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Ecofeminism Chapter One: Taking Empirical Data Seriously Ecofeminist Philosophical Perspective Trees, forests, and desertification, water and drought, food production ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecofeminism

  • Chapter One
  • Taking Empirical Data Seriously

Ecofeminist Philosophical Perspective
  • Trees, forests, and desertification, water and
    drought, food production, poverty and toxic waste
    and environmental issues, what is it to do with
  • Ecofeminism assert that there is a connection
    between the treatment of women, people of color,
    and underclass on one hand, and the treatment of
    non-human nature on the other
  • Ecological feminism claim that environmental
    ethics and feminism if they fail to take these
    connections seriously is erroneous
  • Establishing women-nature connection is
    liberating for both and it is a major issue of
    Ecofeminist philosophy

  • Warren asserts that for all who are concerned to
    find solutions to the environmental destruction
    and subordination of women and other groups is to
    look at these connections in depth
  • Feminism Issues
  • Feminist movement is committed to the elimination
    of male-gender power and privileged.
  • Hence, feminism attempt to end sexist oppression
  • During this effort feminists realized that
    liberation of women could not be achieved until
    our gender identities such as women of color,
    classism, ethnocentrism, and all the other isms
  • This means equal rights and equal pay and the
    plight of women cross-culturally
  • Ecofeminism insist that none humane-nature and
    naturism (unjustified domination of nature) are
    feminist issues
  • Ecofeminism is extending feminist critique of all
    oppressive domination toward others to include
    domination of nature

  • Since community life depends on sustainable
    ecology, consequently, healthy environment is
    paramount element for womens struggle
  • Forests, trees, and forestry
  • In 1974, twenty-seven women of Reni in north
    India took action to stop tree felling
  • They threatened to hug the trees if lumberjacks
    attempt to fell them
  • This movement saved twelve thousand square
    kilometers of watershed
  • This women grass root movement was against
    commercial felling by contractors damages, a
    large numbers of unfelled trees
  • Monoculture plantations replaces valuable
    indigenous forests
  • This is one of the evidences of women-nature
    connection trees and forests are intractably
    connected to rural and household economics govern
    red by women
  • As a result of first world development in India,
    multi-culture species have been replaced
    monoculture tress

  • Women oppose monoculture development in favor of
    natural multi-cultural forestry
  • In developing countries, women are more dependent
    on forests products
  • Forest tress provide a numerous essential
    products for women food, fuel, fodder, building
    materials and products, household utensils,
    gardens, and others
  • Women are first who suffer from environmental
    degradation and forest resources depilation
  • Women now must walk longer for fuel wood, fodder
    and food, some walk seven hours to obtain fire
  • Since more and more migrate to cities seeking
    employment, women must carry out mens jobs in
    addition to their own
  • Degraded soils makes harder for women to continue
    their peasantry work and farming
  • This is in addition to the reduction of forest
    products as a source of income, which leaves
    women without income producing means
  • Women also face customs, taboos, and other
    constraints which limit their possibilities of
    earning income activities

  • Women also are concerned about environment
    because they are the insiders, the best who know
    and understand their natural surrounding a
    epistemic privilege around forestry production
    because local women are the primary users of
    forest products
  • Women develop their knowledge out of their daily
    felt and lived experiences for generations
  • The invisibility of womens role in forestry
    management and maintenance is the gender-biased
  • Women see forestry as a source to provide for
    basketry, dyes, medicines, decorations, arts and
    crafts, trees for honey barrels to provide shade
    for other plants, tress for food, multicultural
    trees are useful for both men's and women's needs
    of different purposes
  • Orthodox forestry is that, it is better to have
    large scale production using a limited number of
    tree species than small-scale, community based
    forestry using wide variety of species
  • Multicultural forestry is responsive to community
    needs and reflect local priorities hence,
    monoculture development threaten the lively hood
    and well being of women

  • Water 8 of water is fresh, millions of people
    are having difficulties getting water for their
  • 50 of developing countries only have potable
    water facilities, 85 of all diseases in the
    southern hemisphere are due to inadequate water
  • 25 million deaths a year is the result to
    water-related illnesses, 15 millions are children
  • Women and children perform most of
    water-collection work
  • Contaminated water and hazard wastes are the
    major health issues in the heavily industrialized
    areas, 250 dump sites present a great potential
    health threat
  • One in six persons in USA drink contaminated
  • Hence, water is an Ecofeminist issue

  • Food and Farming
  • Women farmers grow 59 of worlds foods and in
    some cases 80
  • One third to one half of Third World farmers are
    women, yet, gender division of labor puts men in
    charge of cash-crops while women manage
  • Women in Africa produce 70 of food
  • Women work longer hours with fewer assets than
    men and have limited access to credits
  • This in addition to limited access for weeding,
    harvesting, and storing facilities this is due to
    lack of ownership and decision making power

  • Technology usually exported from north to south,
    all these regions have exasperated problems of
    trees, water, and food storage for women
  • Men in the other hand, are the primary recipients
    of tools and training in commodity production
  • This while women are more knowledgeable than
    outsider men
  • Although women are major food producers, men are
    recipients of all the training and access to
    machines, tractors, ploughs, irrigations systems,
    and water pumps

  • Toxins there is gender-related difference in
    reactions to environmental toxic substance which
    pose serious health threats to mothers, infants,
    and elderly
  • Environmental Racism in USA, American woman face
    unique health risks due to Uranium Mining near
    reservations 38 of pregnant women suffer
    miscarriages with high rate of birth defects
    including bone cancer
  • 2 million tons of Uranium wastes dumped on Native
    American lands
  • Reservations are also targeted for hazardous
    wastes incinerations, disposal and storage

  • The same study of Toxic Wastes and Race concluded
    that more than 15 million of African American and
    over 8 million Hispanic and ½ of American Indians
    live in communities with uncontrolled toxic waste
  • Low-income minority women today lead hundreds of
    grass-roots environmental organizations and are
    involved in radical environmental activities
    motivated by the irrationalities of capital
    growth in order to protect their families and
    communities health and well being
  • Environmental ageism 8 million children are
    affected by lead poisoning of inner-city are
    largely African American and Hispanic children
    who live in crumbling asbestos infected housing
    and schools
  • 700 thousand children suffer from lead poisoning
    and learning disabilities

  • Ecofeminism and Poverty 78 of people living in
    poverty living in USA are women and children as a
    direct result of deforestations and
    desertification, the primary victims are women
    and children who live under the poverty standard
  • Sexist-Naturist Language our language reflects
    our conception of inferior value of women and
  • Women as chicks, beavers, bitches, seen as
    inferior to human at the same time feminizing
    nature in patriarchal culture women viewed s
    subordinate reinforces domination of nature
  • Consequently exploitation of women is justified
    by naturizing them
  • Taking Empirical Seriously
  • Empirical data provided by Ecofeminism are
    significant and suggest the following
  • 1) The historical and causal ways of
    environmental destruction disproportion ally
    affects women and children
  • 2) The significant constructed invisibility
    especially about what women know about nature in
    policy-making affects womens livelihood and
    ecological sustainability

  • 3) Methodological neglecting and overlooking
    issues about gender, race, class, and age in
    formulating environmental policies are
    detrimental to women and children
  • 4) To safeguard against unintentional rationality
    which sanctioned or perpetuate environmental
    activities with adverse effects on women,
    children, people of color, and the poor
  • 5) Women grass-root organizations to advocate for
    women and environment
  • 6) Ethical significance of empirical data for
    theories about women, people of color, children,
    and nature)
  • 7) Ecofeminist insights are crucial for policy
    making and philosophical framework
  • 8) Linguistic and symbolic significance of
    language used to conceptualize and describe women
    and non-human nature
  • 9) Why one from Ecofeminist perspective should
    take empirical conclusions between women, people
    of color, children, and nature