    versus add additional risk?