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Differentiated Instruction

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Differentiated Instruction Montrose School District August 18, 2008 Differentiated Instruction IS A Fable One time the animals had a school. The curriculum ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Differentiated Instruction


1
Differentiated Instruction
  • Montrose School District
  • August 18, 2008

2
Differentiated Instruction IS
3
A Fable
  • One time the animals had a school. The
    curriculum consisted of running, climbing, flying
    and swimming, and all the animals took all the
    subjects.

4
  • The duck was good in swimming, better than his
    instructor, and he made passing grades in flying,
    but was practically hopeless in running. He kept
    this up until he was only average in swimming.
    But, average is acceptable, so nobody worried
    about that but the duck.

5
  • The eagle was considered a problem pupil and was
    disciplined severely. He beat all the others to
    the top of the tree in the climbing class, but he
    had used his own way of getting there.

6
  • The rabbit started out at the top of his class
    in running, but had a nervous breakdown and had
    to drop out of school on account of so much
    makeup work in swimming.

7
  • The squirrel led the climbing class, but his
    flying teacher made him start his flying lessons
    from the ground instead of the top of the tree,
    and he developed charley horses from overexertion
    at the takeoff and began getting Cs in climbing
    and Ds in running.

8
  • The practical prairie dog apprenticed their
    offspring to a badger when the school authorities
    refused to add digging to the curriculum.

9
  • At the end of the year, an eel that could swim
    well, run, climb, and fly a little was made
    valedictorian.

- Printed in The Instructor, April 1968
10
Fairness is not everyone getting the same thing.
It is everyone getting what they need.
11
Todays Objectives
  • Discuss some characteristics of todays student
  • Introduce the model for Differentiated
    Instruction
  • Discuss considerations for creating a
    differentiated lesson and building a
    differentiated classroom
  • Discover strategies to formatively assess
    students

12
Shift Happens
13
Essential Questions
  • Who are the students in our classrooms?
  • What diversity impacts and influences curriculum
    and instruction?

14
Blooms New Taxonomy
OLD
NEW
Source http//www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/bloom/blo
oms_taxonomy.htm
15
21st Century Skills
  • Creativity and Innovation Skills
  • Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills
  • Communication and Collaboration Skills

Source http//21stcenturyskills.org
16
21st Century Assessment
  • Learner centered
  • Balance of formative and summative assessment
  • Context-specific, technology enhanced
  • Ongoing and rooted in teaching strategies
  • Used as evidence of student performance
    -portfolios
  • Students, parents and teachers collaborate to
    monitor student progress

Sources http//21stcenturyskills.org Milestones
for Improving Learning and Education (MILE) Guide
for 21st Century Skills
17
Do You Know Your Students?
  • Getting to know your students is the key to
    making DI work
  • Variations
  • Interest Surveys (students parents)
  • Graphing How Im Smart
  • Profile Poster
  • Mystery Bag

18
How well do YOU know the people around you?
  • 3 Facts a Fib
  • Write 3 facts about yourself
  • Write 1 fib about yourself
  • Circulate talk to 5 people
  • If they do not correctly identify the fib, they
    must sign your paper

This activity works great with students as a
review of content/knowledge. It does require
some follow-up with the teacher to make sure the
fibs are all clearly identified.
19
Bzzzzzz
  • At your table, turn to the person next to you and
    tell him/her how you get to know your students
    interests, likes dislikes, etc.

20
Differentiated instruction is not individualized
instruction its getting the kid in the
ballpark!
21
If students don't learn the way we teach them,
we must teach them the way they learn. - Marcia
Tate, Developing Minds Inc., Conyers, GA
22
Why Do We Need to Differentiate?
  • When a teacher tries to teach something to the
    whole entire class at the same time, chances are,
    one-third of the kids already know it one-third
    will get it and the remaining third wont.
  • Lillian Katz

Willis, S (November 1993). Teaching Young
Children Educators Seek Developmental
Appropriateness. Curriculum Update, 1-8.
23
Differentiation IS NOT . . .
  • The same as an IEP for every student
  • Just another way to group kids
  • Expecting less of struggling learners than of
    typical learners
  • A substitute for specialized services
  • Chaotic
  • New

24
Good Differentiation IS . . .
  • Varied avenues to content, process, product
  • Respectful of all learners
  • Proactive
  • Student-centered
  • A blend of whole class, small group, and
    individual instruction
  • Based on students readiness, interests, and/or
    learning profile

25
  • At its most basic level, differentiation means
    shaking up what goes on in the classroom so
    that students have multiple options for taking in
    information, making sense of ideas, and
    expressing what they learn.

Tomlinson, C.A. (2001) How to Differentiate
Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms
26
Teachers Can Differentiate
Content
Process
Product
According to Students
Readiness
Learning Profile
Interest
27
3 Keys to Differentiated Instruction
  • Content
  • What we teach students
  • Materials and methods used
  • Process
  • How we teach students
  • Calls on students to use key skills
  • Product
  • Evidence of student learning
  • Should also allow students to extend what they
    learned

28
We know that students learn better IF
  • Tasks are a close match for the skills and
    understanding of a topic (readiness)
  • Tasks ignite curiosity or passion in a student
    (interest)
  • The assignment encourages students to work in a
    preferred manner (learning profile)

29
Bzzzzzz
  • Turn to your neighbor and relate a time when you
    saw a student more actively engaged because
    his/her interest level was peaked.

30
Primary Consideration
What is your learning target?
  • What must ALL students
  • Know
  • Understand
  • be able to Do

31
Learning Target
Students may have different paths to the target.
32
Considerations for Planning a Differentiated
Lesson
  • Identify the student learning target/s that ALL
    students must reach
  • Decide WHAT you will differentiate
  • Decide HOW you will differentiate and the
    assessment method you will use
  • Determine what assessment method/s you will use

33
Your Task
  • Get into groups according to your interest in the
    following tasks. (Group sizes should be between
    4-6 people)
  • Choose one of the following options
  • You were chosen as the marketing director for the
    Montrose School District. How will you recruit
    more students to your district?
  • You are in charge of planning the next inservice.
    How will you ensure all teachers have the same
    understanding of the districts goals or
    initiatives?

34
Considerations for Planning a Differentiated
Lesson
  • Identify the student learning target/s that ALL
    students must reach
  • Students will persuade someone to utilize their
    idea
  • Decide WHAT you will differentiate
  • Differentiate the task by interest
  • Differentiate the product
  • Determine what assessment method/s you will use
  • Participants will be graded on either an oral
    presentation or physical product (brochure,
    agenda, etc.) using a rubric

35
Your Task
  • Get into groups according to your interest.
  • Choose one of the following options
  • You were chosen as the marketing director for the
    Montrose School District. How will you recruit
    more students to your district?
  • You are in charge of planning the next inservice.
    How will you ensure all teachers have the same
    understanding of the districts goals or
    initiatives?

36
Yellow Pages
  • Create a Yellow Pages of Experts
  • Make sure that every teacher/student is listed
  • This list should be created so it can be added to
    throughout the year

37
Pre-assessment
  • How do you use pre-assessments to guide your
    teaching?
  • What quick assessments can I use to help me
    understand my students readiness?
  • Questions, concerns, observations

38
Formative Assessment Examples
  • Additional examples
  • http//esa2.wikispaces.com/DifferentiatedInstruct
    ion
  • http//stat21.wikispaces.com/Assessment

39
Minute Paper
  • In one minute, students identify the most
    significant (useful, meaningful, disturbing,
    etc.) things they learned during a particular
    session.

40
Pass the Ball
  • The teacher asks a question and then throws a
    ball to the student who is to answer the
    question. If the student answers the question
    correctly, he/she gets to shoot a basket. If the
    student answers incorrectly, he/she needs to pass
    the ball to a teammate for assistance.

41
RSQC2
  • In two minutes, students recall and list in rank
    order the most important ideas from a previous
    day's class
  • In two more minutes, they summarize those points
    in a single sentence,
  • then write one major question they want answered,
  • then identify a thread or theme to connect this
    material to the course's major goal.

42
Squaring Off
  • Whole Group Assessment
  • Place a card in each corner of the room with one
    of the following words or phrases that are
    effective ways to group according to learner
    knowledge.
  • Rarely ever Sometimes Often I
    have it!
  • Dirt road Paved road Highway
    Yellow brick road
  • Tell the students to go to the corner of the room
    that matches their place in the learning journey.
  • Participants go to the corner that most closely
    matches their own learning status and discuss
    what they know about the topic and why they chose
    to go there.

Gregory, G.H. Chapman, C. (2001).
Differentiated Instructional Strategies One
Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA Corwin
Press.
43
Yes/No Cards
YES
NO
  • Using a 4x6 index card the student writes YES on
    one side and NO on the other.
  • When a question is asked the students hold up YES
    or NO.
  • Ask the students if they know the following
    vocabulary words and what they mean.
  • Call out a word. If a student is holding a YES
    they may be called on to give the correct answer.
  • Remind them that if they dont know the words it
    is OK because they will be learning them.
  • You can do the same thing with conceptual ideas,
    etc.

Gregory, G.H. Chapman, C. (2001).
Differentiated Instructional Strategies One
Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA Corwin
Press.
44
Thumb It!
  • Have students respond with the position of their
    thumb to get an assessment of what their current
    understanding of a topic being studied.
  • Where I am now in my understanding of ______?
  • Up Sideways Down
  • I know a lot I know some
    I know very little

Gregory, G.H. Chapman, C. (2001).
Differentiated Instructional Strategies One
Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA Corwin
Press.
45
Fist of Five
  • Show the number of fingers on a scale, with 1
    being lowest and 5 the highest.
  • Ask, How well do you feel you know this
    information?
  • I know it so well I could explain it to anyone.
  • I can do it alone.
  • I need some help.
  • I could use more practice.
  • I am only beginning.

Gregory, G.H. Chapman, C. (2001).
Differentiated Instructional Strategies One
Size Doesnt Fit All. Thousand Oaks CA Corwin
Press.
46
Ticket out the Door
We have begun a study of authors craft. List
and identify three examples of figurative
language used in the novel Morning Girl by
Michael Dorris.
47
Exit Cards
On your Exit Card--- Explain the
difference between prime and composite
numbers. You may wish to give some examples of
each as part of your explanation.
48
Assessing for Differentiation
  • Formative Assessment SHOULD
  • Happen frequently
  • Drive instruction
  • Who needs differentiation
  • The struggling student?
  • The gifted student?
  • What needs to be differentiated
  • Summative Assessment CAN
  • Be used formatively!

49
Principles to Guide Differentiated Classrooms
  • Focus on essentials
  • Attend to student differences
  • Assess often and use it to make
    adjustments/modifications
  • Mutual respect
  • Be flexible
  • Doesnt happen 100 of the time!!!!

50
Simple Ways to Start
  • Add an interdisciplinary element to a favorite
    unit
  • Collaborate with other teachers
  • Add movement/touch/visual aids to existing
    lessons activities
  • Apply Multiple Intelligence thinking to
    group/individual projects
  • Offer students choices of product/ presentation

51
Four Steps to MUCH better Curriculum
52
Step One Hook
  • How am I going to make the task appealing,
    inviting, and intriguing to my students?

53
Step Two Focus
  • Does the task absolutely and with no ambiguity
    call on students to grapple with one or more of
    the key understandings and skills of the unit?

54
Step Three Ratchet
  • Is the task crafted at very high levels of
    thought and production for the students who
    perform it? Are you confident it will stretch
    them in use of information, critical and creative
    thinking, reflection on their thinking, skill and
    accuracy, research, insight, or other areas
    valuable in this effort?

55
Step Four Tighten
  • Are the directions written in such a way that
    the students cannot take the low road or the
    easy way out with their work? Are they written to
    direct students to the high road of the quest
    for quality in work and thought?

56
High Quality Teaching
Who we teach
How we teach
Where we teach
What we teach
Its About Having All the Parts in Place
Tomlinson 01
57
Differentiated Instruction IS
58
Resources
  • The Common Sense of Differentiation DVD (2005).
    Alexandria, VA Association for Supervision and
    Curriculum Development
  • Tomlinson, C.A. (1999). The Differentiated
    Classroom Responding to the Needs of All
    Learners. Alexandria, VA Association for
    Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  • Tomlinson, C.A. (2001). How to Differentiate
    Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms.
    Alexandria, VA Association for Supervision and
    Curriculum Development.

59
  1. Make a list of all the students in your class. If
    you teach more than one section, you may select
    one section. You may not use any notes.
  2. When you have to push to remember, draw a line.
    Write down any additional names you can now
    remember.
  3. When you cant remember any more, draw another
    line. Ask yourself why some students are
    invisible.

Do this again a week later. Think about what you
have done that has brought kids above the line.
See who still falls below a line. Ask yourself
why.
60
Contact Information
  • Education Service Agency, Region 2

Pat Bruinsma Pat Hubert Melissa
Goodwin Cate Sommervold Marge Hauser
Lori Stoltenburg Vickie Venhuizen 367-7680 esa2_at_e
dec.org
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