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Launching the New Ship of State

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Title: Launching the New Ship of State


1
Launching the New Ship of State
  • American History
  • Chapter 10

2
Overview
  • Americans had overthrown King George III and the
    Articles of Confederation
  • Basic distrust of central authority--but saw it
    as a necessary evil
  • In debt and revenues limited
  • Skeptical world doubted the upstart United States

3
Growing Pains
  • Constitution launched in 1789 amid growth
  • Population doubling each 25 years
  • Population about 90 rural
  • All but 5 lived east of Appalachian Mountains
  • Foreign visitors looked down their noses at the
    roughness of pioneering life
  • Further west were Spanish and British agents
    moved freely among the settlers

4
Growing Pains
  • America had done something no other nation in
    history had ever donefree its people from
    tyranny, told its people they were all equal, and
    gave the people the power to govern themselves
  • The Virginia constitution was the first
    constitution adopted by the peoples
    representatives in the history of the world
  • The rest of the world looked with awe upon
    America

5
Washington for President
  • George Washington unanimously drafted as first
    president by Electoral College
  • Only nominee in history
  • Strong, imposing figure
  • Didnt seek the officepreferred Mount Vernon
  • Balanced, not brilliant
  • Strength of character, but not politically artful

6
Washington for President
  • Temporary capital was New York City
  • Took oath of office April 30, 1789
  • Washingtons first cabinet
  • Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson
  • Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton
  • Secretary of War Henry Knox

7
The Bill of Rights
  • Unfinished of Bill of Rights
  • Promised when states were ratifying constitution
  • Particular concern of anti-federalists
  • Would be amendments to constitution
  • Adopted in 1791

8
The Bill of Rights
  • First 10 amendments are the Bill of Rights
  • Freedom of religion, speech, and the press and to
    assemble
  • Right to bear arms
  • Restricts housing of federal troops in home
  • Protects against unreasonable searches and
    seizures
  • No imprisonment without due process cannot be
    forced to testify against self
  • Right to public and speedy trial by jury
  • Trial by jury in civil cases
  • Freedom from cruel and unusual punishments,
    excessive bail

9
The Bill of Rights
  • Madison inserted two morethe 9th and 10th
  • 9th Certain rights shall not be construed to
    deny or disparage others retained by the
    people-we have more rights than those mentioned
  • 10th All rights not explicitly delegated or
    prohibited by the federal Constitution to the
    States respectively, or to the people
  • Brought the constitution back to more
    anti-federalist stance

10
Judiciary Act of 1789
  • Created the courts
  • Organized the Supreme Court
  • Federal district and circuit courts
  • Estd Office of Attorney General
  • John Jay-1st Chief Justice

11
  • Alexander Hamilton
  • 1st Sec. of the Treasury
  • Big central government
  • Native of West Indies-doubts about his loyalty
  • Financial wizard
  • Archrival of Thomas Jefferson
  • Pay the entire national debt at parface value
    of debt
  • 54 million
  • Assume debts of states-tie them to fed. govt.
  • Jefferson finally agreed-capitol moved to the
    Potomac.

Alexander Hamilton
12
Customs Duties and Excise Taxes
  • Behind Hamiltons plan, the United States owed
    75 million
  • Father of the National Debt
  • Debt- National Blessing
  • Tariffs to help pay the debt
  • Protection wall around American goods
  • Started tax on domestic items, e.g. whiskey

13
Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank
  • Hamilton wanted national bank to conduct business
    and have a location to keep its assets and print
    money
  • Jefferson disagreed
  • states responsibility
  • The constitution didnt authorize banks

14
Hamilton Battles Jefferson for a Bank
  • Washington asked Jefferson for a written
    opinionJefferson responded
  • No constitutional authority
  • All powers not granted to the federal government
    were reserved for the states
  • The states, not congress, could charter banks

15
Interpretation Differences
  • Jefferson
  • Strict/Literal Interp.
  • Based on concern for states rights
  • Theory of strict construction
  • Hamilton
  • Loose-What the constitution did not forbid, it
    permitted
  • Hamilton invoked Art I, Sec VIII, para
    18Congress may pass laws necessary and proper
  • Basic functions of gov. require a bank

North for the bank, South against
16
Mutinous Moonshiners in Pennsylvania
  • The Whiskey Rebellion in 1794
  • Rebellion in PA against Hamiltons whiskey tax
  • Tax collectors tarred and feathered
  • Washington sent troops
  • Whiskey Boys dispersed
  • Showed strength of new gov.
  • Some criticized for sending a sledgehammer to
    crush a gnat

17
The Emergence of political Parties
  • Hamilton had established good credit rating in
    America
  • Netherlands loaned America at low rates
  • The tax, the bank, the Whiskey Rebellion
    suppression, etc. created some states rights
    enemies
  • The central government was mistreating states

18
The Emergence of Political Parties
  • The Hamilton-Jefferson feud became bitter
    political rivalry
  • Founders had not envisioned political parties
  • opposition voices seemed disloyal

19
The Emergence of political Parties
  • Jefferson/Madison face Hamilton
  • Voices grew louder
  • Political messages were publicized
  • Jefferson and Madison formed the
    Democratic-Republican party in 1792
  • Hamilton led the Federalists
  • The two-party system has worked ever since
  • The party out of power is the loyal opposition
  • Ensures politics never drifts too far one way

20
Foreign Policy Under Washington
  • French Revolution
  • Initial approval soured when Reign of Terror
    began
  • Jeffersonians watched the bloody French
    Revolution with interest
  • Jefferson cant expect to be carried from
    despotism to liberty in a feather bed
  • Hamiltons Federalists feared it
  • GB France fighting again-1793-1815
  • Edmond Genet-minister from French govt-pursued
    American support
  • Washington issues Neutrality Proclamation of
    1793
  • Started tradition of isolationism

21
Embroilments with Britain
  • Britain had kept outposts in Great Lakes Region
  • Supplied Miami Confederation, 8 tribes
  • Little Turtle, Miami chief
  • Killed hundreds of American forces, 1790-1791
  • General Mad Anthony Waynes forces defeat them
    in 1794-Battle of Fallen Timbers
  • Treaty of Greenville Indian lands were sold
    north of the Ohio River

22
Embroilments with Britain
  • Britains navy attacked hundreds of US merchant
    ships and began impressment of our sailors
  • Still, Hamilton wanted trade with Britain and
    thus America didnt respond by getting into the
    war
  • Hamiltons financial system depended on trade
    with the British

23
  • Washington ?John Jay to Britain
  • to try to avoid war
  • Jays Treaty
  • Weak and angered many JDRs
  • British promised to evacuate outposts (again)
  • Refused to abandon impressment

24
Pinckneys Treaty
  • Spain feared Anglo-American alliance
  • Pinckneys Treaty of 1795
  • Free navigation of the Mississippi
  • Land in north Florida

25
Washingtons Farewell
  • Washington had served two terms
  • Decided to retire
  • Started a trend
  • In farewell address, advised against permanent
    alliances
  • Favored temporary alliances for specific purposes

26
Washingtons Farewell
  • Washingtons contributions
  • enormous
  • Good economic foundation (Hamilton)
  • Expanding nation
  • International trade
  • Kept out of foreign wars
  • Some still criticized for Jays Treaty and not
    helping France

27
John Adams Becomes President
  • The presidential campaign of 1796 featured
    Jefferson and Adams
  • Jefferson Democratic-Republican
  • Adams Federalist
  • Followers of each refused to drink in the same
    tavern
  • Adams wins-71 to 68
  • Jefferson VP!
  • Adams was intellectual, tough, had prickly manner

28
John Adams Become President
29
Unofficial fighting with France
  • Adams had problems
  • Hamilton as an enemy
  • Francewho had a grudge against the America for
    not helping when needed
  • France angry about Jays Treaty
  • Refused to received the American minister
  • Seized American ships
  • XYZ Affair
  • Adams sent diplomats to avoid war
  • 3 French officials (X, Y, Z) demanded money to
    see the ministerJohn Marshall, future CJ,
    refused.
  • War preparations against France began
  • Dept. of the Navy created
  • Marine Corps reestablished
  • Unofficial war confined to the sea
  • Convention of 1800-settled matter-ended 1778
    Alliance negotiated with Napoleon

30
Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party
  • France, wanting to avoid war with America (it was
    fighting others on the continent) suddenly
    permitted the American minister to be received
  • Adams won much acclaimremained cool
  • Had avoided war while nation was weak
  • Could have won popularity through war by seizing
    Florida and Louisiana outright

31
Adams Puts Patriotism Above Party
  • France received American envoys and signed a new
    treaty with America
  • The Convention of 1800
  • Deleted the old treatyalliance
  • America agreed to pay damage claims on shippers
  • Last of foreign entanglements for a long time

32
Adams puts patriotism Above Party
  • Adams given much credit
  • His party wanted war with France, but he kept
    peace
  • Led to Napoleon selling Louisiana Purchase to
    America while Jefferson was president (1803)
  • Suggested his own epitaph (Not used)
  • Here lies John Adams, who took upon himself the
    responsibility of peace with France in the year
    1800.

33
The Federalist Witch Hunt
  • Federalists wrote laws to muffle Jeffersonians
  • Alien Acts
  • New aliens from Europe were poor
  • Scorned by Federalists
  • Welcomed by Jeffersonians
  • Increased to a 14 year wait to become citizens
  • Pay bond to come in
  • Deportation of dangerous aliens

34
The Federalist Witch Hunt
  • Sedition Act
  • Illegal to criticize the government to keep
    patriotism strong (through speech or print)
  • Obvious violation of 1st Amendment
  • Many Jeffersonians put in jail
  • Federalists felt the law was justified due to the
    verbal violence of the day
  • (pg 205,206)

35
The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson)
Resolutions
  • Jefferson furious about Sedition and Alien Acts
  • Secretly wrote resolutions approved by Kentucky
  • Madison did the same in Virginia

36
The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson)
Resolutions
  • The logic-Compact Theory
  • The 13 sovereign states created the federal
    government
  • The states were the final judges of whether the
    federal government had broken its contract

37
The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson)
Resolutions
  • The Kentucky Resolution
  • Said federal government had exceeded its powers
  • Nullificationa refusal to accept themwas
    rightful remedy
  • No other states would follow
  • Many debated Jefferson saying the people not the
    states had created the federal government

38
The Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson)
Resolutions
  • The determination made that Supreme Court must
    nullify legislation passed by the federal
    government
  • Nullification resolutions later used by south to
    secede from Union

39
Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans
  • The Federalists believed the few should run the
    country
  • Hamilton said only the best people should be in
    control
  • Intellectual arrogance
  • Feared the swayability of the untutored common
    folk

40
Federalists Versus Democratic-Republican
  • Jeffersons Democratic-Republicans, often
    referred to as Republicans
  • Jefferson and Hamilton had different theories of
    society, politics, and diplomacy

41
Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Appealed to the middle class and under privileged
  • A contradiction
  • An aristocrat with sympathy for the downtrodden
  • I have sworn upon the altar of God eternal
    hostility against every form of tyranny over the
    mind of man
  • Best government was the one that governed least
  • National debt, bequeathed to later generations,
    should be paid off
  • Those who labor in the earth are the chosen
    people of God

42
Federalists Versus Democratic-Republicans
  • Jefferson, contd
  • profound respect for the ability of the masses,
    when taught
  • Feared landless dependents would be political
    pawns
  • Reconciled slavery by offering that cheap labor
    would free poor farmer to learn and vote

43
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