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LABOR ISSUES

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LABOR ISSUES GROWING WORK FORCE 14 million people immigrated to US between 1860-1900. Most looking for work in industries 9 million people moved to cities to work in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LABOR ISSUES


1
LABOR ISSUES
2
  • GROWING WORK FORCE
  • 14 million people immigrated to US between
    1860-1900.
  • Most looking for work in industries
  • 9 million people moved to cities to work in
    factories

3
INDUSTRY
  • Workers worked long hours for little pay.
  • Work was repetitive and boring.
  • Many work environments were hazardous.
  • Many children worked in factories for longer
    hours than adults and in more dangerous
    conditions.
  • Many workers lived in cramped, unsanitary
    tenement housing.

4
RISE OF LABOR UNIONS
  • Labor unions sprung up after the Civil War for
    people of the same trade
  • Knights of LABOR 1869- pursued social reform
  • 8 hour work days
  • Equal payequal work
  • End child labor
  • 1885 strike against railroads- cut wages, some
    strikes turned violent
  • End of union by 1890s

5
  • American Federation of Labor
  • Led by Samuel Gompers
  • Organized skilled workers in smaller unions based
    on craft
  • By 1892 250,000 members (no women)
  • Focused on wages, hours and conditions
  • Used strikes and boycotts plus collective
    bargaining ( process in which workers negotiated
    as group with employers
  • Encouraged a closed shop workplace (only union
    members work here)

6
  • Reaction to labor unions
  • Employers disliked unions
  • Forbade union meetings
  • Fired union organizers
  • Forced new employees to sign yellow dog contracts
  • (never join a union)
  • Refused of recognize union representatives

7
RAILROAD STRIKE 1877
  • 1st major unrest of labor
  • July 14 1877 B O railroad announced a 10 wage
    cut
  • Workers reacted with violence in Pittsburg,
    Chicago, St. Louis
  • President Hayes sent in troops to put down the
    riots (1st time in history this happened)
  • In Pittsburg -Soldiers fired on rioters and
    killing and wounding many
  • 20,000 angry men and women set fire to the
    railroad company causing 5 million in damages
  • Hayes again sent in troops this set precedent
    for federal troops to repress labor unrest

8
HAYMARKET RIOT 1886
  • Took place on May 4, 1886, in Chicago.
  • Began when an unknown person threw a homemade
    bomb at police as they attempted to disperse a
    public meeting in support of striking workers.
    The blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the
    deaths of seven police officers and an unknown
    number of civilians.
  • Eight anarchists were indicted for murder.
    Although the state presented no proof that any of
    the eight had thrown the bomb, four of those
    brought to trial were put to death. Of those
    remaining, two fled the country, one turned
    states evidence, and one committed suicide in
    prison.
  • The causes of the incident are still
    controversial, although deep disagreements
    between business and working class people in late
    nineteenth century Chicagosuch as demands for an
    eight-hour dayare generally acknowledged as
    having caused the tragedy.
  • To commemorate the incident, labor leaders began
    organizing May Day celebrations.

9
  • HAYMARKET SQUARE READINGS (J14-J19)
  • As you read, write down 5 key/important ideas
    from each of the reading in your notes. (So
    you should have a total of 10 key ideas)

10
PULLMAN STRIKE 1894
  • Began on May 11, 1894, when factory workers at
    the Pullman Palace Car Company, in the Chicago
    area, walked out following failed negotiations
    over declining wages.
  • Strikers appealed to the American Railway Union
    (ARU), which argued unsuccessfully for
    arbitration. On June 20, the ARU announced that,
    effective June 26, its membership would no longer
    work trains that included Pullman cars.
  • By early July, and in the face of crippling
    railway stoppages, the federal government
    intervened, forbidding boycott activities and
    dispatching soldiers to Chicago and other
    locales.
  • ARU President Eugene V. Debs was arrested and
    imprisoned for ignoring the federal governments
    injunctions. Unable to garner the support of
    other labor leaders, the boycott and the ARU were
    effectively
  • broken by mid-July.
  • Although public sentiment did not favor the
    boycott, George Pullman received broad criticism
    for his companys paternalistic policies and
    refusal to arbitrate. By and large, workers
    received the publics sympathy.

11
  • PULLMAN STRIKE Readings

12
TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST FACTORY FIRE
  • Occurred on March 25, 1911, in New York Citys
    Asch Building, where the Triangle Shirtwaist
    Company occupied the top three of the buildings
    ten floors. The fire began shortly after 430
    p.m. in the eighth floor cutting room, where tons
    of fabric fed the flames.
  • While most of the workers on the eighth and
    tenth floors escaped, dozens of workers on the
    ninth floor were trapped, unable to open a door
    that could have led to their escape.
  • 146 workers died in about fifteen minutes. Some
    of the deaths were caused by the collapse of the
    rear fire escape. Some workers tried to slide
    down the elevator cables, but lost their grip and
    fell to their death. Others jumped to their death
    from the buildings windows.
  • Company owners were initially charged with
    manslaughter, but were later acquitted. In 1914,
    the court ordered them to pay damages to the
    families of twenty-three victims who had sued.
  • The tragedy led to efforts to improve factory
    safety and it served as a catalyst for organizing
    garment workers.

13
  • TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST READINGS

14
HOMESTEAD 1892
  • Occurred in Homestead, Pennsylvania (near
    Pittsburgh) between the
  • Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers
    (the AA) and the Carnegie
  • Steel Company.
  • ? In 1889 workers negotiated a three-year
    contract, which included a sliding
  • wage scale based on the market price for steel.
    As the contract neared expiration,
  • Andrew Carnegie, the plants owner, traveled to
    Scotland, leaving manager
  • Henry Clay Frick in charge.
  • ? Negotiations between workers and Frick failed.
    On June 30, 1892, the day the contract was to
    expire, workers were locked out of the plant and
    a strike began.
  • ? Workers blocked the plant to prevent scabs, a
    worker who replaces a Union worker during a
    strike, from entering. In response, Frick
    arranged to have 300 strike-breaking detectives
    from the Pinkerton National Detective Agency
    (known as Pinkertons) provide security for the
    plant.
  • ? When the Pinkertons attempted to arrive on July
    6 under cover of darkness, workers sounded alarms
    and people gathered to meet the force. The
    Pinkertons
  • opened fire three Pinkertons and seven workers
    died, and others were
  • injured.
  • Six days later the National Guard arrived.
  • ? On November 17, day laborers and mechanics
    voted to return to work.
  • Three days later, the prohibition on returning to
    work for the company
  • was lifted. The plant rehired some as non-union
    workers, but
  • blacklisted others.

15
  • READINGS OF HOMESTEAD STRIKE

16
COXEYS ARMY
  • Refers to a protest march by unemployed American
    workers, led by the populist Jacob S. Coxey.
    While its official name was the Commonweal in
    Christ, the movement took its nickname from its
    leaders name.
  • The purpose of the march was to protest the
    unemployment caused by the economic depression of
    1893 and to urge the government to create public
    works jobs.
  • The march began in Massillon, Ohio, and it
    included 100 men. Although Coxey predicted that
    this number would swell to 100,000, the ?army
    numbered only 500 by the time it reached
    Washington, D.C.
  • When Coxeys Army reached the capital on April
    30, 1894, Coxey and other movement leaders were
    arrested for walking on the grass of the U.S.
    Capitol. The rest of the army then scattered.
  • Some of the movements more militant leaders
    went on to head ?armies? of their own in the
    Pacific Northwest, where many of the protestors
    were unemployed railroad workers.

17
  • COXEYS READING
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