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Title: LEADERSHIP Author: Utente Last modified by: Roberto Created Date: 3/28/2011 8:08:45 AM Document presentation format: Presentazione su schermo (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Chapter 6

(No Transcript)
  • Some leaders are visionaries
  • Others use their position of power
  • Others persuade us to do what they want

  • Basics of leadership
  • What is leadership
  • Relationship between leaders and followers
  • How leaders are chosen or emerge
  • Personality theory
  • Behavioural theory
  • Leadership effectiveness
  • Contingency Theories
  • 1 .Fiedlers contingency theory
  • 2.Normative theory
  • 3-Path-goal theory
  • Gender differences

leadership Yukl (1994)
  • the process through which one member of a group
    (its leader) influences other group members
    towards the attainment of group goals.
  • Leadership is about how a person exerts social
  • The leader is a member of a group and to be
    effective must be recognised and accepted as the
    leader (otherwise the leader will have to use
    power, if he has it)
  • Leadership is about the attainment of group
    goals. The goals of the leader should coincide
    with the goals of the group.

Leadership as power French and Raven (1956)
updated by Raven (1993)
  • description
  • example
  • Reward power
  • Ability of the leader to provide what others
    want or remove what they dislike
  • Referent power
  • A leader is respected and looked up to by other
    members. The leader emphasises the identity of
    the group and provides a sense of common identity
  • Manager in an organisation has the power to
    promote a worker and/or give higher salary
  • The leader is a role model. The power is
    maintained as long as the person is respected

  • Informational power
  • The leader may have privileged access to
    information s/he uses in a logical argument to
    persuade the other members
  • Legitimate power
  • The other members accept the rules and norms of
    the leader and consider the leader as properly
    occupying the position.
  • The Chief executive of an organisation knows
    more about, for ex., a take-over bid
  • Army generals
  • Heads of Government who are democratically
    elected. Legitimate power disappears when the
    person no longer occupies the position

  • Expert power
  • The leader has a high level of knowledge and is
    recognised as having a superior ability in a
    specialised area
  • Coercive power
  • the leader has the ability to threaten and/or
    punish the group members. If they do not conform
    to the leaders wishes.
  • A professor of psychology
  • A foot-ball player
  • Use of this power often results in group members
    obeying the leader, especially where the
    punishment may involve death or imprisonment.

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Power and leadership
  • These types of power can be used by the same
    leader at different times.

  • Leaders exist if they have followers
  • Looking at leadership as social influence and the
    use leaders make of different types of power
    fails to capture the reciprocal influence that
    followers have on leaders.
  • Lee (1991) claims that effective followers are
    essential for effective leaders (enthusiastic,
    committed and self-reliant)
  • Senge (1990) asserts that organisations who are
    able to respond to change and to learn about the
    needs of their customers have leaders empowering
    the workers. Workers feel that they are part of
    the decision-making process.

Four categories of followers Lee (1991)
  • YES Followers
  • Active toward leader and job /Low on critical
  • Sheep
  • Passive toward leader and job/low on critical
  • Alienated followers
  • Passive towards leader and job/High on critical
  • Effective followers
  • Active toward leader and job/High on critical

Choosing a leader
  • Leaders achieve their position by a variety of
  • In democratic countries leaders receive the
    support of the people from the votes cast.
  • Dictators may achieve their position through a
    military coup.
  • Some leaders inherit their position (the Queen
    and the hereditary peers in Britain).
  • In many organisation leaders (such as the C.E.O)
    are appointed on the basis of their ability,
    experience and visionary qualities.

Personality and leadership
  • Think about two people you regard as great
  • Write a short description of each.

Personality and leadership
  • Psychologists have tried to find those
    personalities traits or characteristics that set
    great leaders apart from other people

Personality and leadership
  • two assumptions
  • 1. a small number of personality traits are
    associated with great leaders
  • 2. that such characteristics are inherited and
    not learned through socialisation and experience
  • Empirical evidence has failed to provide support
    to either claims, but especially the idea that
    leaders possess certain special personality

  • For example, Dean Simonton (1987, 2001) gathered
    information about one hundred personal attributes
    of all U.S. presidents, such as their family
    backgrounds, educational experiences,
    occupations, and personalities.
  • Only three of these variablesheight, family
    size, and the number of books a president
    published before taking officecorrelated with
    how effective the presidents were in office.
  • Tall presidents, those from small families, and
    those who have published books are most likely to
    become effective leaders, as rated by historians.
  • The other ninety-seven characteristics, including
    personality traits, were not related to
    leadership effectiveness at all.

Personality and leadership
  • Mann (1959) conducted a review of over 100
    studies which had attempted to correlate
    different personality traits with leadership.
  • Only weak evidence was found for leaders
    possessing the traits of intelligence,
    extraversion, dominance and sensitivity to other.
  • It was found that leaders tend to be slightly
    taller than average. (we choose the leader that
    fits our stereotype size matters) Eagly and
    Karau , (1991).
  • Mullen et al. (1989) suggest that only two traits
    seem to offer correlation with leadership
    intelligence and talkativeness. (the act of
    talking makes a person prominent in a group.
    Mullen et al.(1989)

Five reasons why this approach failed
  1. No central personality traits clearly correlate
    with leadership
  2. The trait approach does not take account of the
    situation or the context where the leader is
  3. The idea that a group possesses just one leader
    is often incorrect.
  4. The focus on the person rather than on the
    situation may be an example of the fundamental
    attribution error (Ross, 1977) too much emphasis
    on personality factor and too little on
    situation. (e.g. Only a minority of the
    population are personally acquainted with the
    Prime Minister)
  5. The great person theory cannot predict in advance
    who will become a leader.

Characteristics of successful leaders (Kirkpatrick
and Locke (1991)
  • There has been a recent revival of interest in
    the trait approach. Drawing upon both
    traditional personality traits but also
    characteristics representing knowledge and
    experience, KL suggest 8 characteristics of
    successful leaders.
  • Drive desire to succeed
  • Honesty and integrity trustworthiness,
  • Leadership motivation desire to achieve shared
  • Self-confidence trust in leadership ability
  • Cognitive ability ability to deal with complex
  • Knowledge of the business
  • Creativity original, visionary thinking
  • Flexibility ability to respond and adapt to

Behavioural theory of leadership
  • Another way in which psychologists can remain
    focussed on the individual is to look at the
    actual behaviour performed by leaders. This
    approach has been much more productive over time
    and remains of contemporary importance.
  • It Implies that leaders can be trained focus on
    the way of doing things.
  • 60 years ago Hemphill (1950) conducted a
    ground-breaking study in which a large number of
    people rated the behaviour of leaders on a
    thousand different aspects.
  • Statistical analysis revealed two main
    behavioural dimensions group-centred and
    directive behaviours.

Behavioural styles
  • Group centred or consideration behaviours are
    those shown by a leader considering interpersonal
    relationships in the group, developing a sense of
    trust between group members and looking after the
    emotional well-being of the group.
  • By contrast, directive behaviours or initiating
    structure are more related to the task the group
    faces and include allocating tasks to the group
    members, ensuring norms and rules are upheld,
    ensuring performance measures.

Behavioural styles
  • Stogdill (1974)characterised these two
    behavioural styles as two independent dimensions
    with each along a high-low continuum.
  • It might seem that if a leader is high on one
    dimension then the s/he will be low on the other
  • But the two are not mutually excluding
  • A leader con be high, moderate or low on both
  • Is there a combination that is better for
    effective leadership?

Behavioural styles
  • Blake and Mouton (1985) found that leaders who
    are high on both dimensions, or can be trained to
    be so, lead teams to high level of performance.
  • Bales and Slater (1955) discovered similar
    behavioural styles to initiating structure and
    consideration the task leader and the
    socio-emotional leader.
  • In contrast to Stogdill they claimed that
    different people occupied these leadership roles.
  • While there may be disagreement over whether one
    leader can or cannot occupy these two roles,
    these two leadership styles do seem fundamental,
    and have been found to apply in many different
    contexts and in different cultures (Bass, 1990).

Behavioural styles
  • Lippet and White (1943) had a different approach
    in their highly influential and classic study.
  • These researchers investigated the effects of
    three leadership styles autocratic, democratic
    and laissez-faire on group productivity, group
    atmosphere and how well group members liked
    their leader.
  • The research was conducted using adult leaders
    with schoolboys working on tasks such as making
    models from bars of soap.

Behavioural style
  • Autocratic leader
  • Gives order, primarily task-oriented, aloof from
    group members
  • Democratic leader
  • Asks for suggestions, discusses and interacts
    with group members
  • Laissez-faire leader
  • Leaves group to make own decisions, not
    directive, does not intervene
  • Not well liked by group members, dependent group
    atmosphere, high productivity when present.
  • Liked by group members, positive and friendly
    group atmosphere, good productivity when leader
    present or absent.
  • Not well liked by g.m., friendly group
    atmosphere, poor productivity with leader present
    and absent.

Types of Leadership Style
  • Autocratic
  • Leader makes decisions without reference to
    anyone else
  • High degree of dependency on the leader
  • Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff
  • May be valuable in some types of business where
    decisions need to be made quickly and decisively

Types of Leadership Style
  • Democratic
  • Encourages decision making from different
    perspectives leadership may be emphasised
    throughout the organisation
  • Consultative process of consultation before
    decisions are taken
  • Persuasive Leader takes decision and seeks to
    persuade others that the decision is correct

Types of Leadership Style
  • Democratic
  • May help motivation and involvement
  • Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas
  • Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences
    within the business
  • Can delay decision making

Types of Leadership Style
  • Laissez-Faire
  • Let it be the leadership responsibilities
    are shared by all
  • Can be very useful in businesses where creative
    ideas are important
  • Can be highly motivational, as people have
    control over their working life
  • Can make coordination and decision making
    time-consuming and lacking in overall direction
  • Relies on good team work
  • Relies on good interpersonal relations

Fiedlers contingency theory
  • Fiedlers (1965, 1971, 1981) contingency theory
    of leadership draws on Bales finding that small
    group often have two leaders.
  • In order to predict leadership effectiveness
    Fiedler stated that an assessment of the
    situational favourableness had to be made. For
    Fiedler, leadership effectiveness is contingent,
    or depends upon, the behavioural styles and
    whether the situation is favourable or
  • Fiedler developed what has come to be a well
    known measure of leadership style through the
    Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) scale.

LPC scale
  • The LPC scale asks a leader to think about a
    person whom s/he found it difficult to work with.
    The scale uses 16 bipolar adjectives with an 8
    point scale.

Pleasant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 unpleasant
Friendly Unfriendly
Warm cold
Interesting boring
efficient inefficient
Co-operative Unco-operative
  • What type of leader are you?

LPC scale
  • Leaders who generally show positive attitude to
    their LPC are categorised as socio-emotional
    leaders, while those who show a negative attitude
    to their LPC are task-oriented leaders.
  • Scores can range from 8 to 48 with a low score
    indicating a socio-emotional leader and a high
    score a task oriented leader.

Fiedlers contingency theory
  • To assess the situation, Fiedler used three
  • Leader-follower relationships. Categorised as
    good or poor.
  • The task structure- whether the task set the
    group was clear and unambiguous or not.
    Categorised as high or low.
  • Position of power of the leader- whether or not
    the leader has authority over the other members
    in the group. Categorised as strong or weak.

  • Since these three situational factors are
    categorised as a dichotomy eight different
    situations are described as a result and an
    overall assessment of situation favourableness
    (favourable, moderate or unfavourable) is made.
  • Finally Fiedler predicted that task oriented
    leaders would be most effective in highly
    favourable situations (I, II and III) and
    unfavourable situations (VII and VIII), while
    socio-emotional leaders would be effective in
    moderately favourable situations (IV, V, VI)

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  • The logic behind it is
  • That unfavourable situations require a leader to
    give guidance and direction.
  • In highly favourable situations relationship
    between GM are good, the task is clear, thus
    allowing the task oriented leader to concentrate
    and successfully achieve the group goals.
  • Moderately favourable situations require a leader
    to support GM in order to improve interpersonal
    relationships so that the group can then move on
    to deal with the group task. Fiedler found that
    leader-follower relationships are the most
    important situational factors in moderately
    favourable situations.

30 years of research on Fiedlers theory
  • Strube and Carcia (1981) conducted a meta
    analytic review of over 170 studies and generally
    found strong support for the theory.
  • Peter et al. (1985) reviewed both laboratory and
    field studies and found much less support for the
    theory from the latter group.

Criticism of Fiedlers contingency theory
  • LPC scale is not a stable measure
  • As leader become more experienced they may change
    their leadership style.
  • The three components of situational
    favourableness are quite difficult to assess.
  • Field studies have provided less support to the
  • The theory has given great insight into
    leadership effectiveness. More research in
    real-lifesettings is needed to refine the LPC
    scale and better asses situational favourableness
    is needed.

Normative theory
  • One of the key tasks faced by any leader is that
    of decision-making, and when working with a small
    group of people one matter that Fielders theory
    is silent about concerns the extent to which the
    followers should participate in decision making.
  • Should the leader be autocratic and make
    decisions without consultation and involvement of
    other GM?
  • Should the leader reach a decision through
    participation and consensus?
  • This is at the heart of Vroom and Yeltons (1973)
    normative theory of leadership.

They suggest three basic styles of leadership
  • 1.Autocratic
  • Leader makes decisions unilaterally and without
    follower participation or involvement
  • 2 Consultative
  • Leader consults with GM and the makes decision
  • 3.Group decision- leader consults and seeks view
    of other GM and reaches decision by consensus

Vroom Yelton
  • Leadership effectiveness is contingent upon two
    main situational factors
  • 1- the extent to which a high-quality decision is
  • 2- the extent to which it is important that the
    other group members accept the decision that is

  • It is important that a very high quality decision
    is made
  • The leader does not have enough information upon
    which to base the decision
  • It is important that the GM accept and are
    committed to the decision what decision-making
    style is best?
  • Consultative or group decision
  • If There is limited time?
  • consultative

  • The leader believes for good reasons that the
    other group members do not have the knowledge or
    the experience to make the right decision
  • And the group will act on the decision made?
  • Autocratic style
  • The model is normative because VY provide a set
    of rules to guide leaders in deciding which style
    of leader-participation should be adopted. Vroom
    and Jago (1978) have updated the model.
  • It is so complex that a computer programme is
    necessary to work out the best decision-making
    style. It is very attractive in organisations.

Normative theory
  • Strengths
  • Weaknesses
  • It takes account of followers or other group
  • Suggest that a leader is able to change his or
    her style of decision-making to suit different
  • Heilman et al. (1984) found that managers
    preferred a participative style even when the
    model recommended an autocratic one.
  • Followers prefer a participative style of
    leadership almost always when the leaders are
    using an autocratic style
  • In high conflict situations leaders may revert to
    autocratic style against the model.

Path-goal theory
  • House and Baetz(1979) suggested that the leaders
    role is to ensure that the group progresses along
    the appropriate path to achieve its goals.
  • Leaders may adopt one of four styles while at
    the same time taking account of two contingency
    or situational factors 1 the characteristics of
    followers and 2 the environment in which the
    group is working

The four leadership styles are
  • 1. Directive
  • The leader provides clear guidance, lets
    followers know what is expected from them, and
    produces work schedule,
  • 2. Supportive
  • The leader establishes good relationships with
    followers and shows concern for their needs.
  • 3. Participative
  • The leader consults with followers and encourages
    them to be involved in decision-making
  • 4. Achievement-oriented
  • The leader sets challenging goals and seeks
    improvement in followers performance.

  • The task is unstructured the best leadership
    style is?
  • Directive
  • The followers are highly skilled and experienced
    the most effective style is?
  • Supportive
  • Followers who have a high need for affiliation
    (to be with others and get on with them) will do
    best with
  • Supportive or participative style of leadership

Path-goal theory
  • Good empirical support (Schriesham and De Nisi,
    1981, Wofford and Liska, 1993)
  • It focuses on the role of followers.

Transformational leadership
Transformational Leadership
  • Leaders who are regarded as exceptional and as
    agent of social, political, and economic change.
  • These leaders are transformational in that they
    inspired people to change.
  • This approach to exceptional leadership is not a
    return to the great person theory but is seen
    as the effect and reactions that charismatic or
    transformational leaders have on their followers.

Transformational Leadership
  • Conger (1991) identifies four main
    characteristics of leader-follower relationships
  • 1. Followers show high level of devotion, loyalty
    and reverence to the leader.
  • 2. Followers are both enthusiastic and committed
    to the ideas and vision of the leader.
  • 3. Followers willingly make self-sacrifices for
    the general good of the group as a whole.
  • 4. Followers show levels of performance and
    behaviour greatly beyond what would normally be

Transformational leadership
  • Howell and Frost (1989) have analysed the key
    behaviour of transformational leaders show when
    having such a profound influence on the
  • 1. a vision or dream that the leader is able to
    communicate in vivid, exciting and emotional
  • 2. such leaders convince their followers that
    they have a path or means to get them from where
    they are now to a realisation of a dream.
  • 3. they offer a framing in which the followers
    are justified to behave the way they want them to
  • 4. they exhibit total confidence in what they say
    and do, deep regard for the needs of their
    followers, excellent interpersonal communication
    skills and an inspiration power of oration.
    (House et al., 1991).

Transformational Leadership
  • Interest in transformational or charismatic
    leadership has been intense in 1990s because of
    the dramatic change one person can bring about.
  • Bass (1997) claims that with the rapid
    development of communication systems, the
    internet and electronic commerce transformational
    leadership will increase in the future.
  • Transformational leadership is a two-edged swords
    since both good and evil may result (Hitler and

Gender and Leadership
  • Leaders mentioned up to now are predominantly
  • This raises the question of whether or not males
    and females differ in leadership styles and/or
    leadership effectiveness or if cultural
    stereotypes prevent women from occupying top
  • Eagly and Johnson (1990) conducted a
    meta-analytic review of over 250 studies of
    leadership to see if males and females differ in
    their leadership styles.
  • The most important overall finding is that male
    and female leaders show similar approaches but
  • Males are generally more directive and
    autocratic, while females are democratic and
    participative in their leadership styles.

Gender and Leadership
  • Research clearly show that women experience a
    glass ceiling and that when they break through
    the glass they are viewed more positively and are
    more likely to be more effective in maintaining a
    leadership that is participative and democratic.
  • Female transformational leaders show the same
    behavioural style and approach to their followers
    as do males.
  • Exceptional leadership transcends the sex of the
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