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Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management

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INTRODUCTION TO HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT University of Alaska Fairbanks Environmental, Health, Safety, and Risk Management May 2013 * For complete information refer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management


1
Introduction to Hazardous Waste Management
  • University of Alaska Fairbanks
  • Environmental, Health, Safety, and Risk
    Management
  • May 2013

2
Course Outline
  • Overview of hazardous materials regulations
  • Hazardous waste at UAF
  • What is hazardous waste?
  • What do I do with my hazardous waste?
  • Emergency response

3
Overview of Hazardous Materials Regulations
4
Hazardous Materials Regulations
  • Hazardous materials are regulated by three
    primary government agencies
  • Department of Transportation (DOT)
  • Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA)
  • Title 29, Code of Federal Regulations (29 CFR)
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR)

The International Fire and Building Codes also
regulate hazardous materials
5
Hazardous Materials Regulations (cont.)
  • DOT regulations direct us how to properly
    package, identify, and label hazardous materials
    and hazardous wastes for transportation
  • OSHA regulations tell us how to protect ourselves
    from the effects of hazardous materials in the
    workplace
  • EPA regulations tell us how to protect our
    environment

6
DOT Regulations
  • DOT classifies hazardous materials into 9 primary
    hazard classes which are subdivided into multiple
    subsidiary risk groups. You dont need to
    memorize these, but the primary hazard classes
    are
  • Class 1 Explosives
  • Class 2 Compressed Gases
  • Class 3 Flammable Liquids
  • Class 4 Flammable Solids
  • Class 5 Oxidizers
  • Class 6 Poisons and Toxics
  • Class 7 Radioactive materials
  • Class 8 Corrosives
  • Class 9 Miscellaneous hazardous materials that
    dont fit any other hazard class (i.e. dry ice)

7
OSHA Regulations
  • OSHA regulations include the following standards
  • Hazard Communication Standard (Hazcom,
    Right-to-Know)
  • Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in
    Labs, including requirements for Chemical Hygiene
    Plans
  • Respiratory Protection Standard
  • Confined Space Entry Requirements
  • Asbestos Standard
  • Lead (Pb) Standard
  • Bloodborne Pathogen Standard
  • Formaldehyde, Benzene, and Methylene Chloride
    standards

OSHA also establishes Permissible Exposure Levels
(PELs) for hazardous chemicals
8
EPA Regulations
  • Congress placed into law several acts that the
    EPA uses to establish regulation to protect our
    environment
  • Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA)
  • Clean Air Act
  • Clean Water Act
  • Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
  • Emergency Planning Community Right-to-Know Act
    (EPCRA)
  • Comprehensive Environmental Response,
    Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)

9
Hazardous Waste Regulations
  • EPA regulates hazardous waste in Alaska by
    authority of the Resource Conservation Recovery
    Act. RCRA controls include
  • Identification of hazardous wastes
  • Tracking wastes from cradle to grave
  • Setting standards for generators of wastes,
    transporters of wastes, and Treatment, Storage
    Disposal Facilities

10
Primary RCRA Requirements
  • RCRA requires that you
  • Label containers with a description of their
    contents
  • Store only the permissible volume of waste in
    your lab
  • Ensure lids and caps are securely fastened at all
    times, except when putting wastes into the
    containers
  • Ensure all materials are properly segregated
  • Use containers that are compatible with your
    waste
  • Use intact containers (no cracks, holes, etc.)
  • Ensure that spills and overfills do not occur
  • Ensure that mismanagement does not occur

11
RCRA Requirement for Training
  • The purpose of this training is to comply with
    requirements set forth by the EPA under 40 CFR
    265.16 (Personnel Training)
  • The scope of the training is to ensure that UAF
    personnel who use chemicals
  • 1. Understand how to identify hazardous wastes
  • 2. Understand how to package and label
    hazardous wastes
  • 3. Understand how to have their hazardous
    materials disposed
  • 4. Know how to respond effectively to
    emergencies

12
RCRA Regulatory Inspections
  • EPA conducts unannounced Compliance Evaluation
    Inspections
  • In the past, UAF facilities have been inspected
    annually
  • Our goal is to comply with all regulations

13
Hazardous Waste at UAF
  • An overview of sources of hazardous waste at UAF,
    and its ultimate fate

14
Sources of Hazardous Waste at UAF
  • Sources of hazardous wastes (HW) at UAF include
  • Research and academic laboratories
  • Shops and repair facilities
  • Art and theater departments
  • Facility maintenance and grounds
  • Power Plant operations
  • Experimental Farm operations

15
Hazardous Waste Generators
  • The RCRA definition of a HW generator is
  • Any person, by site, whose act or process
    produces
  • hazardous waste identified or listed in 40 CFR
    261.3.
  • Generators are classified by the volume of HW
    that they produce per month
  • CESQG Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity
    Generator
  • SQG Small Quantity Generator
  • LQG Large Quantity Generator gt 1000
    kg/month or
  • gt1 qt. of acutely hazardous
    waste/month

16
UAFs Waste Generator Status
  • The UAF main campus is regulated as a Large
    Quantity Generator
  • UAFs extended sites are regulated as
    Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators
  • Examples Toolik Field Station, Palmer Research
    Farm, Kodiak Seafood Marine Science Center,
    Seward Marine Center, Lena Point Fisheries
    Facility (Juneau)

17
Hazardous Waste Management at UAF
  • EHSRM assists UAF waste generators with waste
    disposal needs
  • Hazardous Materials Facility (HMF) stores waste
    and serves as UAFs Central Accumulation Area
    (CAA)
  • RCRA-regulated hazardous wastes are shipped
  • Every 90 days from the HMF
  • By EPA-permitted transporters to EPA-permitted
    treatment, storage, and disposal facilities
  • Annual costs 125,000 for disposal 400,000
    total cost of hazmat program at UAF

18
What is hazardous waste?
19
EPA Definition of a Solid Waste
  • EPA begins by defining all waste as a solid
    waste (including solids, liquids, gases, and
    semi-solids)
  • 40 CFR 261.2 provides the definition of solid
    waste
  • (a)(1) A solid waste is any discarded material
    that is not excluded by  261.4(a) or that is not
    excluded by variance granted under  260.30 and
    260.31.
  • (2) A discarded material is any material which
    is
  • (i) Abandoned, as explained in paragraph (b) of
    this section or
  • (ii) Recycled, as explained in paragraph (c) of
    this section or
  • (iii) Considered inherently waste-like, as
    explained in paragraph (d) of this section or
  • (iv) A military munition identified as a solid
    waste in 40 CFR 266.202.

No need to memorize that!
20
EPA Definition of a Hazardous Waste (cont.)
  • If the waste material meets certain criteria, and
    is not somehow exempted or excluded from
    regulation, it may be a RCRA-regulated HW
  • The legal definition of HW is found in 40 CFR
    261.3
  • (a) A solid waste, as defined in   261.2, is a
    hazardous waste if
  • (1) It is not excluded from regulation as a
    hazardous waste under   261.4(b) and
  • (2) It meets any of the following criteria
    (continue to next slide)

21
EPA Definition of a Hazardous Waste (cont.)
  • (i) It exhibits any of the characteristics of
    hazardous waste identified in subpart C of this
    part. However, any mixture of a waste from the
    extraction, beneficiation, and processing of ores
    and minerals excluded under   261.4(b)(7) and
    any other solid waste exhibiting a characteristic
    of hazardous waste under subpart C is a hazardous
    waste only if it exhibits a characteristic that
    would not have been exhibited by the excluded
    waste alone if such mixture had not occurred, or
    if it continues to exhibit any of the
    characteristics exhibited by the non-excluded
    wastes prior to mixture. Further,
  • (Continue to next slide)

22
EPA Definition of a Hazardous Waste (cont.)
  • for the purposes of applying the Toxicity
    Characteristic to such mixtures, the mixture is
    also a hazardous waste if it exceeds the maximum
    concentration for any contaminant listed in table
    I to   261.24 that would not have been exceeded
    by the excluded waste alone if the mixture had
    not occurred or if it continues to exceed the
    maximum concentration for any contaminant
    exceeded by the nonexempt waste prior to mixture.
  • (Continue to next slide)

23
EPA Definition of a Hazardous Waste (cont.)
  • (ii) It is listed in subpart D of this part and
    has not been excluded from the lists in subpart D
    of this part under   260.20 and 260.22 of this
    chapter.

You dont need to memorize the definition of a
hazardous waste either!
24
So, is your waste a hazardous waste?
  • EPA regulations (40 CFR 261.2) require that a
    hazardous waste determination be made on a solid
    waste which has been generated
  • Even though you must manage your waste
    appropriately, you dont have to decide what to
    call your waste
  • UAF EHSRM Hazmat team will make final hazardous
    waste determinations as outlined in
  • 40 CFR 262.11

Lets look at the different categories as defined
by the EPA
25
Categories of Hazardous Waste
  • Hazardous waste determinations are based upon
    whether the material is a
  • Characteristic waste
  • Listed on the D-list or TCLP (Toxicity
    Characteristic Leaching Procedure)
  • Listed waste
  • Materials specifically identified on one of the
    following lists F, K, U or P lists
  • Universal waste
  • Batteries, lamps, pesticides, mercury from
    thermometers

26
Characteristic Wastes
  • D001 Ignitable Wastes (flashpoint is less than
  • 140º F) includes oxidizers
  • D002 Corrosive Wastes (pH less than or equal to
  • 2 or greater than or equal to
    12.5)
  • D003 Reactive Wastes (water reactive,
  • normally unstable materials,
    cyanides
  • sulfides, etc)
  • D004 TCLP Wastes

27
Listed Wastes
  • F-listed wastes are from non-specific sources
  • Example halogenated solvents used to degrease
    equipment
  • K-listed wastes are from specific sources
  • Example petroleum refining or pesticide
    manufacturing
  • U-listed wastes are toxic wastes
  • P-listed wastes are acutely hazardous wastes

28
Examples of U-Listed Wastes
Acetaldehyde 1,4-Dioxane
Acetone Ethyl acetate
Acetonitrile Ethyl ether
Aniline Formaldehyde
Benzene Methyl alcohol
Bromoform Methylene chloride
1-Butanol Phenol
Chloroform Toluene
U-listed chemicals are commonly found in UAF labs
29
Examples of P-Listed Wastes
Allyl alcohol Osmium tetroxide
Ammonium vanadate Phenylthiourea
Arsenic acid Potassium cyanide
Arsenic trioxide Sodium azide
Carbon disulfide Sodium cyanide
2,4-Dinitrophenol Thiosemicarbazide
Fluorine Vanadium oxide
Nitric oxide Vanadium pentoxide
P-listed chemicals are also fairly common in UAF
labs
30
Universal Wastes
  • Universal wastes include the following materials
    that are commonly found in the workplace
  • Batteries
  • Fluorescent lamps
  • Pesticides
  • Thermometers (containing mercury)

31
Universal Wastes Batteries
  • Used Battery collection containers (white
    5-gallon buckets) are available at many locations
    on campus
  • Contact your Lab Manager, CHO, Shop Supervisor or
    EHSRM for more information

32
Universal Wastes Fluorescent Lamps
  • UAF recycles fluorescent and other lamps
  • Lamp shipments are made periodically to EcoLights
    Northwest
  • The Facilities Services Electric Shop does the
    vast majority of lamp replacement on campus
  • EHSRM can provide lamp collection boxes and
    labels to you
  • Boxes must be labeled with the words, Universal
    Waste Lamps, Waste Lamps, or Used Lamps to
    identify the contents

33
Universal Wastes Pesticides
  • If you have waste pesticides
  • Fill out an online UAF Non-radioactive Hazardous
    Materials Transfer Request. Dont know how? Go
    to slide 41.

34
Universal Wastes Mercury Thermometers
  • If you break a mercury thermometer
  • DO NOT try to clean it up yourself ---- Call
    UAF Hazmat at 474-5617 immediately for assistance
  • Evacuate the area and keep traffic from walking
    through the spill site
  • NEVER throw the material in the trash or dump it
    down the drain
  • Dont need your mercury thermometers or wish to
    exchange unbroken thermometers for similar,
    non-mercury thermometers, free of charge? Call
    EHSRM at 474-5197 to get more information.

35
Other Waste Aerosol Cans
  • Aerosol cans are considered hazardous waste under
    the definition of Characteristic Reactivity
  • 40 CFR Part 261.23 .capable of detonation or
    explosive reaction if it is subjected to a strong
    initiating source or if heated under
    confinement.
  • Often contain hazardous materials, either as the
    product or as the propellant
  • Most aerosol cans, regardless of contents, can
    never be completely emptied of propellant
  • Aerosol cans become a waste when
  • their contents are used up,
  • malfunction (i.e. fail to spray), or
  • when the contents are no longer needed

36
Other Wastes Used Oil
  • Used oil means
  • any oil that has been refined from crude oil, or
    any synthetic oil, that has been used and as a
    result of such use, is contaminated by physical
    or chemical impurities (40 CFR 279.1)
  • Used oil must be
  • Collected in clean containers in good condition
    (no leakers)
  • Storage and transfer containers must be marked
    with the words Used Oil
  • Never add solvents, part washer fluids, carb
    cleaners, or glycol to your used oil

37
Other Wastes Used Oil (cont.)
  • Keep the used oil container closed (lid in
    place and secured) except when adding or removing
    used oil
  • If you use a funnel for transfers, the funnel
    must be removed when not in use and the container
    capped
  • See slide 41 to make on online request to have
    your used oil removed

38
Waste in your lab
  • What do I do with my wastes and unwanted
    chemicals?

39
Satellite Accumulation Areas
  • Each lab that generates waste is referred to as a
    Satellite Accumulation Area (SAA)
  • When EHSRM removes the waste from a SAA, it is
    transferred to the UAF Hazmat Facility or
    Central Accumulation Area

40
Waste Storage Limits for SAAs
  • For SAAs, the waste storage limits are
  • Up to 55 gallons of a hazardous waste
  • Up to 1 quart (1 liter) of a P-listed waste
  • 50 gallons of waste at a SAA will likely be in
    violation of Fire Building Codes
  • Note you do not need to accumulate 55 gallons
    or 1 quart of
  • P-listed waste before requesting waste removal!

41
To Make a Waste Removal Request
  • As of April 2012, the Division of Hazardous Waste
    at EHSRM is using an online hazardous waste pick
    up request. Please discontinue using the old
    triplicate paper hazardous waste transfer request
    forms.
  • If you have not been trained in the use of the
    online request, call 474-5197 to schedule a
    training session. Or go to the EHSRM website for
    more information
  • http//www.uaf.edu/safety/laboratory-safety/chemic
    al-inventory/
  • Remember There is no charge to your lab for
    chemical waste disposal

42
Take-home messages
  • What you need to remember

43
Wastes Containers and Storage
  • Only use containers that are compatible with the
    materials to be collected
  • Always label containers with a description of
    their contents
  • Dont store incompatible materials together
  • Do not store wastes in the fume hood. Store in
    the appropriate storage cabinet (e.g., flammable,
    acid)
  • Provide secondary containment for liquid wastes
  • Always keep the container closed (lid firmly
    secured)
  • A funnel in an open bottle is NOT a lid
  • Check waste storage areas regularly (weekly).
  • Inspect containers to make sure they arent
    getting brittle or starting to crack

44
Before You Start a Project
  • Plan ahead
  • Is there a product or procedure available that
    will accomplish the task w/o generating a
    hazardous waste?
  • Strive for waste minimization
  • Only make as much solution as you need
  • Substitute less hazardous chemicals if possible
  • Use microscale chemistry techniques
  • Before purchasing chemicals, log onto your EHS
    Assistant online inventory and click on the
    Surplus Chemicals button at the top of the main
    page. Contact EHSRM at 474-5617 to request
    transfer of surplus chemicals.

45
Other Things to Think About
  • Check the P-list - if you plan to generate a
    P-listed waste, contact your Chemical Hygiene
    Officer, Lab Manager or EHSRM
  • Never combine wastes
  • If you dont generate them together as part of a
    procedure, then do not mix them.
  • May create hazardous reactions in the bottle
    (worst-case scenario), or make it more expensive
    for us to dispose of it (not a good scenario, but
    at least it didnt blow up)

46
Emergency Response
  • Chemical spills, release of hazardous materials,
    fires, and evacuation

47
Chemical Spills
  • Report all spills to UAF Dispatch (474-7721) or
    call 911 if there is an immediate threat of harm
    to life or property
  • Dispatch will call EHSRM Hazmat Section or the
    FNSB Hazmat Team, if necessary, to request
    assistance with spill cleanup
  • Depending on the nature of the spill, you may be
    asked to complete the UAF Oil and Hazardous
    Substance Spill Reporting Form (available from
    EHSRM)

48
Chemical Spills (cont.)
  • If you have not been trained and/or do not have
    the appropriate personnel protective equipment,
    please call for assistance!
  • Never put yourself or others at risk to cleanup a
    spill!
  • If you dont knowdont go

49
Emergency Procedures Fire
  • Activate the nearest fire alarm pull station and
    call 911
  • Evacuate the building and go to the Evacuation
    Assembly Point or designated area of safe refuge
  • Advise emergency personnel of anyone still inside
    the building
  • Do not re-enter the building until authorized by
    emergency personnel

50
Emergency Procedures Release of Hazardous
Materials
  • Call 911 in the event of an emergency or if
    anyone is in danger
  • Move away from the site of the hazard to a safe
    location
  • Follow the instructions of emergency personnel
  • Alert others to stay clear of the area
  • Notify emergency personnel if you have been
    exposed or have information regarding the release

51
Emergency Procedures Evacuation
  • Know the evacuation procedures and evacuation
    route information for your area
  • Evacuate the building using the nearest safe exit
  • Do not use elevators!
  • Take personnel belongings (keys, purses etc., but
    dont put yourself or others at risk by delaying
    evacuation)
  • If possible, secure any hazardous materials or
    equipment
  • Follow the directions given by emergency
    personnel
  • Go to Evacuation Assembly Points (EAPs)
    designated on the emergency evacuation sign for
    the building
  • Assist persons with disabilities
  • Do not leave the area/campus until your status
    has been reported to your supervisor or instructor

52
For More Information
  • Environmental, Health, Safety, and Risk
    Management
  • Visit our website at www.uaf.edu/safety
  • Or call us at 474-5413
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