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Food Microbiology 1

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Food Microbiology 1 Food Groups Meat and Poultry Eggs Fish and other Seafood Milk and Dairy ... spices and sugar Emulsified then placed into casings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Food Microbiology 1


1
Food Microbiology 1
Unit 10 Microbiology of Food Groups
2
Food Groups
  • Meat and Poultry
  • Eggs
  • Fish and other Seafood
  • Milk and Dairy Products
  • Vegetables
  • Baked Products

3
Meat and Poultry
4
Meat and Poultry
  • Cattle
  • Pigs
  • Sheep
  • Poultry

5
Main Pathogens of Concern
  • E coli O157 H7 (cattle)
  • Salmonella (Poultry and eggs)
  • Campylobacter jejuni (poultry and eggs)
  • Listeria monocytogenes (pigs)
  • Clostridium perfringens (soil borne)

6
Spoilage Bacteria
  • Aerobic
  • Pseudomonas
  • Acinetobacter
  • Morexella

Protease activity leads to off odors and poor
texture
7
Source of Contamination in Red Meat
  • Primary Source of Contamination
  • Feces
  • Hide contact
  • Aerosols and Sprays
  • Contaminated hands and equipment
  • Spilling of body fluids

8
Example Cattle Slaughter
Cross-contamination of hide during transport and
holding
Cattle Receiving and Holding
Stunning
Contact with floor after stunning
9
Carcass Post-Evisceration Decontamination
  • USDA HACCP recommends a carcass decontamination
    (pasteurization) step
  • Organic acid wash, lactic and/or acetic acid
  • Hot water
  • Steam pasteurization

10
Carcass Decontamination
  • Not totally effective at removing contamination
  • Residual contamination can be spread during
    grinding
  • Irradiation starting to be introduced


11
Meat Products
Dried, Salted and/or Cured
  • E.g. Salted pork, ham
  • Water activity reduced by withdrawing water
  • Suppress growth of majority of microbes

12
Meat Products
Fermented Sausage
  • E.g. Salami, pepperoni
  • Products are fermented with starter bacterial
    cultures
  • Addition of curing salts (e.g. nitrites), spices
    and sugar
  • Emulsified then placed into casings
  • Slow drying over 3 weeks to 8 months
  • Hurdles (low aw, nitrites, and low pH)

13
Meat Products
Cured, Cooked Meat Products
  • E.g. Bologna Sausages
  • Cured meat
  • Packed into casings
  • Heat treated
  • Sliced and packed
  • Hurdles (low aw, heat treatment, vacuum packing)
  • Re-contaminated with Pseudomonas or lactic acid
    bacteria

14
Meat Products
Cooked not Cured
  • E.g. Pies
  • Refrigerated or frozen
  • Hurdles (Heating, cold temperature)
  • Re-contamination with pathogens can cause
    problems
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • E coli O157

15

Eggs and Egg Products
16
Egg and Egg products
  • They are sterile when they are laid but the
    outer membranes and shells may be penetrated by
    bacteria after several hours

17
Spoilage
  • Proteus spp. Causes black rot in eggs and gives
    it the rotten odor
  • Pseudomonas spp. Causes green rot caused by
    sideophore (iron-chelating) production

18
Pathogens
  • Salmonella enteritidis commonly associated with
    eggs
  • Initially on the surface of eggs can penetrate
    shell
  • During storage inner shell membrane weakens
    enabling Salmonella to reach yolk (nutrient
    source)

19
  • High risk foods
  • Egg custard
  • Soft boiled
  • Fried sunny side-up
  • Mayonnaise low pH restricts growth
  • Pasteurized eggs are recommended for vulnerable
    groups

Lightly cooked so Salmonalla can survive
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