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ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE

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Title: ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE


1
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE POLICE FIELD
OPERATIONS AND PATROL
2
I. INTRODUCTION A. The uniformed field officer
is the personification of law enforcement in
the United States.
3
1. Field officers become the representatives of
city government, because they are highly
visible.
4
2. How does the community see the police?
a. Majority of the people in the community
respect the police
(1) they know and respect them as their
protectors.
5
b. Others, see the uniformed officer as a
nuisance.
c. Some look upon them as the enemy.
6
3. The officer has a responsibility to serve
all members of the community with equal
dedication, respect, and with a sense of
justice.
7
4. Approximately one - half of all the local
police departments in the United States employ
fewer than 10 officers.
a. Less opportunity in these small agencies
to specialize.
8
5. At the other end of the spectrum, we have
34 police departments and 12 sheriff's
departments that are quite sophisticated and
highly specialized, employing more than 1000
officers.
9
a. Officers assigned a specific line of duty,
such as detective, juvenile detective, burglary
detective, or homicide detective as
example.
10
6. The basic field unit is usually known as the
patrol division.
11
B. Objectives of police field operations
1. Defense of life and property
a. The phrase -- "To protect and serve"--
means to provide all those services a police
officer will be expected and required to
provide.
12
(1) Agencies must open lines of communication
between the people and the officers who serve
them.
(a) Included in this category is the function
of "community relations"
13
(b) "Community relations" is a series of
programs to educate and inform the public
about department attitudes and policies
concerning law enforcement and crime
prevention.
14
2. Participative law enforcement
a. Attitudes of the people about how
effective the police are in protecting them
is extremely important.
15
b. Teamwork between the public and the police
is very important if police are to perform
effectively.
c. There needs to be a constant interchange of
ideas and expression of needs between the police
and the people.
16
d. Police need to make a constant and
deliberate effort to know their district and the
people in it.
(1) Some people have called this
"community-oriented policing".
17
e. The field officer's responsibility is to
ensure that this one - on - one relationship
between themselves and the public yields
maximum results.
18
f. There must be a constant effort to allow
the people to know the overall attitudes of the
department toward its general and specific
responsibilities.
19
g. There is no better opportunity for the
police officer to cultivate attitudes toward
the police (positive, it is hoped) than
through personal and informal contacts.
20
3. Prevention of criminal and delinquent
behavior
a. This police objective is aimed at ways
and means of reducing the desire to
commit crime.
21
b. There is no way to measure how much crime
police prevent.
c. It is nearly impossible for police to
convince the successful burglar who makes
thousands of tax-free dollars per month that
crime does not pay.
22
d. The police have a responsibility to identify
those offenders, delinquents, and near -
delinquents before an arrest becomes necessary.

e. Through keen observation and diligent
investigation, the officer attempts to locate
and detain the first-offender either before or
during the commission of a criminal act.
23
4. Repression of criminal and delinquent
behavior
a. Repression of crime is generally
accomplished either by having police officers
maintaining a highly visible profile or by
publicizing a highly active undercover
operation.
24
b. The objective is to cause people to
decide not to commit crimes for fear of being
caught in the act.
c. The theory is based upon the assumption
that people will not commit crimes if they
believe they are certain to be arrested
when they do.
25
d. Police omnipresence - the would - be
criminal will refrain from misbehaving because
of the likelihood that police will suddenly
pop out from nowhere and arrest him.
26
e. Crime repression by police patrol is
to try to create an impression of total
and continuous presence without creating an
air of oppressive dominance.
27
(1) A continuous and unpredictable patrol by
the field officer is an attempt to create this
feeling of omnipresence.
28
f. One of the most effective activities of the
crime repressive role of the police is the
field interview program, which consists of
making actual field contact with individuals
police encounter in their patrol area.
29
(1) When a suspects presence causes the
officer to have reasonable suspicion as to
their identity and motive for being where they
are under the circumstances that call for
further inquiry.
30
5. Identification and apprehension of, and
conviction of, offenders
a. Field officers must know their patrol
area and the behavior patterns of the people
in them.
31
b. Patrol officers must be in a position to
readily identify obvious or suspected
violations of the laws and to take immediate
enforcement action when possible.
c. It is an officers responsibility to know
what is a crime and what is not.
32
d. The officer must begin the investigation as
soon as possible.
(1) Locate and question victims and
witnesses.
(2) Protect the crime scene against further
contamination.
(3) Attempt to locate and apprehend the
suspect.
33
e. The due process provisions of the
Constitution of the United States and the
courts interpretations have served as
controlling influences on such police
procedures as field interviews, stop and frisk,
arrest, search, seizure of evidence,
interviewing the suspect, use of force, and
various other activities.
34
(1) It is the officers duty to assure fair
presentation of evidence in court to assure a
conviction that will withstand the test of
constitutionality.
35
6. Traffic flow and collision reduction
a. Traffic must be free - flowing and
collision - free so that people may move
safely from one place to another.
36
b. The police must determine the causes of
congestion and to relieve it.
c. This involves investigation and the
three E's education, engineering, and
enforcement.
37
(1) Enforcement most highly visible aspect of
the police traffic responsibility.
(a) Focus attention on those violations
that cause the most number of injuries and
property damage.
38
(2) Engineering - analysis of the collision
statistics show that an inordinate number of
unlawful left turns at a certain
intersection are listed as the cause of
collisions.
39
(a) May need a left turn lane and a traffic
signal with a left - turn green sequence.
(b) Officers in the field can recognize
these problem because they are dealing with
it on a daily basis.
40
(c) Officers should pass this information
on to the city traffic engineer or public
works department.
41
(3) The education aspect of traffic control
can reduce collisions by requiring violators to
attend traffic school classes.
(a) Education of the driving public is
aimed at changing the behavior and attitude of
people who knowingly disobey the law.
42
7. Maintenance of order and the public peace
a. This is one of the broadest functions -
It is in the "all other" category.
43
(1) Includes not only those activities that
have been legally delegated to the police but
also those assumed simply because there was
no one else to do them.
44
(a) Police must maintain a constant and
vigilant patrol, frequently making direct
contact with a number of people.
45
Demonstrates their presence in a
peacekeeping role.
Timely response to called - for services to
referee disagreements in family and
neighborhood situations that would erupt into
full - scale fight situations without their
presence.
46
(2) Police are required to attend places
where large numbers of people congregate, such
as stadiums, theaters, and places of
political rallies to maintain order and
prevent violations of the laws.
47
(a) Police are also required to enforce the
people's rights to assemble peaceably and
express their opinions and beliefs.
(b) Police may be dispatched to quiet a
boisterous party, loud radio, or the public
gathering that grew into a riot.
48
a. Directing traffic at fires or collision
scenes.
8. The "order maintenance" process includes
many other responsibilities, such as
b. Controlling crowds and preventing panic
at disaster scenes.
49
c. Providing a stabilizing influence in
times of emotional upset.
d. Most breaches of the peace are settled
merely by firmly suggesting that the
violators desist and comply with the law.
50
II. ACTIVITIES OF THE PATROL DIVISION
A. Routine patrol and observation
51
1. Basic patrolling activities are usually
referred to as "routine."
a. An officers tasks should never be taken
so lightly as to be considered routine.
52
b. It should be the officers "routine" not to
patrol the beat the same way twice.
(1) Many intelligent and wealthy criminals
have attributed their phenomenal successes to
their ability to work around the time
schedules of the field officers.
53
(2) Criminals learn the shift hours, patrol
assignments, and number of officers on patrol
at any given time.
(3) They use this information to analyze
the patrol methods employed by the officers
working the beats where they intend to
commit their crimes.
54
c. Patrol officers should avoid driving the
same route in the same sequence when they leave
their office.
d. Officers should avoid a fixed pattern for
patrolling their beat.
55
1. Wherever people gather in sizable numbers,
the police should be visibly present.
B. Preventive attendance at public gatherings
a. Police presence should alert anyone
inclined to break the law that there would be
a greater probability of arrest.
56
b. This also assures a more peaceful assembly
(1) Riot prevention is much better than
riot control.
c. Freedom of assembly is a basic freedom
assured by the First Amendment to the
Constitution.
57
d. The officers first duty when arriving at
the scene of an assembly is to determine that
it is lawful.
(1) Police should remain present to assure
the assembly continues to be peaceful.
58
2. There are times and places where anything
more than a casual police presence and
departure could be misinterpreted as
oppressive.
a. Officers standing around the polling
place on election day could be perceived as
government intervention into the free -
election process.
59
C. Benevolent and community services 1. Police
are often called upon to perform many services
that do not appear on any list of job
specifications for police officers.
Mountain Rescue
Toys for Kids
60
2. Although not required by any law, many of
these tasks have become traditional simply by
the officers' own willingness to do them as
a service to the people who ask for them.
a. Police are called upon to perform midwife
duties at childbirth.
61
b. They are expected to render first aid to
collision or disaster victims, even though those
activities are generally the responsibility of
medical service personnel who are better
trained and qualified to perform the task.
c. Sometimes officers have been known to dip
into their own pockets to help less
fortunate people on their beat.
62
3. Police are called upon to referee
neighborhood or family quarrels when they
have reached the violent stage.
4. Police sometimes deliver death messages
when the appropriate spiritual counselors
cannot be located.
63
5. Officers may be called upon to help people
get into their homes or autos when a is not
available.
6. There seems to be no other agency that is
geared to cope with the unusual and expected.
64
7. Police departments also provide chauffeur
service for visiting dignitaries and local
officials.
a. If the transportation is for the
purpose of providing protection, then it is
a police responsibility.
65
1. Security of personal and business property is
the responsibility of the people who have legal
custody of that property.
D. Business and property security
a. It is also the responsibility of local
police to protect that property.
66
b. Therefore, it becomes a joint
responsibility of both owner and the
police.
c. Police agencies should advise the public
on how they might make their property as
secure and crime resistant as possible.
67
d. If it were possible to educate
successfully all these would - be victims
of the need for security, the role of the
police would be much easier.
68
1. Inspections for security against theft
are obvious responsibilities of the patrol
force. But there are additional types of
inspections that police agencies may be
required to perform.
E. Inspection services
2. One of the more important is to look for
fires and fire hazards at the same time as the
check for security against crimes.
69
3. Since the officer is already on the
streets, it is most efficient to extend the
inspection responsibilities of the police and
then require the officers to report the law
violations or unsafe conditions to the
appropriate agencies.
70
b. streets and sidewalks in need of repair,
4. Included in the various types of
inspections the field officer performs are
a. utility outages,
c. building code violations,
71
e. unsanitary conditions in restaurants and
grocery stores,
d. health and safety violations,
f. obscured traffic signs and signals,
g. professional and business license
violations.
72
5. Enforcement action might include issuing
citations or making arrests for criminal
violations and / or submitting a comprehensive
report to be forwarded to the responsible agency
for further investigation and follow - up to
correct the problem.
73
F. Responding to calls for service
1. The great majority of calls for police
service do not involve matters that lead to an
on - the - spot arrest or any other action
beyond what the officer handles at the scene.
74
2. Neighborhood children damage fences or
border plants along property lines causing
disputes.
3. Neighborhood children get involved in a
fight that eventually leads to a squabble
between their parents.
75
4. Husband and wife arguments and fights
sometimes require an officer to help settle
the dispute.
5. Police officers may find it necessary
to scold a neighbor child for some sort of
real or imagined misconduct.
76
6. In these civil disputes, police presence is
legal principally because they were invited or
because the disturbance is in public and a
primary responsibility of the police is to
preserve the peace and ascertain whether anyone
has broken the law.
77
a. Through one of the many services that the
officer will refer them to.
7. Most of the time, the police action will
consist of reminding the participants that
their problem is a civil one and that they will
have to seek a solution to their problem.
b. Or, advising them to settle their
differences amicably so that the officer
may return to his other duties.
78
8. It takes a tremendous amount of tact and
diplomacy to handle these so - called "minor"
problems.
a. The child who fails to respond to a
parent's discipline in a demonstration of
contempt for an authority figure may be a
family problem today but a police problem
tomorrow.
79
9. Many matters involving repossession and
property rights, landlord tenant arguments,
employer and employee relations, arguments
about property lines, and a multitude of
"gripes" about various government services
will be laid in the officers lap.
80
10. Although officers have little or no
authority over any of the principals in these
matters, the public expects police to solve the
problems, whatever they are.
a. An officer must deal with them
intelligently and with diplomatic
persuasion.
81
11. People commit suicide. The police
are called. 12. A woman is having baby.
The police are called.
13. An elderly bedridden person falls out
of bed and needs help getting back into the
bed. The police are called.
14. An explosion destroys the three lower
floors of a hotel. The police are called.
82
The police respond to whatever emergency
arises take appropriate action, prepare the
necessary report, and then resume patrol.
83
G. Animal control
1. There are separate agencies that handle
problems of lost, stray, abandoned, or injured
animals.
2. The police department will be called in
to investigate and enforce violations of animal
abuse.
84
3. With the constant availability of a police
patrol unit, it will not be unusual for an
officer to have to round up an occasional dog
or cat or snake that strayed away from its
home.
4. An officer will also be called upon to
provide for the treatment of injured animals
and disposal of those less fortunate ones that
are killed in traffic.
85
H. Traffic Direction and Control
1. One major responsibility of a field officer
is to assure safe and efficient movement of
vehicular and pedestrian traffic.
86
2. Traffic control and collision prevention
require constant vigilance.
3. Officers must respond to traffic collisions
and protect the scene from further damage and
injury.
87
4. The patrol officer will be called upon to
provide traffic control services at scenes of
fires, large crowds and gatherings at public
events, rush-hour traffic, and traffic tie - ups
caused by inclement weather or unusual road
conditions.
88
5. Whatever the problem, the field officer will
be expected to address the problem the best way
that they can and to call for whatever
assistance is necessary to protect the scene
and restore it to normal.
89
I. Information services
1. The field officer and the department are
expected to be the wellspring of information
about everything in its jurisdiction
a. Where everything is and whatever is
happening, and where it is happening.
b. Officers should know the street - numbering
plan for the city.
90
c. The patrol officer should know where the
all - night service stations are located, which
pharmacies stay open late and provide emergency
all - night services to the ill.
91
d. People will ask about the old - fashioned
ice - cream shop, rare book store, sheet music
store, bicycle repair shop, or a place to have
film developed while they wait.
e. The officer is the weather bureau, the
chamber of commerce, and the departments
goodwill ambassador.
92
f. The patrol officer is the best source of
information for fellow officers and other
emergency services as to the location of road
closures and other hazards, street parties, and
other occasions where it appears there will
be trouble later if you let it get out of
hand during the evening.
93
J. Preliminary investigations
  • Field patrol officers perform preliminary
    investigations of
  • traffic collisions and criminal
  • law violations.

94
2. The patrol division is actually in the
better position to handle these initial
investigations.
a. The first officer on the scene must look
after the safety of the victim and witnesses.
95
b. The patrol officer may need to apprehend
the suspect if one is at the scene.
c. The first officers arriving will be
required to take immediate steps to protect
the scene from any further contamination.
96
d. The officers job is to observe carefully all
evidence before anyone has had a chance to
contaminate it -- to reflect or to change their
stories or to fabricate alibis.
97
3. The field officer will question the victim,
the witnesses, and any suspects that he/she may
encounter.
4. An important aspect of the investigation is
the collection of evidence, cataloging it, and
then preparing the reports.
98
5. Additionally, officers investigate
vagrants, loiterers, and street walkers.
6. Officers conduct field interviews with
people whose presence in a particular place and
under certain circumstances cause them to have
a reasonable belief that they should be
checked out.
99
K. Collection and preservation of evidence
1. Important to the investigation process is
the proper handling of evidence for the purpose
of assuring a fair trial of the accused.
100
2. The field officer must be careful to
avoid contaminating any more evidence than is
necessary.
a. The officer must assess carefully the
situation when he arrives and then methodically
collect and prepare the evidence for
transportation to the laboratory for analysis.
101
b. Maintain a log on the chain of possession
for all evidence.
c. The officer may be required to prepare
sketches and diagrams.
102
L. Arrest of offenders
1. Second only to caring for the injured,
the field officers primary responsibility
at the scene of a crime is to locate and
arrest the offender.
103
2. Once an officer effects the arrest, he may
use one of several alternative methods to
introduce the arrestee into the criminal
justice system.
a. Officers may take the arrestee to jail,
where the "booking," or processing, begins for
some offenses.
104
b. In some situations, the arrestee may be
taken directly before a magistrate in lieu of
booking and bail.
c. For some violations the offender may be
issued a citation and are allowed to sign a
promise to appear in court on or before a
specified date.
105
(1) The citation method has been used
extensively in traffic cases for many years,
and in some states more recently, it has been
extended to cover most misdemeanor violations
when immediate release poses no threat to life
or property.
106
M. Preparation of reports
1. Nearly everything the officer does while
assigned as a field patrol officer will be
committed to some sort of a written or printed
report.
107
a. Who was involved in an incident,
2. The field officer will be required to
prepare a detailed report on
b. What were the circumstances,
c. When and where did the crime or incident
occur
108
3. Preparation of reports is one of the most
time - consuming of all police activities and
one of the most demanding.
4. The reports that officers prepare are used
as the basis for determining whether to charge
an individual with a crime.
109
5. A poor report will be interpreted as a poor
job.
110
1. This is the final step in the investigation
process.
N. Testifying in court
2. The officer is responsible for presenting
evidence and testimony factually and without
bias.
111
3. The final determination of guilt or
innocence is the responsibility of the judge
or Jury.
112
III. DISTRIBUTION OF THE PATROL FORCE
A. Introduction
1. It is uncertain as to how many crimes are
actually committed every year, but it is widely
agreed that considerably more are committed than
are actually reported.
113
2. How many crimes the patrol force will
prevent, if any, is another figure that we can
only speculate about.
3. Of the crimes that are reported each year,
the numbers that are cleared by arrest are much
lower than we would like to see.
114
4. The police department is charged with
prevention, repression, and solution of crimes
within the framework of limitations of funds,
human resources, and available equipment.
115
5. Distributing the patrol force so that it may
do the most good is a major area of concern for
a police agency.
116
B. Policy decisions concerning distribution
1. When developing a priority sequence on
field assignments, certain questions must be
answered.
117
a. Which calls for service will be handled by
telephone, and which ones will require an
officer to be sent.
b. Which calls will be "counseled out" by
advising the calling party that the matter can
better be handled by another agency?
118
c. What portion of the crime investigations
will be handled by patrol officers, and at what
point will cases be turned over to the
specialists?
d. How much of the public relations function of
the department will directly involve the patrol
officers?
119
e. How will priorities be established to give
precedence to certain types of calls over
others?
120
2. Each department has developed a manual of
procedures concerning all anticipated police
activities and attached priorities.
Patrol
S.O.P.
Arrest
Tactics
Pursuit
121
C. Factors that determine patrol deployment
1. Making maximum use of human resources and
equipment is the responsibility of the police
chief, particularly when deploying the patrol
force.
122
a. There are never enough people authorized to
accomplish all the police objectives.
b. Arranging work days and hours, vacations,
holidays, and days off, the object is to meet
the community's demands for police services when
needed.
123
2. The following variable factors must be taken
into consideration.
a. Resident and transient populations,
particularly in business and tourist centers.
(1) A beach community
(2) The county seat or industrial center
(3) A "bedroom community"
124
b. Numbers and types of crimes and arrests.
c. Locations of crimes and arrests.
d. Traffic collision statistics and patterns.
e. Locations of "frequent incidents" or
hazards
f. Disproportionate concentrations of
population
125
g. Zoning plan of the city (relative locations
of business, industrial residential, and other
types of zoning).
h. Size of the jurisdiction (in square miles)
and shape
126
i. Geography and topography.
(1) Mountains, bays, ravines, rivers, lakes,
etc.
j. Parks and recreational facilities.
127
k. Streets and highways.
(1) Consider total mileage and
configurations, traffic flow patterns,
state of repair and construction.
128
  • b. reach sound conclusions,
  • and make the investigation meaningful and
    valuable.

129
l. Modes of transportation and locations of
transportation terminals.
m. Known locations where criminal offenders
live and go for recreation.
n. Number and qualifications of officers
available for field duties.
130
D. Designation of districts
1. Using the preceding factors a police
administrator must apportion its policing
jurisdiction into patrol districts that can be
equitably handled by the assigned officers.
131
2. With the aid of computer data agencies
assign their officers based on the needs of
the districts.
3. The field officers must be aided by current
and valid information about the crime and other
police required activity in their respective
districts.
132
4. The purpose of patrol is to minimize the
successes of criminals through strategy based
upon knowledge and experience.
133
IV. TYPES OF PATROL
A. Foot patrol
1. The original type of police patrol.
2. The officer is confined to small areas and
it limits the scope of activities.
134
a. Foot patrol is still among the most
effective types of patrol.
b. The methods of foot patrol consist of the
fixed post, line beat, and random patrol.
c. Foot patrol is restricted to small areas
and is used to deal with special problems that
cannot be handled by the officers in radio
cars.
135
e. Moving foot patrol is used where there is
considerable foot traffic, as in business and
shopping centers, bars and taverns, high -
crime areas, and special hazard areas and on
streets where there are many multiple - family
dwellings.
d. Fixed foot patrol is usually used for
traffic, surveillance, parades, and special
events.
136
B. Horse patrol
1. Horses may be used for large park areas
or similar places where automobiles either
cannot go or may be forbidden.
137
2. Horses also work quite well for moving
crowds of people.
3. Search and rescue in hilly, undeveloped
terrain is very successful by teams of officers
on horseback.
138
1. Primarily used for traffic control and
enforcement.
C. Motorcycles
2. Speed and maneuverability are outstanding
characteristics of the motorcycle.
139
D. Bicycles and small vehicles
1. The bicycle has been used by many agencies
as a simple and inexpensive means of silent
transportation to carry police officers
throughout their districts.
140
2. Small newly developed motorized vehicles
have been employed by various police agencies
for whatever needs they meet.
a. Small vehicles may be used for routine
patrol to replace or augment foot or
automobile patrol.
141
b. Officers may wear casual street clothing and
provide patrol coverage with these vehicles
without being identified as police officers
until the moment arises when an arrest is
imminent.
142
3. Bicycles and other small vehicles permit
the foot patrol officer to carry equipment that
otherwise would be carried in an automobile.

4. The small vehicle as a patrol unit can
cover shopping malls, pathways and trails, and
other places where automobiles cannot travel.
143
5. Some agencies employ the use of snowmobiles
and dog sleds in the northern states and
Alaska.
6. Gliders for silent overhead observations
of suspected farming of illegal crops.
144
7. Balloon tire motorcycles for the beaches,
and boats for the waterways.
145
E. Helicopters and fixed - wing aircraft
1. Fixed - Wing aircraft are excellent for
patrolling long stretches of highways or open
undeveloped land.
2. Fixed - Wing are used to transport people
and equipment.
146
3. Police use them for surveillance, and for
search and rescue.
4. The first airborne police unit in the
United States was created in New York City in
1930, to apprehend daredevil pilots flying and
doing stunts above the city.
147
5. The helicopter can be flown at lower
altitudes and it may be used when marginal
visibility conditions exist.
148
a. The helicopter is a true champion of
versatility.
b. The helicopter is used for rescue, medical
evacuation, traffic control, general patrol,
criminal apprehension, surveillance and
searches.
149
F. Automobile patrol
1. The most extensively used and the most
effective means of transportation for police
patrol.
2. On the beach it may be a Jeep with four -
wheel drive and balloon tires.
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3. General street patrol, it is an efficient
late - model car with high - performance
capabilities.
a. It may be a dune buggy for desert patrol or
like a safari- type vehicle for mountains and
forest areas.
b. In the urban community, the vehicle is the
distinctively marked late model automobile.
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4. The police car is a mobile police station.
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G. Boats and amphibian vehicles
1. In jurisdictions that patrol beaches,
shorelines, and inland waterways, various
types of deep - water and shallow - water boats
are put into service.
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2. Smuggling of people and contraband from
coastal waters into inland harbor areas is a
constant problem.
3. Investigation and apprehension can be
accomplished only with the aid of boats and
helicopters.
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this concludes Police Field Operations and
Patrol 
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