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The First World War

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The First World War 1914 - 1918 First World War But . . . Great Britain and France wanted revenge against Germany. Big Four First World War Treaty of Versailles ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The First World War


1
The First World War
1914 - 1918
2
  • Causes of WWI
  • M Militarism
  • A Alliances
  • I Imperialism
  • N Nationalism

3
First World War
  • Allies France, Great Britain, and Russia
  • Central Powers Germany and Austria-Hungary
  • BALANCE SUPPORT

4
First World War
  • On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand
    (future king of Austria-Hungary) was assassinated
    by a Serbian nationalist.

5
First World War
  • Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and
    alliances pulled European nations into war.
  • On August 3, 1914, Germany invaded neutral
    Belgium to attack France!!!

6
First World War
  • President Woodrow Wilson urged Americans to stay
    neutral!!!!

7
First World War
  • Western front in France became the crucial battle
    front, but it was a stalemate.
  • Called trench warfare

8
  • No one who was not been there can fully
    appreciate the excruciating agonies and misery
    through which the men had to go in those days . .
    . Paddling about by day, sometimes with water
    above the knees standing at night, hour after
    hour on sentry duty, while the drenched boots,
    puttees and breeches became stiff like cardboard
    with ice from the freezing cold air.
  • Eye Deep in Hell

9
First World War
  • World War I introduced modern weapons
  • Machine guns
  • Tanks
  • Mustard gas

10
First World War
  • New hazards and dangers
  • Dysentery
  • Shell shock
  • Trench foot

11
First World War
  • U-boats (German submarines) began sinking Allied
    ships.
  • On May 7, 1915, a German u-boat sank the
    Lusitania, killing 1,198 people (128 were
    Americans).
  • German officials claimed the ship was carrying
    contraband.

12
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13
First World War
  • Wilson was re-elected in 1916 with the campaign
    slogan He Kept Us Out of War

14
First World War
  • Germany continued to use unrestricted submarine
    warfare.
  • In the Zimmermann Note, Germany asked to form an
    alliance with Mexico in return for lost territory
    in the southwestern U.S.
  • In April 1917, Wilson asked Congress to declare
    war.

15
First World War
  • Wilson believed the U.S. needed to make the
    world safe for democracy.

16
U.S. Prepares for War
Over There
17
Over There
  • Johnnie, get your gun,Get your gun, get your
    gun,Take it on the run,On the run, on the
    run.Hear them calling, you and me,Every son of
    liberty.
  • Hurry right away,No delay, go today,Make your
    daddy gladTo have had such a lad.Tell your
    sweetheart not to pine,To be proud her boy's in
    line.
  • ChorusOver there, over there,Send the word,
    send the word over thereThat the Yanks are
    coming,The Yanks are coming,The drums
    rum-tummingEv'rywhere.
  • So prepare, say a pray'r,Send the word, send the
    word to beware.We'll be over, we're coming
    over,And we won't come back till it's overOver
    there.
  • Johnnie, get your gun,Get your gun, get your
    gun,Johnnie show the HunWho's a son of a
    gun.Hoist the flag and let her fly,Yankee
    Doodle do or die.
  • Pack your little kit,Show your grit, do your
    bit.Yankee to the ranks,From the towns and the
    tanks.Make your mother proud of you,And the old
    Red, White and Blue.

18
First World War
  • Selective Service Act set up a draft for young
    men for military service.

19
First World War
  • Wilson needed to shift the U.S. economy from
    peacetime to wartime production.
  • War Industries Board (WIB) regulated industries
    involved in the war effort led by Bernard M.
    Baruch.
  • National War Labor Board (NWLB) dealt with issues
    between workers and employers (no strikes).

20
First World War
  • Fuel Administration monitored supplies of coal
    and oil and created daylight-savings time.
  • Committee on Public Information (CPI) educated
    the public about the war and tried to persuade
    Americans to support the war.
  • Used propaganda posters!!!

21
First World War
  • Food Administration urged Americans to conserve
    food and grown their own.
  • Declared days of the week
  • Meatless - Wheatless
  • Sweetless - Porkless
  • Americans planted victory gardens for their own
    families.

22
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23
First World War
  • Americans purchased government bonds to help
    finance the war.
  • 35.5 billion

24
First World War
  • Espionage Sedition Acts laws that could fine
    or jail anyone interfering with the war effort or
    speaking against the government or military.
  • First Amendment???
  • Government has expanded powers during times of
    war or great crisis!!!

25
First World War
  • Army allowed African-Americans to serve as
    engineers and truck drivers.
  • Army allowed women to serve as nurses,
    secretaries, and telephone operators.

26
First World War
  • In 1917, Russia had a serious of revolutions to
    overthrow the czar.
  • After the Bolshevik Revolution, Russia pulled out
    of WWI and became . . .
  • COMMUNIST!!!

27
First World War
  • American soldiers were called doughboys.
  • Wanted to become war heroes.
  • Shocked by the horrors of the battlefield.

28
First World War
  • American Expeditionary Force (AEF) was led by
    General John J. Pershing

29
First World War
  • Allies wanted to use American troops as
    reinforcements (fill the gaps).
  • Pershing wanted his troops to fight on their own.
  • American troops provided man power as well as
    freshness and enthusiasm!!!
  • TURNING POINT!!!

30
First World War
  • American troops stopped German soldiers from
    taking France and began offensive attacks.
  • German military broke down . . .
  • On November 11, 1918, Germany
  • agreed to an armistice (cease-fire).

31
Negotiating Peace after the War
32
First World War
  • Woodrow Wilson traveled to Paris to negotiate the
    peace treaty!!!

33
First World War
  • Wilson believed his Fourteen Points would change
    the world by promoting openness, encouraging
    independence, and supporting freedom.
  • He wanted to form the League of Nations, an
    international organization to maintain peace.

34
First World War
  • But . . . Great Britain and France wanted revenge
    against Germany.
  • Big Four

35
First World War
  • Treaty of Versailles ended WWI and created more
    problems than it solved.
  • Created new nations in Europe and the Middle East
  • Forced Germany to take full responsibility for
    causing the war and pay 33 million to the Allied
    nations (reparations)!!!

36
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37
First World War
  • Wilson had to bring the treaty back to the U.S.
    for senate approval.
  • Henry Cabot Lodge leader of U.S. Senators
    against U.S. involvement in the League of
    Nations.
  • He believed it would pull the U.S. into European
    wars!!!

38
First World War
  • U.S. did NOT sign the Treaty of Versailles or
    join the League of Nations.
  • Wilson completed his term and died in 1922.

39
  • Woodrow Wilson was just as much a casualty of the
    war as any soldier.
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