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The Muslim Empires

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Mehmet II or Mehmed II. Ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481. In 1453, he toppled the Byzantine Empire, capturing Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul, (quest ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Muslim Empires


1
The Muslim Empires
  • 1450-1800
  • Chapter 15 Section 1

2
(No Transcript)
3
The Ottoman Empire
  • Ottoman dynasty started in late 13th century
    under the leadership of Osman in the NW corner of
    Anatolian Peninsula.
  • Originally, Osman Turks were peaceful but as
    Seljuk Empire began to decline (early 14th
    century) the Osman Turks began to expand

4
The Ottomans Expand
  • In the 14th century, the Ottoman Turks expanded
    into the Balkans.
  • Sultan Ottoman rulers title
  • Strong military was built up
  • Janissaries elite guard
  • Recruited from the local Christian population in
    the Balkans then converted to Islam and trained
    as foot soldiers or administrators to serve the
    sultan. (quest 2)

5
Mehmet II or Mehmed II
  • Ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1451 to 1481
  • In 1453, he toppled the Byzantine Empire,
    capturing Constantinople, renaming it Istanbul,
    (quest 8) and making it the new Ottoman capital
  • Expanded the empire to become the ruler of two
    lands (Europe and Asia) and two seas (the
    Mediterranean and the Black)

Scene from the battle defending Constantinople
from a 1499 painting
6
  • What a city we have given over to plunder and
    destruction.
  • Mehmet II when he saw the ruin inflicted on the
    city of Constantinople
  • (quest 3)
  • Sunni Muslim

7
Watch DVD Constantinople to Istanbul on World
History video Program DVD 2 (6 ½ minutes)
8
Sultan Selim I (the Grim)
  • 1514 1520
  • Sultan Selim I takes control over Mesopotamia,
    Egypt and Arabia the original heartland of
    Islam religion
  • Includes several holy cities of
  • Jerusalem
  • Makkah (Mecca)
  • Madinah

9
Sultan Selim I
  • Declares himself the new caliph key-lif,
    kal-if defender of the faith and successor to
    Muhammad (quest 4)
  • Spread Empire to North Africa
  • Pashas appointed officials who collected taxes,
    maintained law and order and were directly
    responsible to the sultans court in Istanbul.
  • (quest 5)
  • Sunni Muslim

10
Suleyman I the Magnificent
  • Reigned from 1520 to 1566 and continued the
    expansion
  • Battle of Mohacs (1526) major victory over the
    Hungarians
  • Conquered Baghdad in 1534
  • Sunni Muslim

11
Suleyman Mosque in Istanbul
  • The Suleyman Mosque in
  • Istanbul. At the height of
  • the Ottoman Turkish
  • Empire's power in the
  • 16th century, Sultan Suley-
  • man the Magnificent ordered
  • the construction of this
  • mosque. Surrounding the place
  • of prayer is a great complex of buildings that
    house schools, a library, a Turkish bath, a
    public kitchen, a caravanserai, a hospital and
    shops. This mosque was designed by the architect
    Sinan the Great and built in the years 1550 to
    1557 A.D.

12
Turkish Bath
13
(No Transcript)
14
Differences Between Shia and Sunni
  • Shiites
  • About 15 of all Muslims
  • Islams leader should be a descendant of Mohammad
  • Qualified religious leaders have the authority to
    interpret the sharia (Islamic law)
  • Sunnis
  • About 85 of all Muslims
  • Leaders should be chosen through ijma, or
    consensus
  • The sharia was codified and closed by the 10th
    century

15
Nature of Ottoman Rule
  • Gunpowder empire formed by outside conquerors
    who unified the regions that they conquered by
    mastering the technology of firearms
  • (quest 6)
  • Sultan
  • Supreme authority in both
  • Political and
  • Military (quest 7)
  • Son always succeeded the father, not necessarily
    the oldest

16
Sultan Rule
  • Topkapi iron gate was the center of the
    sultans power
  • Built in 15th century by Mehmet II
  • It had an administrative purpose and served as
    the private residence of the ruler and his
    family. (like Versailles)
  • Harem sacred place or private domain of the
    sultan and his wives

17
  • Grand Vizier led the meetings of the imperial
    council. The sultan sat behind a screen and
    privately indicted his desires to the grand
    vizier. (quest 9)
  • Empire was divided into provinces and districts,
    each governed by officials
  • Ulema administered the legal system and schools
    for education

18
Ottoman Society
  • Four main occupation groups
  • Peasants (farmed leased land)
  • Artisans (organized by craft guild)
  • Merchants (most privileged class outside of
    ruling elite)
  • Pastoral peoples(nomadic herders)
  • Women were allowed to own and inherit property.
    They could not be forced into marriage and could
    seek divorce. (quest 10)

19
Ottoman Society, cont.
  • Officials and merchants began to imitate the
    habits and lifestyles of Europeans.
  • Wore European clothing
  • Coffee was introduced to Ottoman society and
    spread to Europe
  • Some sultans tried to counter these trends though

20
Ottoman Art
  • Sultans patrons of the Arts
  • From Mehmet II to early 18th century saw a
    flourish a pottery, rugs, silk, textiles,
    jewelry, arms and armor
  • Architecture was the greatest contribution of the
    Ottoman Empire to the world of art (quest 11)
  • Sinan (greatest Ottoman architect) built 81
    mosques including the Suleimaniye Mosque in
    Istanbul

21
The Rule of the Safavids (sah-fah-weed)
  • Chapter 15, section 2

22
Rise of the Safavid Dynasty
  • At the beginning of the 16th century, a new
    dynasty known as the Safavids
  • Unlike neighboring Islamic countries, the
    Safavids were Shiite Muslems.
  • Founder Shah Ismail
  • Descendant of Safi al-Din (thus name Safavid)
  • Founded by Shah Ismail in 1501 and lasted until
    1722

23
  • Safi al-Din was the leader of a community of
    Turkish ethnic groups in Azerbaijan near the
    Caspian Sea. (early 14th century)
  • 1501 Ismail seized most of Iran and Iraq
  • Named himself shah king of a new Persian state

24
Shah Ismail
  • Sent Shiite preachers to Ottoman Empire to
    convert members against wishes of the Ottoman
    Sultan
  • He also ordered the massacre of Sunni Muslims in
    Baghdad in 1508.
  • Sultan Selim I of the Ottoman Empire advanced
    against the Safavids in Persia and won a major
    battle in Tabriz. Ismail later regained Tabriz

25
Battle of Chaldiran
  • The critical battle in this campaign was the
    battle of Chaldiran in 1514
  • The Ottomans won and temporarily occupied the
    Safavid capital of Tabriz but could not
    completely destroy the Safavid state
  • The Ottomans and Safavids continued to fight
    intermittingly for the next two centuries

26
  • Shah claimed to be the spiritual leader of Islam
    and spread Islam throughout Persia.
  • Used Shiite faith as a unifying force for Empire
  • 1580 Ottomans went on attack again
  • Placed Azerbaijan under Ottoman rule and
    controlled the Caspian Sea.
  • See map on page 469

27
Shah Abbas 1588 -1629
  • Signed a peace treaty with the Ottomans after
    the Ottoman attack.
  • Lost much territory
  • Capital of Safavids moved to Isfahan from Tabriz
  • What lead to fighting of the Ottomans and
    Safavids?

28
Shah Abbas 1588 -1629
  • Reached height of glory
  • System similar to Janissaries was created to
    train administrators to help govern
  • Army strengthened with latest weapons
  • Moved against Ottomans in 17th century to try to
    regain territory
  • 1612 peace treaty signed to regain Azerbaijan

29
  • Safavid Empire lost its vigor after death of Shah
    Abbas
  • Religious orthodoxy (traditional religious
    beliefs) was increased
  • Example women forced to wear veils again
  • How did the Safavid Empire reach its pinnacle
    under Shah Abbas?

30
Shah Hussein
  • Early 18th century
  • Afghan peoples invaded seized the capital of
    Isfahan
  • Ruling family forced to retreat to Azerbaijan

31
Political and Social Structures
  • Majority of people were Persian
  • Most were farmers or townspeople

Shah
Bureaucracy and landed classes
Common people
32
Role of the Shah
  • Safavid rulers were supported by Shiite Muslims
  • Thought founder of empire (Shah Ismail) was a
    direct successor to the prophet Muhammad.
  • Shia Islam was the state religion
  • More available to subjects than other countries
    rulers
  • Controlled the aristocrats

33
Culture Arts
  • Strong in science, medicine and mathematics
  • Saw growth of arts during 1588 1629 (Shah Abbas
    reign)
  • Mosques richly decorated
  • Palaces beautiful
  • Metalwork, elaborate tiles, delicate glass
  • Silk weaving
  • Carpet weaving flourished (Persian carpets in
    demand)
  • Riza-i-Abbasi most famous artist

34
1700
35
The Grandeur of the Moguls
  • Chapter 15, section 3

36
Mogul Dynasty
  • 1517 established a new dynasty in area of India
  • Not natives of India but came from mountainous
    region north of the Indus River valley.
  • Founder Babur
  • His forces crossed the Khyber Pass to India in
    1517.

37
Babur
  • Forces much smaller but had advanced weapons
    including artillery
  • Captured Delhi and established his power in North
    India.

38
The Reign of Akbar 1556 - 1605
  • Baburs grandson
  • Only 14 when he ascended the throne
  • Intelligent
  • Mogul rule expanded to most of India
  • Used heavy artillery to get India under his rule

39
See page 474
40
Akbar
  • Greatest of the conquering Mogul monarchs
  • Best known for humane character of his rule
  • Tolerate

41
Akbar
  • Muslim
  • Adopted a policy of religious tolerance
  • Tolerated Hindu practices
  • Welcomed Christian views by Jesuit advisers at
    court
  • Took a Hindu princess as one of his wives

42
Akbars Rule
  • Tolerant in administration of his government
  • Non-native Muslims filled upper ranks of
    government
  • Lower ranking positions were often Hindu.
  • Zamindars local officials often received plots
    of farmland for temporary use
  • Zamindars had considerable power in their local
    district

43
Akbar Era
  • Time of progress
  • Heavy tax 1/3 of annual harvest was given as
    tax
  • Prosperous with foreign trade
  • Included Indian goods, textiles, tropical food,
    spices, precious stones exported in exchange for
    gold and silver

44
Decline of the Moguls
  • Jahangir (juh-HAN-GIHR) succeeded his father
    Akbar 1605 - 1628
  • Able and ambitious
  • Strengthened the central governments control
    over the vast empire
  • Fell under influence of one of his wives
    Persian-born Nur Jahan

45
Shah Jahan 1628-1658
  • Nur Jahan had arranged a marriage of her neice to
    her husbands third son and ultimate successor,
    Shah Jahan.
  • Shah Jahan expanded boundaries to include Deccan
    Plateau (southern Peninsula of India)
  • Failed to deal with domestic problems
  • Inherited empty treasury, but put heavy strain on
    treasury with military and expensive building
    projects raised taxes

46
Shah Aurangzeb Crowns self
  • Became ill in mid 1650s.
  • Sons struggled for power during this time
  • Aurangzeb (son) killed brother and put father in
    (Shah Jahan) in prison
  • Crowned himself emperor in 1658

47
Shah Aurangzeb
  • One of the most controversial rulers in the
    history of India
  • High principles
  • Tried to eliminate Indias social evils.
  • Forbade Hindu custom of suttee (cremating a widow
    on husbands funeral pyre)
  • Forbade gambling and drinking
  • Devout Muslim
  • Reversed Mogul policies of religious tolerance
  • Hindus were forced to convert to Islam

48
The British in India
  • 1650 British trading forts were established in
    Surat (now city of Calcutta)
  • Traded cotton for spices
  • Sir Robert Clive Chief representative for East
    India Company
  • French also established their own forts on the
    east coast of India
  • See map p. 476

49
Mogul Society
  • Moguls were foreigners in India
  • Muslims ruling Hindus
  • As Hindus, women had an active role for
    political advice, some fought on battlefields,
    some received salaries, some owned land and took
    part in business
  • Under Muslim rule certain restrictions were put
    on women

50
Mogul Culture
  • Two lifestyles Indian and Persian coming
    together with beautiful architectural style
  • Taj Mahal example of this
  • Built by the emperor Shah Jahan in the mid-17th
    century in memory of his wife Mumtax Mahal.
    She died at age 39 giving birth to 14th child!
  • Employed 20,000 workers
  • Lasted more than 20 years to build
  • Considered most beautiful building in India

51
Mogul Art
  • Paintings also artistic achievement of Moguls
  • Akbar style included the portrayal of humans
    in action characteristic not seen in Persian
    art.
  • Imiated European art forms including use of
    perspective and lifelike forms

52
The Chrysler Building
53
  • Ottoman Empire map http//www.ac.wwu.edu/helfgott
    /maps-ottoman-empire.htm
  • Selim I
  • http//fast.mediamatic.nl/f/hmfm/image/901/1074-23
    5-251.jpg
  • Sultans picture
  • http//tomgpalmer.com/2009/09/26/no-doubt-a-sad-da
    y/
  • Turkish bath
  • http//homepage.mac.com/melissaenderle/Serbia/vill
    ages.htm
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