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The Civil War

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The Civil War Presidents of the ... Best military minds of 19th Century Fighting on home turf Don t have to worry about supply lines The Major Battles Battle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Civil War


1
The Civil War
2
Presidents of the Opposing Sides
  • The Union
  • The Confederacy

3
Lincolns Aims and Actions
  • PRESERVE THE UNION
  • Nothing more than Shays Rebellion or the
    Whiskey Rebellion
  • Constitutional issue Not a war over slavery
  • Calls out state militias
  • Increases the size of the Navy
  • Naval Blockade of South
  • Increased military spending without Congress
    okay

4
Lincolns Aims and Actions
  • Habeas Corpus Suspended
  • Lincoln has Southern sympathizers arrested in
    areas not in rebellion
  • Declares martial law, which leads to the arrests
    of thousands suspected of disloyalty
  • Lincoln did this to ensure Marylands loyalty
  • Between 15,000-20,000 arrested

5
Constitutional Questions
  • Was Lincolns expansion of executive power
    constitutional?
  • Did Lincolns actions fall under the scope of
    wartime powers?
  • Did Northerners sympathizing with South deserve
    civil rights limitations?
  • Did Lincoln set a precedent?

6
Other Government Actions
  • Homestead Act of 1862
  • Government offered 160 acres of land for a cheap
    price, often for free, to promote westward
    settlement
  • Morrill Land Grant Act
  • Federal Government gave land to the states and
    territories for agriculture, engineering, and
    military science colleges (development of state
    universities)

7
Resources
  • North
  • Larger population
  • 90 of railroads
  • Industrialization
  • South
  • Self sufficient in food
  • Best military minds of 19th Century
  • Fighting on home turf
  • Dont have to worry about supply lines

8
The Major Battles
9
Battle of Antietam (1862)
  • Single bloodiest day in American Military History
  • 5,000 dead
  • 17,000 wounded
  • Union couldve ended war, but Gen. McClellan
    allowed Lee to retreat

Bloody Lane
10
Gettysburg (1863)
  • Most costly battle of war
  • Three Day Battle
  • In total over 50,000 dead and wounded
  • Last time Confederacy attempted to attack Union

Open field amputation
11
Emancipation Proclamation
  • Freed all the slaves in areas still in rebellion
    against the Union
  • Symbolic
  • Union could not enforce the proclamation
  • Changes the goal of the war
  • Humanitarian objective

12
Gettysburg Address
  • Lincoln summarizes the meaning of the civil war
  • Four score and seven years ago our fathers
    brought forth on this continent a new nation,
    conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the
    proposition that all men are created equal.
  • Now we are engaged in a great civil war,
    testing whether that nation, or any nation, so
    conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We
    are met on a great battle-field of that war. We
    have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as
    a final resting place for those who here gave
    their lives that that nation might live. It is
    altogether fitting and proper that we should do
    this.
  • But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicatewe
    can not consecratewe can not hallowthis ground.
    The brave men, living and dead, who struggled
    here, have consecrated it, far above our poor
    power to add or detract. The world will little
    note, nor long remember what we say here, but it
    can never forget what they did here. It is for us
    the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the
    unfinished work which they who fought here have
    thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us
    to be here dedicated to the great task remaining
    before us that from these honored dead we take
    increased devotion to that cause for which they
    gave the last full measure of devotion that we
    here highly resolve that these dead shall not
    have died in vain that this nation, under God,
    shall have a new birth of freedom and that
    government of the people, by the people, for the
    people, shall not perish from the earth.

13
The Soldiers Human Devastation
14
The Soldiers Blacks Troops
  • Over 180,000 African Americans join Union Army.
  • Over 85 of eligible Blacks join Union army

15
Blacks Fighting in the Civil War
  • This is what Blacks were fighting about

16
Women in the Civil War
  • Many women, particularly in South had to become
    head of their household
  • Widowocracy ?South become matriarchal society of
    widows
  • Some 400 women fought in the war dressed as men
  • Many acted as scouts and spies
  • Belle Boyd
  • Francis Clalin

17
Women in the Civil War Nursing
  • Clara Barton
  • Founds Red Cross
  • Ambulance after ambulance drove up with our
    woundedUnder every shed and tree, the tables
    were carried for amputating the limbsThe blood
    lay in puddles in the grove the groans of the
    dying and complaints of those undergoing
    amputation were horrible.
  • Janie Smith, North Carolinian

18
Shermans March to the Sea
  • Decisive theatre at the end of the war
  • Complete and total destruction of the South
  • The fields were trampled down and the road was
    lined with carcasses of horses, hogs, and cattle
    that the invaders, unable either to consume or to
    carry with them, had wantonly shot down to starve
    our people and prevent them from making their
    crops. The stench in some places was
    unbearable.

19
Shermans March to the Sea
20
Surrender at Appomattox
  • South had been fighting defensive war since
    Gettysburg
  • Lee surrenders to Grant at the Appomattox
    courthouse

21
Civil War Tidbits
  • Thanksgiving was created as a National Holiday in
    November 1863 to lift the moral in the North.
  • Thanksgiving disappeared for a while and returned
    under FDR during the Great Depression

22
Civil War Tidbits
  • Government levied an income tax for the first
    time
  • Excise tax on cigarettes and tobacco
  • US Secret Service was created to stop counterfeit
    currency
  • Sinking of a ship by a submarine
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