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Diversity, Inclusivity

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Diversity, Inclusivity & Civility: Developing & Enhancing Students' Cultural Competence Part 2 Tom Brown www.tbrownassociates.com tom_at_tbrownassociates.com – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Diversity, Inclusivity


1
Diversity, Inclusivity Civility Developing
Enhancing Students' Cultural Competence Part 2
  • Tom Brown
  • www.tbrownassociates.com tom_at_tbrownassociates.com

2
Reality is perception from our point of
view. Our perceptions are reinforced by what
weve been taught.
3
Perceptual set
  • Imagine you are witnessing a prehistoric scene in
    a cave, where a group is gathered around a
    glowing fire.
  • One of the group picks up a piece of charcoal and
    goes over to the wall and begins drawing.
  • Suddenly, shapes of animals and humans are drawn,
    and a new form of human communication begins.
  • Can you see it?
  • For how many of you was the artist a woman?

4
Our perceptions are reinforced by what weve
been taught.
5
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6
  • The U.S. college campus is one of the few places
    on earth where people from so many diverse
    backgrounds come together for a common purpose

7
Session 1
  • Why does diversity matter?
  • Does diversity support student learning and
    development? Why and how?
  • What is cultural competence?
  • Can cultural competence be developed?
  • Addressing Some Diversity Issues
  • Barriers to Engagement

8
For institutions To keep pace in today's complex
and competitive global arena, American higher
education must retire old notions of educational
exclusivity and embrace new models of inclusive
excellence. For students By incorporating
diverse content, perspectives, and approaches
into the curriculum, faculty strengthen
scholarship and prepare students for engagement
with today's complex world.
Diversity matters
9
It matters for students By incorporating diverse
content, perspectives, and approaches into the
curriculum, faculty of all disciplines have found
both pedagogical and curricular routes that
strengthen scholarship and prepare students for
engagement with today's complex world. Teaching
Diversity and Democracy Across the Disciplines
Who, What How, Diversity Democracy, Fall 2009

Why does diversity matter?
10
Diverse learning experiences benefit students
  • Diversity has positive effects on students
    cognitive development, satisfaction with the
    college experience, and leadership abilities.
  • Students who interact with racially and
    ethnically diverse peers show greater
    intellectual growth and academic skills.
  • Both in-class and out-of-class interactions and
    involvement with diverse peers foster critical
    thinking
  • Benefits and Challenges of Diversity, Eve Fine,
    2004

11
Diversity and Education
  • Diversity capitalizes on the unique experiences
    and common wisdom of all cultures by providing a
    fertile ground for contrast and comparison.
  • Provides a view of other peoples so distinct
    from, yet similar to, ourselves that our own
    lives and experiences are given new perspective
    and meaning.
  • Diversity is an enriching and necessary component
    of the total educational experience.
  • Southern Oregon University

12
Cross cultural competence
  • Developing an awareness of one's own culture,
    existence, sensations, thoughts, and environment
  • Accepting and respecting cultural differences
  • Resisting judgmental attitudes such as "different
    is not as good" and
  • Being open to cultural encounters
  • Being comfortable with cultural encounters.

The Purnell Model for Cultural
Competence Journal of Multicultural Counseling
and Health Summer 2005
13
Theoretical Model of Cross Cultural Competence
Cognitive Flexibility Openness
allows
Willingness to Engage
Tolerance of Uncertainty
  • Specific Competencies
  • Perspective-taking
  • Prediction
  • Interpersonal Skills
  • Relationship Building

Leads to the development
Ethnocultural Empathy
Self-Efficacy
Resulting in
Emotional Regulation
allows
Effectiveness and Success
Ross, Thornson, McDonald, Arrastia The
Development of the CrossCultural Competence
Inventory, 2009
14
Developing competence is a process
  • Cultural competence is not acquired quickly or
    casually, rather it requires an intentional
    examination of ones thoughts and behaviors.
  • The first step toward becoming culturally
    competent is realizing that you probably arent.
  • Cultural Competence in the Biology Classroom
  • Kimberly Tanner Deborah Allen, 2007

15
(No Transcript)
16
Cross Cultural Competence includes
  • Having the capacity to
  • value diversity
  • conduct self-assessment
  • manage the dynamics of difference
  • acquire and institutionalize cultural knowledge
  • adapt to the diversity and cultural contexts of
    individuals and communities served.

17
Culture is often viewed in the U.S. as being
primarily related to race, ethnicity, and
gender However, effective diversity/inclusivity
programs must also address other kinds of
diversity which lead to marginalization and
exclusion.
Making Diversity More Inclusive
18
Seven kinds of diversity Beverly D. Tatum, 1999
  • ism
  • Racism/ethnocentrism
  • Sexism
  • Religious oppression
  • Heterosexism
  • Classism
  • Ageism
  • Ableism
  • Otherness
  • Race/ethnicity
  • Gender
  • Religion
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Socio-economic status
  • Age
  • Physical/Mental Ability

19
Attention to diversity might even be perceived as
divisive and inhibiting community.
  • A strategy to counter the divisive perceptions
    of diversity is to broaden our definition of
    diversity, in ways that highlight the
    intersectionality of race/ethnic, gender, class,
    religion, sexual orientation, within a framework
    of marginalization and justice.
  • Marilyn Fernandez, Santa Clara University

20
Multiple issues
  • Black and ALSO
  • A woman (gender)
  • Atheist (religion)
  • Questioning (Sexual orientation)
  • Low Socio-economic background
  • 45 years old and returning to college (age)
  • Dyslexic (ability)

21
Developing Cross Cultural Competence Addressing
Some Diversity Issues
  • Socio-economic status
  • Religion
  • Sexual orientation
  • Race Ethnicity

22
People from the same ethnic or racial group are
also diverse in terms of socio-economic status,
education, age, sexual orientation, individual
experiences, or disposition.
Diversity in Diversity
23
White students often struggle with strong
feelings of guilt when they become aware of the
pervasive racism. Even when they feel their own
behavior has been nondiscriminatory.
  • These feelings are uncomfortable and can lead
    white students to resist learning about race and
    racism. And who can blame them? If learning
    about racism means seeing oneself as one of the
    bad guys.
  • Beverly Tatum, 1994

24
Dont ask students to get out of their comfort
zone.
  • Challenge and support them to
  • stretch their comfort zone.

25
Its not personal
  • As a white, male, nondisabled, middle class
    heterosexual, I do know that in some ways these
    words are about me
  • But in equally important ways the words are not
    about me because they name something larger than
    me, something I didnt create or invent but that
    was passed on to me as a legacy of being born
    into this society.
  • Johnson 2006

26
White Identity Development A stage model
  • Contact stage denial of racism and/or
    obliviousness to White privilege
  • Disintegration stage disorientation, guilt, and
    anxiety as the realities of racism break through
  • Reintegration stage re-embrace the ideology of
    the normative White group
  • Pseudo-independent stage Acknowledgement of
    others racism without self-analysis with regard
    to their own socialized racism.
  • Immersion/Emersion Search for accurate
    information about race and a deeper understanding
    of their own racist socializations.
  • Autonomy cognitively complex and flexible, avoid
    life options participation in racial oppression,
    capacity to relinquish White privilege.
  • Janet Helms, 1992

27
Identity Development
  • Autonomy
  • The autonomous person is humanistic and involved
    in activism regarding many forms of oppression
    (e.g., fighting sexism, ageism, homophobia).

28
  • Most of us will find that we are both dominant
    and targeted at the same time but the targeted
    identities hold our attention and the dominant
    identities go unexamined
  • We assume the targeted identity to be the primary
    cause of all oppression, forgetting other
    distortions around difference, some of which we
    are ourselves practicing.
  • Age, Race, Class Sex Women Defining
    Difference
  • Audre Lord, 1995

29
Dominant and Targeted
  • Gay
  • White
  • Male (gender)
  • Christian (religion)
  • Professional (Socio-economic Status
  • 35 years old (age)
  • No disabilities

30
Diversity and inclusivity are about
understanding not necessarily agreeing.
31
Understanding cultural difference doesnt make
the difference go away. However, the person who
understands how difference causes communication
to break down can take the initiative to try and
make the communication work. You
Just Dont Understand Dr. Deborah Tannen, 2000
32
Session 2
  • Developing cultural competence Understanding
    terms
  • Exploring culture, cultural assumptions, and the
    development of bias
  • Creating inclusive campuses and culturally
    competent teaching
  • Cognitive emotional barriers to success
    Stereotype Threat
  • Diversity?Inclusivity?Civility
  • Assessing cultural competence

33
Defining Understanding Terms
  • Nationality
  • The status of belonging to a particular nation
    by origin, birth, or naturalization.
  • Ethnic Group
  • A sizable group of people sharing a common and
    distinctive racial, national, religious,
    linguistic, or cultural heritage.

34
Defining Understanding Terms
  • Race A human population distinguished as a
    more or less distinct group by genetically
    transmitted physical characteristics.

35
Racial characteristics are only minor variations
among people groups.
  • Racial characteristics (e.g., skin color, eye
    shape, hair texture) account for 0.012 percent of
    human biological variation.
  • Susan Cameron Susan Macias Wycoff Journal of
    Counseling Development, 1998

36
No scientific basis for race?
  • Race was invented in the 18th Century
  • Race and racism have always been connected
  • Racial traits are culturally determined
  • The Social Construction of Race
  • David Schweingruber, April 2005
  • http//www.public.iastate.edu/s2005.soc.134/134le
    cture33(apr04).pdf

37
No scientific basis for race?
  • The belief that a classification based on skin
    color and other skin-deep properties like body
    shape or hair style maps onto meaningful,
    important biological kindsis a pseudo-biological
    concept that has been used to justify and
    rationalize the unequal treatment of groups of
    people by others.
  • Social Construction and the Concept of Race
  • Edouard Machery and Luc Faucher, 2004

38
Science suggests the differences that set us
apart are not racial, they are more likely to be
cultural.
39
The only reason people think differences are
major is because weve been brought up in a
culture that has taught us to see differences
this way.
40
Diversity is not the problem
  • The problem emerges because we live in a world
    that encourages people to use differences to
    include or exclude, reward or punish, credit or
    discredit, elevate, or oppress, value or devalue,
    leave alone or harass.
  • Johnson, 2006

41
Culture is learned. You are not born with
culture.
42
Cultures differ from one another in the ways
they view the worldworldviews. Culture is
learned. You are not born with culture.
43
Cultural Encounter Exercise
44
Cultural Encounter Exercise
  • Culture A
  • Your culture requires you to speak loudly and to
    stand very close to people when you are talking.
  • It is polite to shake hands with every new person
    you meet.
  • It is a sign of respect to look people in the
    eyes.
  • It is very important to touch people every now
    and then while talking to themusually by placing
    a hand on their shoulders, or touching their arms.

45
Cultural Encounter Exercise
  • Culture B
  • Your culture requires you to speak softly and be
    at least three feet away from people when you are
    talking.
  • It is improper for men and women to shake hands
    with people of the opposite sex.
  • It is rude to look people in the eyes while
    speaking.
  • It is improper for strangers to touch each other,
    and you must try to avoid bodily contact at all
    costs.

46
Cultural Encounter Exercise
  • Divide students into Culture A and Culture B
  • Give them a few minutes to read and practice
    their groups culture
  • Ask the two cultures to interact for several
    minutes and observe what happens
  • Stop the exercise and ask the groups to describe
    their thoughts, feelings and beliefs about the
    other group
  • Note the judgments, assumptions, descriptions
    that emerge

47
Art
48
Is learned or taught
Art
49
Culture is learned first in the family, then in
school, then in the community and other social
organizations such as the church. Purnell,
2005
50
It is hard to recognize your own culture and
cultural assumptions because they are so
pervasive and dominant.
51
Implicit Cultural Assumptions
  • North American
  • Egalitarian/equality
  • Can control the environment
  • Future oriented
  • Informal
  • Direct in communications
  • Youth valuing
  • Friendliness
  • Optimism
  • Action oriented Change now
  • Ethnocentric our way is the best way
  • Contrast Cultures
  • Hierarchy
  • Belief in fate
  • Present focus
  • Formal
  • Indirect (non-verbal cues)
  • Age valuing
  • More closed to strangers
  • Fatalism
  • Change takes time
  • Ethnocentric our way is the only way

52
These are learned and can be changed
Art
Beliefs about Beauty
Whats below the surface is absorbed or acquired
from our environment and is much harder to change
53
Our attitudes toward race, gender, other
diversity operate at two levels
  • Conscious what we choose to believe.
  • Unconscious immediate, automatic associations
    that tumble out before weve had time to think.
  • Blink, Malcolm Gladwell

54
The Dolls.
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vWG7U1QsUd1g
55
Our attitudes toward race, gender, other
diversity operate at two levels
  • Conscious what we choose to believe.
  • Unconscious immediate, automatic associations
    that tumble out before weve had time to think.
  • Blink, Malcolm Gladwell

56
Implicit Association Tests https//implicit.harva
rd.edu/implicit/selectatest.html
57
Implicit Association Tests
  • Race
  • Disability
  • Religion
  • Age
  • Sexuality
  • Skin Tone
  • Arab Muslim
  • Gender-science
  • And more

58
Creating culturally inclusive classroom
environments
59
A Culturally Inclusive Classroom
  • Students and staff alike recognize, appreciate
    and capitalize on diversity so as to enrich the
    overall learning experience.
  • Encourages all individuals regardless of age,
    gender, ethnicity, religious affiliation,
    socioeconomic status, sexual orientation or
    political beliefs to develop personal contacts
    and effective intercultural skills.

Designing Culturally Inclusive Learning and
Teaching Environments GIHE Good Practice Resource
Book, Griffith University, Australia
60
A Culturally Inclusive Classroom
Designing Culturally Inclusive Learning and
Teaching Environments GIHE Good Practice Resource
Book, Griffith University, Australia
61
Why are all the white kids sitting together in
the cafeteria?
  • Unless colleges and universities create
    structures to monitor educational achievement
    among all students African American, Latino/a,
    Native American, Asian American, whitethe ideal
    of inclusive excellence will be meaningless
  • Achieving Educational Outcomes for All students
  • Bauman, Bustillos, Bensimon, Bensimon, Brown,
    Bartee, 2005

62
Challenge and support students
  • People who expand or stretch their comfort zones
    to include more people and experiences, often
    report more complete, rewarding, and successful
    livesduring college and beyond.
  • From Diversity to Inclusivity, T. Brown, 2011

63
Engaging majority students
  • Provide majority students with avenues to
    enhance their cross-cultural competencies and
    encourage their active participation and
    engagement with diverse populations.
  • Salve Regina University

64
Recommendation for students to enhance cultural
competence
  • Take classes about cultures and groups other
    than your own to expand your knowledge and
    increase your cultural competence.

65
Recommendation for students to enhance cultural
competence
  • For Multicultural students
  • Invite friends outside your identity group(s) to
    come with you to events and activities. This will
    not only allow them to make personal and social
    connections, it may also enable them consider
    their own feelings of being in the minority.

66
Recommendation for students to enhance cultural
competence
  • For U.S. students
  • Reach out to international students. too few
    international students have opportunities to meet
    and know US students and people.
  • Explore opportunities to become a language
    partner for students seeking to improve their
    language skills.
  • join the international club and attend events,
    and invite international students to participate
    in social and cultural events with which you are
    involved.

67
Recommendation for students to enhance cultural
competence
  • For all students
  • Challenge racist, sexist, and homo-negative
    comments and jokes that demean others. Racism and
    other forms of discrimination may persevere in
    part because people who anticipate feeling upset
    and who believe that they will take action when
    faced with an act of intolerance may actually
    respond with indifference.

68
It takes the faculty



  • Most faculty members report believing campus
    diversity positively affects students and
    faculty.
  • Most have not made many changes in their
    classroom practices as a result of student and
    faculty diversity. Does Diversity Make a
    Difference? Maruyama and Moreno, 2000

69
It takes the faculty



  • Only one-third of responding faculty report
    raising issues related to diversity and creating
    diverse work groups, although they reported
    feeling well-prepared to teach diverse classes
  • Maruyama and Moreno, 2000

70
Culturally competent teaching
  • The ability to successfully teach students who
    come from different cultures entails
  • mastering personal and interpersonal awareness
    and sensitivities,
  • learning, specific bodies of cultural knowledge
  • mastering a set of skills that underlie effective
    cross-cultural teaching
  • Cultural Competence A Primer for Educators
  • Jerry Diller and Jean Moule, 2005

71
Many non-traditional students want their doubts
erased about their being capable of
learning. This is especially true for first
generation students, Hispanic and African
American students. Laura Rendon 1994, 2001
72
Stereotype Threat
  • Multicultural students have reported being
    affected directly by racist assumptions in class
    and subsequently felt that faculty were less
    willing to interact with them, even concerning
    academic related issues.
  • Allen,1991 Kraft, 1991

73
African American men report being stereotyped
based on the styles they wear, such as baggy
jeans, braided hairstyles, or gold jewelry.
MDRC, 2010
74
Identity and Stereotype Threat
  • Our social identities come from a variety of
    places
  • Our race, sex, age, political affiliations,
    medical diagnoses, high schools, colleges, even
    our favorite teams.
  • Each of those identities comes along with a set
    of expectations, labels, or stereotypes.

75
Stereotypes
  • Asian students in math and science?
  • U.S. white male vs. black male athletes in a 100
    meter race.
  • Second language speakers and writing proficiency
  • Women in science and math?
  • Whites vs. Asians in STEM?
  • And then there's a curious fact
  • Take away the threat to identity, and they do fine

76
Identity and Stereotype Threat Women, Black,
Latino students academic performance
declines in situations identified as testing
their intellectual ability. Whistling Vivaldi,
Claude Steele, 2011
77
The pressure of a stereotype can distract
students focus in learning situations
In addition to learning new skills, knowledge,
and ways of thinking, students are also TRYING TO
SLAY A GHOST IN THE ROOM--- negative stereotypes
about them and their group
Adapted from Steele, 2010
78
Stereotype threat affects the ability to function
effectively
  • Affects the ability to use our mind in an
    effective manner by
  • Increasing performance-worsening rumination
  • Impairing working memory
  • Activating worry circuits in the brain versus
    reasoning circuits.

These reactions interfere with performance
79
Stereotype Threat
  • When students are reminded, however subtly, of
    negative stereotypes about their group (e.g.,
    women or students of color in math), they perform
    more poorly. Steele Aronson, 1995 Rydell,
    McConnell Beilock, 2009

80
Stereotype threat
  • Internalized oppression
  • A member of the stereotyped group comes to
    believe in the truth of the stereotype to some
    degree.
  • Tatum, 1994

81
Low Ability Attributions
  • Self attributions of low ability, as well as low
    ability attributions of faculty, staff can
    adversely affect the extent to which students
    become fully engaged in learning, as well as the
    extent to which faculty and staff become fully
    engaged in supporting students to succeed at a
    task.
  • Brown Rivas, 2011

82
I cant do Calculus.
83
Shift attributions from ability to
background. Students attributions and those of
faculty and staff.
84
What background is required for success in
Calculus?
  • Pre-Calculus
  • Algebra/Trig
  • Algebra
  • Basic Math

85
Even though students may be highly prepared, the
anxiety they experience from worrying whether
their peers and teachers believe stereotypes to
be true is distressful enough to lower
performance. Roach, 2001
86
Reducing stereotype threat Steele, 2010
  • The negative effects of Stereotype Threat can be
    lessened when
  • Educators challenge themselves to understand the
    impact of Stereotype Threat, and model
    non-stereotypical behavior toward students.

87
Examining Challenging Stereotypes
  • Once we have formed unconscious judgments, or
    stereotypes, they usually wont change unless
    we take the time to examine and consciously
    consider their accuracy.
  • This is what it truly means to be a student and
    a scholar. From Diversity to
    Inclusivity Tom Brown, 2011

88
Diversity to inclusivity An inclusive
organization where all people are empowered to do
their best work. Simma Lieberman
89
Diversity?Inclusivity?Civility
  • Civility matters because treating one another
    with respect is necessary to effective
    communication, community building, and finding
    common ground.
  • The Dance of Incivility in Nursing Dr. Cindy
    Clark, Boise State University

90
Creating a culture of civility requires
communication, interaction, and an appreciation
for the interests each person brings to the
relationship. Cynthia Clark, 2008
91
Diversity Inclusivity Civility Community
  • We Value
  • Excellence in teaching and learning that we
    enhance through diversity, inclusiveness,
    integrity and collegiality.
  • A positive culture that fosters mutual respect
    and trust and promotes this atmosphere through
    open communication.
  • An environment that recognizes and respects
    cultural diversity by recognizing and being
    responsive to individual needs.
  • Elizabethtown Community Technical College

92
What produces a safe classroom?
93
A safe classroom climate
  • A safe classroom is one where discussion and
    disagreement are acceptable where established
    rules of discourse are followed by everyone,
    especially the instructor.
  • Students may need to be reminded of ground rules
    from time to time
  • Once students have reached consensus on a
    particular point, acknowledge this and agree to
    move on, so they don't recycle arguments over old
    ground.
  • University of North Carolina Center for Faculty
    Excellence

94
A safe classroom climate
  • It may be necessary to call time outs to allow
    emotions to cool. Ask students to summarize the
    discussion and write down their own thoughts, so
    these can be shared to restart the discussion.
  • Reserve time to wrap up the discussion, wherein
    students report what they learned and examine
    conclusions drawn from the exchange.
  • University of North Carolina Center for Faculty
    Excellence

95
Our Argument Culture
  • Too many students (and perhaps too many faculty)
    understand the goal of debate in the classroom
    (and in a democracy) to be to convince other
    students (and fellow citizens) of their views.
  • Critical thinking should be a tool not merely for
    exposing flaws in others' arguments, but for
    reflecting on one's own assumptions and--most
    importantly--strengthening one's own
    understanding.
  • Teaching Diversity and Democracy Across the
    Disciplines Who, What, How
  • Dr. Jack Meacham, 2009

96
Without civility, we miss opportunities to really
listen and understand others points of view.
Clark, 2008
97
A key element in learning from those who are
different from you is to listen to their
feelings, especially their feelings of being the
other in some area of their lives.
Communication for community To Listen More
98
As soon as we think we are right about something,
we narrow our focus, attending only to the
details that support our belief, or we cease
listening altogether. The Human
Element Will Schultz, 2010
Communication for community To Listen More
99
Your opinion is only your point of view.
  • It is not necessarily true. The Four
    Agreements
  • Don Miguel Ruiz

100
Theres a chance youre both right. Perception
is reality
101
Do you see an old woman or young woman?
102
In an undergraduate context, it is widely
accepted that the foundation of a civil or
uncivil classroom is established within the first
four days of class Amy Hirschy John Braxton,
2004
103
Civility in the College Classroom Jennifer
Schroeder Harvetta Robinson, 2008
  • Be proactive Include expectations for behavior,
    along with academic expectations in syllabi
  • Be a model Behavior serves as a powerful
    representation in how faculty treat students
  • Ask why seek to have students explain their
    behavior and put it into context
  • Have a plan to respond to the unexpected
  • Follow through on your plans for action
  • Document incidents and your response(s) thereto

104
Civility Contract-Indiana University
  • The classroom setting must be characterized by
    appropriate, respectful behavior.
  • No instructor or other students in a class should
    be subject to any students disruptive or rude
    behavior.
  • The instructor will take appropriate action to
    maintain a positive learning environment.
  • Sanctions may include removal from class,
    failure of an assignment or the course, and/or
    referral to the campus judicial system.
  • Likewise, no student should feel disregarded or
    intimidated by his/her instructor.

105
Civility Contract-Indiana University (http//www.e
sf.edu/facgov/ExecChDocs/civpldge.pdf)
  • The classroom setting must be characterized by
    appropriate, respectful behavior. No instructor
    or other students in a class should be subject to
    any students disruptive or rude behavior. The
    instructor will take appropriate action to
    maintain a positive learning environment.
    Sanctions may include removal from class, failure
    of an assignment or the course, and/or referral
    to the campus judicial system. Likewise, no
    student should feel disregarded or intimidated by
    his/her instructor.
  • As a member of the academic community, I
    understand my responsibility for ensuring a
    productive and conducive learning environment. I
    will respect the guidelines listed above and I
    understand the consequences of disregarding them
  • Signature Printed Name Date

106
As a member of a campus community, you have the
responsibility to contribute to creating an
environment wherein all people feel safe to be
themselves. Whenever you are about to make a
comment or take an action, imagine what would
happen if you asked yourself a simple question
Is what I am about to say or do going to bring me
closer to this person or is it going to drive us
further apart?
107
Assessing cultural competence
  • Gaining the intellectual tools for diversity
    competence should become a strategic learning
    outcome that is woven through the core
    curriculum. Diversity Cultural Competence A
    Model for Inclusive Excellence Marilyn
    Fernandez, Santa Clara University

108
Developing and enhancing cultural competence must
be the primary outcome of diversity/inclusivity
programs.
Diversity/Inclusivity Outcomes
  • Cultural competence is the ability to understand,
    communicate and effectively interact with people
    across cultures.

109
Assessing Cross Cultural Competence
  • The Cross Cultural Competence Inventory
  • Karol G. Ross, Carol A. Thornson, Daniel P.
    McDonald Meagan C. Arrastia
  • https//www.deomi.org/contribute/EOEEOResources/
  • documents/Development_of_the_CCCI-Ross.pdf

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Assessing Students' Diversity, Global, and Civic
Learning Gains Diversity Democracy AACU
Summer 2013 http//www.aacu.org/diversitydemocrac
y/index.cfm
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Cultural competence skill areas.
  • Valuing Diversity. Accepting and respecting
    differencesdifferent cultural backgrounds and
    customs, different ways of communicating, and
    different traditions and values.
  • Being Culturally Self-Aware. Having sense of who
    they are and where they fit in their family,
    campus, community, and society.
  • Dynamics of Difference. Knowing what can go wrong
    in cross-cultural communication and how to
    respond to these situations.
  • Cultural Competence A Primer for Educators
  • Jerry Diller and Jean Moule, 2005

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Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes
  • 1. Intellectual and Practical Skills
  • 2. Personal and Social Responsibility
  • 3. Integrative and Applied Learning
  • American Association of Colleges Universities
  • http//www.aacu.org/value/

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Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes Selected
examples
  • 1. Intellectual and Practical Skills inquiry and
    analysis critical thinking teamwork problem
    solving
  • What evidence would be considered?
  • How would this be measured?

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Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes Selected
examples
  • 2. Personal and Social Responsibility civic
    knowledge and engagement - local and global
    intercultural knowledge and competence ethical
    reasoning.
  • What evidence would be considered?
  • How would this be measured?

115
Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes Selected
examples
  • 3. Integrative and Applied Learning integrative
    and applied learning
  • What evidence would be considered?
  • How would this be measured?

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Assessment in Diversity at Texas A M University
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Students will demonstrate social, cultural, and
global competence, including the ability to
  • live and work effectively in a diverse and global
    society
  • articulate the value of a diverse and global
    perspective
  • recognize diverse economic, political, cultural
    and religious opinions and practices.
  • Texas AM University, 2002

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Texas AM launched the Intercultural Competence
Project (ICP) in summer 2012.
  • Extended e-mail invitations to faculty asking for
    student work dealing with international, global,
    or diversity issues, omitting personal
    information
  • Coded the papers for analysis, including student
    demographic information (gender, race, class
    status)
  • Using a modified version of the rubric that
    excluded the verbal and nonverbal communication
    skills criterion, faculty from four different
    colleges scored the submitted papers.

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Texas AM Intercultural Competence Project
  • OIA staff compared mean scores based on gender,
    ethnicity, and class
  • OIA created department-level reports for each
    participating unit, comparing each departments
    scores to the overall average.
  • reports sparked conversation about opportunities
    to enhance pedagogy and the curriculum.

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Self Assessment
  • Self-assessment as an ongoing process, not a
    one-time occurrence, that offers the opportunity
    to assess individual and collective progress over
    time.
  • National Center for Cultural Competence
  • Georgetown University
  • http//nccc.georgetown.edu/resources/assessments.
    html

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Established Assessment Issues
  • Is the assessment based on self-reports of
    learning or direct, authentic evidence of
    learning?
  • Is the assessment both practical and meaningful?
  • Do the assessment procedures support multiple
    levels of analysis, and what is distinctive at
    each level?
  • Is the assessment theoretically grounded and
    generalizable to other contexts?
  • Assessing Diversity, Global, and Civic
    Learning A Means to Change in Higher
    Education Robert G. Bringle, Patti H. Clayton,
    and William M. Plater

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Emerging Assessment Issues
  • Whose voices and perspectives are included in the
    assessment process?
  • Does the assessment approach align with the
    nature of the learning process?
  • Does the assessment process integrate all
    relevant learning contexts?
  • Bringle, Clayton, Plater, 2013

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Key to successful assessment
  • Connect assessment to overall institutional
    assessment efforts
  • Present assessment as a way to support efforts to
    improve institutional effectiveness
  • Develop an assessment program that is
    comprehensive
  • Design assessments that use multiple methods
  • Use assessment results in ways that ultimately
    improve curricular and co-curricular programs.

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