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Andrew Jackson


Theme 7 The Age of Jackson The election of Andrew Jackson in 1828 came to symbolize the emergence of a new democratic spirit: an age of the common man. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson 1767 - 1845
Theme 7 The Age of Jackson
  • The election of Andrew Jackson in 1828 came to
    symbolize the emergence of a new democratic
    spirit an age of the common man. Although the
    Democrats favored limited national govt, Jackson
    forcefully responded to South Carolinas defiance
    over the collection of tariffs. The exercise of
    assertive executive power is best illustrated by
    Jacksons veto of rechartering of the national
    bank and his war against the monopoly. The
    removal of Indian tribes from the Southeast to
    lands west of the Mississippi was vigorously
    pursued. A new Whig Party emerged in opposition
    to King Andrew I.

Essential Question
Champion of the Common Man?
King Andrew?
What were the democratic trends in the 19c?
Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
Voter Turnout 1820 - 1860
Why Increased Democratization?
  • White male suffrage increased
  • Party nominating committees.
  • Voters chose their states slate of Presidential
  • Spoils system.
  • Rise of Third Parties.
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election
  • Dem-Reps à Natl. Reps.(1828) à Whigs
    (1832) à Republicans (1854)
  • Democrats (1828)

Jackson's Early Life
Jacksons First Hermitage Residence
First Known Painting of Jackson, 1815
General Jackson During the Seminole Wars
Jackson's First Presidential Run
The Common Mans Presidential Candidate
Jacksons Opponents in 1824
Henry Clay KY
John Quincy Adams MA
John C. Calhoun SC
William H. Crawford GA
Results of the 1824 Election
A Corrupt Bargain?
The Election of 1824 The Corrupt Bargain
Candidate Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Andrew Jackson 43 99
J.Q. Adams 31 32
William Crawford 13 41
Henry Clay 13 37
Theme 40 Political Realignments
Overview The 1820s saw a widening of popular
participation in politics and realignment of
political parties
  • The Federalist Party Virtually ceased to exist
    after 1816 on the national level
  • Suffrage (the vote) Was gradually being
    expanded among adult white males as the property
    requirement was abandoned
  • Voter reform came first in the Western states,
    last in the South, and only in Rhode Island was
    it accompanied by any violence (Dorr Rebellion,
  • The vote of the people replaced state
    legislatures in selecting presidential electors
  • Election of 1824 The Republicans failed to
    agree on one nominee for president, and four
    factional candidates emerged. A Congressional
    caucus chose William Crawford (the last time this
    system was used) Henry Clay of Kentucky won
    support from Western state legislatures
    Secretary of State John Quincy Adams was
    supported by New England and Andrew Jackson of
    Tennessee enjoyed broad national support as a war
    hero. John C. Calhoun withdrew and became the
    Vice Presidential candidate.
  • Jackson received the most popular votes but no
    one received an electoral college majority
  • As provided by the 12th Amendment, the choice
    (from the top 3 candidates) went to the House of
  • With the support of Clay, Adams received a
    majority of state votes in the House. Jackson
    supporters denounced the supposed corrupt
    bargain as Clay was then named Secretary of
  • President John Quincy Adams Lacking in tact and
    in willingness to compromise, he faced criticism
    from Jacksonians throughout his term (his foes
    controlled Congress after the 1826 elections)
  • A nationalist, Adams supported internal
    improvements (roads and canals) at federal
  • Adams expressed concern for the rights of
    Native Americans
  • Congress hampered the administrations plan to
    attend a Pan-American Conference in Panama, and
    Adams failed to persuade Britain to reopen its
    West Indies possession to U.S. trade

What were the key issues in 1828?
Rachel Jackson
Final Divorce Decree
Jackson in Mourning for His Wife
1828 Election Results
The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST
The New Jackson Coalition
  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier
  • State Politicians spoils system
  • Immigrants in the cities.

Jacksons Faith in the Common Man
  • Intense distrust of Eastern establishment,
    monopolies, special privilege.
  • His heart soul was with the plain folk.
  • Belief that the common man was capable of
    uncommon achievements.

The Reign of King Mob
Andrew Jackson as President
The Peggy Eaton Affair
The Nullification Issue
The Webster-Hayne Debate
Sen. Daniel Webster MA
Sen. Robert Hayne SC
Webster Liberty and Union, now and forever,
one and inseparable. "made for the people, made
by the people, and answerable to the people,"
Jackson Our Federal Unionit must be
Calhoun The Union, next to our liberty,
most dear.
The Tariff Issue
1832 Tariff Conflict
  • 1828 --gt Tariff of Abomination
  • 1832 --gt new tariff
  • South Carolinas reaction?
  • Jacksons response?
  • Clays Compromise Tariff?

Tariff of Abominations 1828
  • Tariff of 1828 In an attempt to embarrass
    President Adams, the Jacksonians introduced the
    Tariff of 1828.
  • Northern states, which were increasingly
    industrialized, voted for high rates
  • Southern members of Congress, reflecting their
    states growing reliance on cotton and purchase
    of manufactured goods, voted against the bill
  • The reversal of positions by Daniel Webster and
    John C Calhoun reflected economic changes in
    their sections of the nation
  • Congress passed the Tariff of Abominations and
    President Adams signed it
  • Opposition South Carolina led the sectional
    opposition to higher tariffs
  • Vice President John C Calhoun anonymously wrote
    The South Carolina Exposition and Protest,
    extolling the principle of state sovereignty.
  • The pamphlet branded the tariff unconstitutional
    and recommended nullification of the laws by
    states that opposed it
  • In his theory of the concurrent majority (a
    sectional veto power for the minority South),
    Calhoun sought to protect the interest of a
    minority South against majority tyranny
  • No other states joined South Carolinas protest,
    and a nullification vote failed in the legislature

Tariffs Webster-Hayne Debate
  • Webster-Hayne debate 1830 Argument over public
    land policies developed into a classic debate
    between Massachusetts and South Carolina senators
    over the nature of the Union.
  • Robert Hayne (South Carolina) defended state
    sovereignty and the doctrine of nullification
  • Daniel Webster (Massachusetts) replied that he
    union was one and inseparable and that
    nullification was treasonable.

Tariff of 1832
  • Tariff of 1832 Reduced rates by 10 but still
  • A special South Carolina convention declared the
    tariff null and void in that state and threatened
    secession (Ordinance of Nullification)
  • President Jackson responded with a ringing
    proclamation (Disunion by armed force is
    treason) and threatened to send a military force
    to enforce tariff collections
  • Calhoun resigned as vice president to become
    South Carolinas spokesman in the Senate
  • Other Southern states refused to support
    nullification or secession
  • Congress passed a force bill approving
    presidential military action if necessary
  • Henry Clays Compromise on Tariff (for gradual
    rate reduction) was passed (1833) South Carolina
    rescinded its nullification ordinance, and the
    crisis subsided.

  • Federalism The proper balance of national and
    state power and authority was the central issue
    of the tariff controversy.
  • Northern industrial development was aided by
    higher, protective tariffs
  • Northern economic and population growth appeared
    to threaten the Souths economic, political, and
    social systems
  • The doctrine of nullification restated states
    rights theory
  • Possible secession and disunion were averted by

Jackson's Native-American Policy
Native American Lands 1500
Hunter gatherer
A Buffer Zone
  • Thomas Jefferson proposed the creation of a
    buffer zone between U.S. and European holdings,
    to be inhabited by eastern American Indians.

The Cherokees
  • Historically, Cherokees occupied lands in
    several southeastern states.
  • As European settlers arrived, Cherokees traded
    and intermarried with them.
  • They began to adopt European customs and
    gradually turned to an agricultural economy,
    while being pressured to give up traditional
  • Between 1721 and 1819, over 90 percent of their
    lands were ceded to others.
  • By the 1820s, Sequoyah's syllabary brought
    literacy and a formal governing system with a
    written constitution.


Why remove the Cherokee from their lands?
  • In 1830--the same year the Indian Removal Act was
    passed--gold was found on Cherokee lands.
  • Georgia held lotteries to give Cherokee land and
    gold rights to whites.
  • Cherokees were not allowed to conduct tribal
    business, contract, testify in courts against
    whites, or mine for gold.

History of the Indian Removal
  • Once an ally of the Cherokees, President Andrew
    Jackson authorized the Indian Removal Act of
    1830, following the recommendation of President
    James Monroe in his final address to Congress in
  • Jackson sanctioned an attitude that had persisted
    for many years among many white immigrants.
  • Even Thomas Jefferson, who often cited the Great
    Law of Peace of the Iroquois Confederacy as the
    model for the U.S. Constitution, supported Indian
    Removal as early as 1802.

Jacksons Plan
  • Between 1816 and 1840, tribes located between the
    original states and the Mississippi River,
    including Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws,
    Creeks, and Seminoles, signed more than 40
    treaties ceding their lands to the U.S.
  • In his 1829 inaugural address, President Andrew
    Jackson set a policy to relocate eastern Indians.
  • In 1830 it was endorsed, when Congress passed the
    Indian Removal Act to force those remaining to
    move west of the Mississippi.

President Andrew Jackson
Challenging the Courts Power
  • 1830 à Indian Removal Act
  • The Cherokees successfully challenged Georgia in
    the U.S. Supreme Court.
  • Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) domestic dependent
  • President Jackson, when hearing of the Court's
    decision, reportedly said, "Chief Justice John
    Marshall has made his decision let him enforce
    it now if he can.

Opposition to Removal
  • The displacement of native people was not wanting
    for eloquent opposition.
  • Senators Daniel Webster and Henry Clay spoke out
    against removal.
  • Reverend Samuel Worcester, missionary to the
    Cherokees, challenged Georgia's attempt to
    extinguish Indian title to land in the state,
    winning the case before the Supreme Court.
  • Worcester v. GA (1832)

The Supreme Court renders its decisions
  • Worcester vs. Georgia, 1832, and Cherokee Nation
    vs. Georgia, 1831, are considered the two most
    influential decisions in Indian law.
  • In effect, the opinions challenged the
    constitutionality of the Removal Act and the US.
    Government precedent for unapplied Indian-federal
    law was established by Jackson's defiant
    enforcement of the removal.

  • Between 1830 and 1850, about 100,000 American
    Indians living between Michigan, Louisiana, and
    Florida moved west after the U.S. government
    coerced treaties or used the U.S. Army against
    those resisting.
  • Many were treated brutally. An estimated 3,500
    Creeks died in Alabama and on their westward
    journey. Some were transported in chains.

Native American lands in Southeastern US
  • The U.S. Government used the Treaty of New Echota
    in 1835 to justify the removal.
  • The treaty, signed by about 100 Cherokees and
    known as the Treaty Party, relinquished all lands
    east of the Mississippi River in exchange for
    land in Indian Territory and the promise of
    money, livestock, and various provisions and

Effects on the Cherokee Nation
  • When the pro-removal Cherokee leaders signed that
    treaty, they also signed their own death
  • The Cherokee National Council earlier had passed
    a law that called for the death penalty for
    anyone who agreed to give up tribal land.
  • The signing and the removal led to bitter
    factionalism and the deaths of most of the Treaty
    Party leaders in Indian Territory

"I would sooner be honestly damned than hypocritically immortalized"
Davy Crockett His political career destroyed because he supported the Cherokee, he left Washington, D.C. and headed west to Texas.
Native Opposition
  • Opposition to the removal was led by Chief John
    Ross, a mixed-blood of Scottish and one-eighth
    Cherokee descent.
  • The Ross party and most Cherokees opposed the New
    Echota Treaty, but Georgia and the U.S.
    Government prevailed and used it as justification
    to force almost all of the 17,000 Cherokees from
    the southeastern homelands.

The Forceful Removal
  • Under orders from President Jackson, the U.S.
    Army began enforcement of the Removal Act.
  • The work was subcontracted to other providers.
    Food disappeared. Corruption abounded.
  • Around 3,000 Cherokees were rounded up in the
    summer of 1838 and loaded onto boats that
    traveled the Tennessee, Ohio, Mississippi, and
    Arkansas Rivers into Indian Territory.
  • Many were held in prison camps awaiting their
  • In the winter of 1838-39, 14,000 were marched
    1,200 miles through Tennessee, Kentucky,
    Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas into rugged
    Indian Territory.

Indian Removal
  • An estimated 4,000 died from hunger, exposure and
    disease. The journey became an eternal memory as
    the "trail where they cried" for the Cherokees
    and other removed tribes. Today it is remembered
    as the Trail of Tears

Those who remained . . .
  • Those who were able to hide in the mountains of
    North Carolina or who had agreed to exchange
    Cherokee citizenship for U.S. citizenship later
    emerged as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
    of Cherokee, N.C.
  • The descendants of the survivors of the Trail of
    Tears comprise today's Cherokee Nation with
    membership of more than 165,000

"The Trail of Tears" Painting by Robert Lindneux
in the Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma
Used with permission.
Jacksons Professed Love for Native Americans
Renewing the Charter of the 1st National Bank
Jacksons Use of Federal Power
1830 à Maysville Road project in KY
state of his political rival, Henry
The National Bank Debate
President Jackson
Nicholas Biddle
Biddles Bank largely owned by foreign Lords,
Dukes,and Ladies, An ugly emblem of corruption
hed been elected to stop. He was disgusted with
Congressmen and Senators who shamelessly took
cash from corporations and people like Biddle
I weep for the liberty of my country.
Presidential Courage by
Michael Beschloss
Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S.
Soft (paper)
Hard (specie)
  • state bankers felt it restrained their banks from
    issuing bank notes freely.
  • supported rapid economic growth speculation.
  • felt that coin was the only safe currency.
  • didnt like any bank that issued bank notes.
  • suspicious of expansion speculation.

Biddle, providing lavish loans to Congress, felt
confident the country could not survive without
his bank. He offered to see the debt paid off but
lurking within this deal was that Jackson would
have to endorse a new charter for the
Bank. Without that commitment the country, Biddle
warned, would be consumed by, confusion,
anxiety, and speculation. Jackson was no
gullible backswoodsman. He called Biddle to the
White House. Jackson was sensitive to those who
thought him too rough-hewn
The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • Henry Clay introduces rechartering the BUS
    earlier than necessary political issue
  • 1832 à Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2nd
    National Bank of the United States.
  • Jacksons veto of the Bank recharter is one one
    the most important vetoes in American history.
  • Significance Estb. vast new authority for
    himself and future Presidents. Since G.
    Washington vetoes were used as sanctions against
    bills deemed unconstitutional. Jacksons action
    empowered Presidents to stop measures they simply
    didnt like.

The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • Jacksons veto This came close to declaring
    class war and gave no hint of economic dangers
    approaching if there wasnt some type of
    substitute financial institution
  • Jackson had wisely addressed the American soul.
  • The Pittsburg Manufacturer said, With one voice,
    with one arm, mighty and just as that which
    placed the Hero of New Orleans in the
    Presidential Chair, let us rise in our might and
    sustain his veto on this vampire of our countrys
    prosperity (Beschloss, Presidential Courage)

On the Senate floor, Daniel Webster of
Massachusetts rose to defy Jacksons veto
I warn that the despotic President is
launching experiments that will compel a
complete change in our govt with the President
seizing he power of the originating laws. If
that happens, the Constitution will not survive
to its fiftieth year!
  • Good thing Americans didnt know that Webster had
    just asked Biddle for a 12,000 loan.

Beschloss, Presidential Courage
The Downfall of Mother Bank
Neither the House nor the Senate could muster the
2/3rd required votes to override the Presidents
veto. The Bank was dead and an election loomed.
The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • Jackson vs. Henry Clay for Election of 1832
  • Biddle spent 2.3 million in the press to topple
    the President
  • Pro-Clay newspapers declare The Constitution
    is gone! It is a dead letter, and the will of a
    DICTATOR is the Supreme Law!
  • Jackson and his running mate Martin Van Buren saw
    Hickory Clubs organized across the nation with
    claims to Stand by Our Hero to defeat Emperor
  • 1832 Jackson wins re-elections

1832 Election Results
The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • Biddle isnt giving up yet.
  • pet banks - Jackson decides to cripple Biddles
    Bank by removing huge federal deposits held
    there. He places them in favored state banks
  • His Sec. of Treasury Wm Duane refused - Jackson
    fired him! Senate approved hiring of cabinet
    positions but obviously they didnt have to
    approve dismissals! King Jackson enhances power
    of presidency
  • Biddle calls in loans - financial chaos.
  • People complain to Jackson. He sends them to
  • 1834 HENRY CLAY organizes Senators against King
    Andrew the First. This new party is called the
    Whigs cover for bald Federalism

An 1832 Cartoon King Andrew?
The Monster Is Destroyed!
  • 1836 à the charter expired.
  • 1841 à the bank went bankrupt!

The Specie Circular (1836)
  • wildcat banks.
  • buy future federal land only with gold or silver.
  • Jacksons goal?

Results of the Specie Circular
  • Banknotes loose their value.
  • Land sales plummeted.
  • Credit not available.
  • Businesses began to fail.
  • Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!
The 1836 Election Results
Martin Van Buren Old Kinderhook O. K.
The Panic of 1837 Spreads Quickly!
Andrew Jackson in Retirement
  • Watching Van Buren being sworn in as president,
    Jackson told a reporter, that his finest act as
    President had been to vanquish Biddles Bank.
    With humor, he added a wish that he had also shot
    Henry Clay
  • Beschloss, Presidential Courage

Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before
his death)
Jackson took on the presidency largely ignorant
of economics and took little time to learn. Too
often he was ruled not by reason but by
vindictiveness and fight. By destroying Biddles
Bank without some accountable replacement, he
fostered the American idea that the country did
not need a central bank to ensure sound currency.
1767 - 1845
Through 80 years of boom and bust, until Congress
estb. the Federal Reserve in 1913, millions of
Americans suffered. The Founders worried about
demagoguery, but Jackson did not hesitate,
distorting complex banking issues into a stark
public choice between rich and poor. But his
audacity gave later Presidents more power. If he
had not broadened the expectations of what the
President owed the people and if he had not
expanded the power of the veto, the American
future would have been very different
Beschloss, Presidential Courage